European Parliament Research on Brexit
On this page, you will find a list of publications produced by the European Parliament on Brexit.
UK Withdrawal ('Brexit') and the Good Friday Agreement November 2017, European Parliamentary Research Service
Start of Brexit negotiations, June 2017 - European Parliamentary Research Service
The Brexit negotiations: Issues for the first phase, June 2017 - European Parliamentary Research Service
Outlook for Brexit negotiations, May 2017 - European Parliamentary Research Service
At a glance paper on the main legal issues concerning Brexit.
UK withdrawal from the European Union. Legal and procedural issues, April 2017 - European Parliamentary Research Service,
This in-depth analysis considers some of the legal and procedural issues surrounding the United Kingdom’s planned withdrawal from the European Union. It looks in particular at the formal exit process under Article 50 TEU and the EU institutions' preparations for negotiations. It also sets out some possible templates for future EU-UK relations, as well as the details of existing frameworks for cooperation between the EU and third countries.
Possible impacts of Brexit on EU development and humanitarian policies, April 2017 - Directorate-General for external policies,
Brexit could have a major impact on EU development and humanitarian policies. However, although Brexit is highly likely to happen, there are still uncertainties about the UK’s new foreign policy approach and its repercussions on aid. The UK may act under three different scenarios (nationalist, realist, cosmopolitan) with different consequences for EU aid. The UK’s leaving would challenge the EU’s role as the world’s leading donor: EU aid may decrease by up to 3 % and it could lose between 10 % and
13 % of its world aid share. Its presence, through ODA, in neighbouring countries throughout Eastern Europe and North Africa could be particularly affected, with a cut of between 1 % and 4 %, depending on different scenarios. The EU could react to Brexit by adopting two distinct approaches to foreign policy and development cooperation: either limiting its role to that of a regional power or growing to become a global leader. In the first approach, Brexit would have a very mild effect and would lead to very few policy challenges. However, in the second, the EU would need to compensate for the loss of Britain’s contribution to EU aid, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.
The Impact of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union on Scotland, Wales and Gibraltar, April 2017 - Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs,
Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has commissioned this in-depth analysis on the impact of Brexit on the devolved territories of Scotland and Wales as well as the Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It examines the economic and political implications of Brexit on these territories, the consequences of the possible return to devolved administrations of formerly ‘Europeanised’ competencies and looks at how Brexit might affect their future status within the UK as well as their relations with the EU.
Consequences of Brexit in the area of public procurement, April 2017 - Policy Department A: Economic and scientific policy,
This paper examines the implications of the UK’s departure from the EU for the EU-UK legal relationship in the field of public procurement. It assesses, in comparison with the position under EU membership, the implications of four approaches found in the EU’s relationships with other trading partners: the EEA model; the GPA model; and, between these two, what we call an “EEA-minus” approach and a “GPA-plus” approach. It also notes the procurement-specific issues that may need to be addressed in any withdrawal agreement (or later transition arrangement). This document was prepared for Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
The impact and consequences on acquired rights of EU citizens living in the UK and British citizens living in the EU-27, April 2017 - Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs
On the request of the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this study, which examines the concept of acquired (or ‘vested’) rights in public international law, analyses the gradual establishment and evolution of these rights and draws from case law as well as other precedents in order to establish the validity and force of acquired rights in customary and conventional international law. It also analyses the protection of such rights within the EU legal order, and examines the citizenship rights that will have to be taken into account during the UK withdrawal negotiations as well as their potential permanence in the EU and UK legal orders after Brexit. It concludes with an assessment on the legal force of acquired rights after Brexit and recommendations for their treatment during and after the withdrawal negotiations.
The Brexit Negotiations: An Assessment of the Legal, Political and Institutional Situation in the UK, March 2017 - Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs,
Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned an in-depth analysis on the political and institutional situation in the United Kingdom following the referendum on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. The research analyses the post-Brexit political developments in the UK, the various parameters that should be taken into account, by both the UK government and the 27, in view of the Article 50 negotiations and the possible shape of the final deal and the future economic relationship, taking into account the EU obligations and the constraints of Theresa May’s government.
An Assessment on the Economic Impact of Brexit on the EU27, March 2017 - Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy
This paper, managed by the Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policies for the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, assesses the likely impact of Brexit on EU27, together with some scenarios for the terms of the UK’s secession. For the EU 27, the losses are found to be virtually insignificant, and hardly noticed in the aggregate. By contrast, for the UK, the losses could be highly significant, with various estimates up to ten times greater as a share of GDP. Impacts on some Member States – in particular Ireland – and some sectors in the EU27 could be more pronounced than the average for the EU27.
Challenges for EU cohesion policy. Issues in the forthcoming post-2020 reform, February 2017 - European Parliamentary Research Service
This briefing analyses a number of challenges of EU cohesion policy, with a focus on Brexit and the impact that the departure of the UK from the EU may have on the EU budget and consequently on the financial envelope for cohesion policy.
Brexit and the European Union: General Institutional and Legal Considerations, January 2017 - Directorate General for Internal Policies of the Union, Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs
This study was requested by the Committee on constitutional Affairs of the European Parliament. It examines the political and institutional steps taken, or to be taken, both by the UK and the EU in the context of the Brexit referendum vote, and into how matters may evolve in the coming months and years from a legal and institutional perspective. It analyses, in broad terms, the possibilities for a future relationship between the Union and its departing member and the consequences that the departure of a large Member State may entail for the rest of the policies of the Union and for the Union itself. The study also briefly examines the potential for institutional progress that opens with the departure of the United Kingdom.
Brexit implications for employment and social affairs, January 2017 - Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy,
This document provides statistical and factual reference material relating to migration flows between the UK and the rest of the EU. It gives facts and figures relating to the population of EU-27 nationals living in the UK as well as UK citizens living in the EU-27. It also examines the impact of the EU-27 population on the UK’s social security and health care system and gives information on the UK’s uptake of EU funding.
Potential Concepts for the Future EU-UK Relationship in Financial Services, January 2017 - Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy,
This study assesses the key impacts of the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union on the financial system and its infrastructures, on financial firms and financial services under three alternative concepts for the future EUUK relationship. In addition to the impact on the ‘passporting rights’ of financial firms, particular emphasis is given to the impact on the regulatory framework governing i.a. credit institutions under a ‘third-country status’ scenario for the UK, the impact on payment systems and market infrastructures, as well as to certain aspects of the EU institutional framework governing the monetary and the financial system could be affected.
The UK’s potential withdrawal from the EU and single market access under EU financial services legislation, January 2017 - Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy
In the aftermath of the UK’s vote to leave the EU, securing continued access to each other’s markets will be one of the key issues to be addressed in the exit negotiations. This paper examines how the current EU financial services legislation ensures or facilitates access to the EU single financial market for EU/EEA Member States and third countries. The analysis focuses on passporting/mutual recognition regimes for EU/EEA Member States and third country equivalence regimes. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee.
The Impact and Consequences of Brexit for Northern Ireland, January 2017 - Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs,
Legal position on the consequences of Brexit on Northern Ireland
Referendum on EU matters, January 2017 - Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs,
This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs of the European Parliament. It analyses the political and legal dynamics behind referendums on EU-related matters. It argues that we have entered a period of increasing political uncertainty with regard to the European project and that this new political configuration will both affect and be affected by the politics of EU-related referendums. Such referendums have long been a risky endeavour and this has been accentuated in the wake of the Great Recession with its negative ramifications for public opinion in the European Union. It is clear that referendums on EU matters are here to stay and will continue to be central to the EU’s future as they are deployed to determine the number of Member States within the EU, its geographical reach, its constitutional evolution and adherence to EU policies. Only now they have become an even riskier endeavour.
Brexit: the United-Kingdom and EU financial services, December 2016 - Directorate-General for Internal Policies and Economic Governance Support Unit
This briefing prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit describes the prominent role of the UK in the single market for financial services, and highlights which activities rely today on passporting for their daily business with the other 27 Member States. The briefing relies on publicly available information, including secondary sources, such as analytical papers done by research institutes and private sector companies. The briefing may be regularly updated pending new information.
An assessment of the impact of Brexit on euro area stability, November 2016 - Policy Department A: Economic and scientific policy
The notes in this compilation provide an indication of the possible economic and financial impact of Brexit on the euro-area/EU economy. Notwithstanding the potential adverse effects, Brexit could also provide an opportunity for far-reaching reform to the euro area governance. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the November 2016 session of the Monetary Dialogue.
Brexit - Possible economic impact for the euro area and the EU, November 2016 - Policy Department A: Economic and scientific policy
On 23 June 2016 the UK held a referendum on its membership in the EU. The majority of the British people voted for Britain’s exit from the EU (Brexit). The British Prime Minister announced her intentions to trigger the EU withdrawal procedure before the end of March 2017. Issues to be address pertain to the short run, when the impact of the uncertainty is key. In the longer term trade disintegration is likely to play a powerful role. Brexit is also a manifestation of discontent among EU citizens and could therefore provide an opportunity for far-reaching reforms that would make the euro stronger? This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the IMCO Committee.
The UK Referendum: A First Assessment for the Euro Area and the EU, July 2016 - European Parliament and European Commission-Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs
The economic landscape has not changed much in the weeks since the spring forecast was published on May 3, but the results of the UK referendum on 23 June have modified the conditions for the way ahead. The ‘leave’ vote has resulted in financial market volatility, abrupt exchange rate changes, and a substantial increase in uncertainty. These developments and the uncertainty resulting from what is expected to be a protracted period of exit negotiations have the potential to damage the recovery in the EU. While uncertainty is expected to diminish over time, forthcoming changes in the economic... and political relationships between the UK and Member States could have a longer lasting impact on the medium to long-term economic outlook
The Interactions between the EU's External Action and the Common Agricultural Policy, July 2016 - Policy department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies,
The CAP has been strongly influenced by the EU’s External Actions. The various Enlargements, and trade policies to favour its neighbours to both the East and South, and for its former colonies, have left their mark. However it is external pressures through the GATT/WTO that have had the most defining effect. Current pressures stem from a new generation of Free Trade agreements, the need to reduce agriculture’s greenhouse gas emissions, and to respond to Brexit.
Briefing - What Think Tanks are thinking: ‘The UK Referendum’, II edition, June 2016 - European Parliamentary Research Service
This note offers updated links to recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks on issues raised by the British referendum
Article 50 TEU, Withdrawal of a Member State from the EU, February 2016 - European Parliamentary Research Service
The legal consequence of a withdrawal from the EU is the end of the application of the EU Treaties (and the Protocols thereto) in the state concerned from that point on. EU law ceases to apply in the withdrawing state, although any national acts adopted in implementation or transposition of EU law would remain valid until the national authorities decide to amend or repeal them. A withdrawal agreement would need to address the phasing-out of EU financial programmes and other EU norms.