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A new neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument

29-11-2019

In the context of the Commission's proposal for a multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, on 14 June 2018 the Commission published a proposal for a regulation establishing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument (NDICI), with a proposed budget of €89.2 billion (in current prices). Parliament adopted its first-reading position in plenary on 27 March 2019. MEPs agreed to accept a single instrument, but called for a stronger role for Parliament ...

In the context of the Commission's proposal for a multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, on 14 June 2018 the Commission published a proposal for a regulation establishing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument (NDICI), with a proposed budget of €89.2 billion (in current prices). Parliament adopted its first-reading position in plenary on 27 March 2019. MEPs agreed to accept a single instrument, but called for a stronger role for Parliament on secondary policy choices, through delegated acts, and for the budget for the instrument to be increased by nearly €4 billion, to €93.154 billion. MEPs also specifically called for an increase in the funds allocated to human rights and democracy activities, the percentage of funding that fulfils the criteria for official development assistance, and funds that support climate and environmental objectives. Moreover, Parliament's amendments include the introduction of gender mainstreaming targets, the earmarking of certain financial allocations, the suspension of assistance in case of human rights violations, and the reduction of the emerging challenges and priorities cushion to €7 billion. The Council adopted a partial mandate on 13 June 2019, and an additional mandate – on the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD+) – on 25 September 2019. Following the committees' decision of 8 October 2019 to enter into interinstitutional negotiations on the basis of Parliament's first-reading position, a first trilogue meeting took place on 23 October 2019. The second is scheduled for 5 December 2019. Fourth edition. The 'Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Horizon Europe: Framework programme for research and innovation 2021–2027

15-05-2019

In June 2018, the European Commission proposed a total budget allocation of €100 billion to finance science, research and innovation projects during the 2021-2027 period, of which the vast majority, €94.1 billion in current prices, would be allocated to the Horizon Europe framework programme. The main aims are to strengthen science and technology, to foster industrial competiveness, and to implement the sustainable development goals in the EU. Horizon Europe would introduce new features such as the ...

In June 2018, the European Commission proposed a total budget allocation of €100 billion to finance science, research and innovation projects during the 2021-2027 period, of which the vast majority, €94.1 billion in current prices, would be allocated to the Horizon Europe framework programme. The main aims are to strengthen science and technology, to foster industrial competiveness, and to implement the sustainable development goals in the EU. Horizon Europe would introduce new features such as the European Innovation Council, missions to promote research results, and new forms of partnerships. Horizon Europe also aims at reducing administrative burdens and promoting the concept of open science. More operational synergies are expected through better linkage with other EU programmes, such as cohesion policy (e.g. the European Social Fund), the new Digital Europe programme, and the new European Defence Fund. In March 2019, after several trilogue meetings, Parliament and Council reached a partial agreement. This agreement covers the content, but not, among other things, the budgetary issues, which will be discussed following the negotiations on the EU’s 2021-2027 long-term budget. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The Horizon Europe framework programme for research and innovation 2021-2027

22-11-2018

Within the context of the multiannual financial framework the Commission is proposing Horizon Europe as the framework programme for research and innovation to succeed Horizon 2020. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal acknowledges the necessity for impact assessments in relation to financial framework programmes to have a simplified format and scope differing from standard impact assessments and that the document in question sets out the rationale for the new ...

Within the context of the multiannual financial framework the Commission is proposing Horizon Europe as the framework programme for research and innovation to succeed Horizon 2020. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal acknowledges the necessity for impact assessments in relation to financial framework programmes to have a simplified format and scope differing from standard impact assessments and that the document in question sets out the rationale for the new programme and explains the choices made in its design rather effectively. It however questions the extent of the departure from the standard methodology and format of impact assessments set in the Commission’s better regulation guidelines.

Establishing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument

10-10-2018

As part of the group of specific IAs accompanying the MFF proposals, this IA provides a detailed overview of the proposed regulation establishing the new NDICI focusing on the main considerations behind the large-scale overhaul of the existing financial framework in the field of EU external policy. The Commission has engaged broadly with a wide range of stakeholders and did a thorough stock-taking through a mid-term review of ten existing instruments. However as alternative options are not elaborated ...

As part of the group of specific IAs accompanying the MFF proposals, this IA provides a detailed overview of the proposed regulation establishing the new NDICI focusing on the main considerations behind the large-scale overhaul of the existing financial framework in the field of EU external policy. The Commission has engaged broadly with a wide range of stakeholders and did a thorough stock-taking through a mid-term review of ten existing instruments. However as alternative options are not elaborated beyond a brief comparison of advantages and risks of merging the existing instruments into a broader one, it remains rather difficult to fully assess the proposed merger of different instruments as the only option available. Finally, a clearer account of how the stakeholder views fed into the analysis and a more thorough response to the scrutiny of the RSB, would have benefited this impact assessment.

North Korea’s nuclear summitry [What Think Tanks are thinking]

04-06-2018

The US President, Donald Trump, and North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, are preparing for a high-stakes summit on the latter country’s nuclear programme, following Trump’s decision on 1 June to revive the meeting after having cancelled it the previous week. At the summit, due to take place on 12 June in Singapore, Trump is expected to press for denuclearisation of North Korea in exchange for easing economic sanctions and, possibly some aid. The main sticking point lies on the meaning the two countries ...

The US President, Donald Trump, and North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, are preparing for a high-stakes summit on the latter country’s nuclear programme, following Trump’s decision on 1 June to revive the meeting after having cancelled it the previous week. At the summit, due to take place on 12 June in Singapore, Trump is expected to press for denuclearisation of North Korea in exchange for easing economic sanctions and, possibly some aid. The main sticking point lies on the meaning the two countries attribute to the word 'denuclearisation'. Pyongyang, after years of isolation, is engaged in an unprecedented series of high-level meetings with South Korea, China and Russia. This note offers links to reports and commentaries from some major international think-tanks and research institutes on the North Korean nuclear programme. More reports on the topic can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are thinking’, published in September 2017. Credit photo: © jpldesigns / Fotolia

Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons ─ the 'Ban Treaty'

17-01-2018

On 7 July 2017, the United Nations (UN) conference to negotiate a legally-binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons adopted the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (the Ban Treaty), by 122 votes to 1, with one abstention. The treaty will come into force once 50 states have ratified it; so far it has been signed by 56 states and ratified by three. The adoption of the Ban Treaty has been hailed as historic by supporters of an initiative that has gained ground in recent years to rid the ...

On 7 July 2017, the United Nations (UN) conference to negotiate a legally-binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons adopted the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (the Ban Treaty), by 122 votes to 1, with one abstention. The treaty will come into force once 50 states have ratified it; so far it has been signed by 56 states and ratified by three. The adoption of the Ban Treaty has been hailed as historic by supporters of an initiative that has gained ground in recent years to rid the world of the most destructive weapon known to humankind. The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which spearheaded these efforts, was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize. However, opponents of the Ban Treaty argue that the conditions for disarmament do not currently exist and that promoters of the Ban Treaty fail to recognise this. They also point to weaknesses in the drafting of the treaty, and to the danger of undermining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), recognised as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation and disarmament regime, also by proponents of the Ban Treaty. The nine states known to have military nuclear programmes did not attend the conference. Member States of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which in 2016 re-confirmed a commitment to nuclear deterrence, also stayed away, with the exception of the Netherlands, which voted against the adoption of the Ban Treaty. This raises serious doubts about the impact of this new instrument and its ability to create normative values. Most EU Member States, 22 of which are members of NATO, oppose the Ban Treaty, and only five non-NATO EU Member States voted in favour. The European Parliament welcomed the convening of a conference to negotiate a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, noting that this would reinforce the non-proliferation and disarmament objectives and obligations contained in the NPT.

United States' nuclear weapons policy: New priorities, new challenges

08-12-2017

The United States is the world's second largest nuclear power, coming close behind Russia. Together the two states account for 93 % of the world's nuclear weapons. Since the end of the Cold War, the US has followed a policy of reducing its nuclear arsenal, while maintaining a nuclear triad. Under President Obama, it embarked on an intense nuclear modernisation programme, while making commitments towards nuclear non-proliferation and – as a long-term goal – nuclear disarmament. President Donald Trump ...

The United States is the world's second largest nuclear power, coming close behind Russia. Together the two states account for 93 % of the world's nuclear weapons. Since the end of the Cold War, the US has followed a policy of reducing its nuclear arsenal, while maintaining a nuclear triad. Under President Obama, it embarked on an intense nuclear modernisation programme, while making commitments towards nuclear non-proliferation and – as a long-term goal – nuclear disarmament. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017 with the promise to discontinue the previous administration's policy priorities. This is reflected in the current realignment of the US nuclear weapons policy. The new administration aims to expand US nuclear capabilities, is sceptical of international arms-control agreements, and has a more determinant stance on non-proliferation. President Trump has criticised the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), and consequently decertified the multilateral Iran nuclear deal in October 2017. The President has also characterised the bilateral New START Treaty, limiting the number of deployed strategic nuclear weapons between the US and Russia, as 'a one-sided deal'. The 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty), a landmark nuclear arms control treaty between the US and the former USSR, seems to be in limbo, and nuclear proliferation efforts in North Korea have sparked a war of words between Trump and the North Korean leader, Kim Jong-Un. The ongoing Nuclear Posture Review, together with the coming passage of the annual defence policy bill in Congress, the National Defence Authorization Act (NDAA) for 2018, have the potential to provoke shifts in US nuclear policy.

How the EU budget is spent: Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation

14-07-2017

The EU's Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC) was created to help promote a high level of nuclear safety, radiation protection, and safeguards for nuclear material outside the EU. It does this by funding peer support for, and technical assistance to, third countries that are managing or in the process of developing nuclear power. EU cooperation in the field of nuclear energy dates back to the EU's post-war beginnings, but financial assistance to non-EU countries only began in the 1990s ...

The EU's Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC) was created to help promote a high level of nuclear safety, radiation protection, and safeguards for nuclear material outside the EU. It does this by funding peer support for, and technical assistance to, third countries that are managing or in the process of developing nuclear power. EU cooperation in the field of nuclear energy dates back to the EU's post-war beginnings, but financial assistance to non-EU countries only began in the 1990s, with the TACIS programme to help the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union to manage their nuclear legacy.

Nuclear decommissioning assistance

05-04-2017

Following the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, the EU launched several nuclear decommissioning assistance programmes (NDAP) to help Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Slovakia safely close and dismantle their early Soviet-designed reactors while acceding to the EU. The NDAPs provide financial assistance for decommissioning, dismantling and waste management projects; energy-sector projects aimed at mitigating the consequences of reactor shutdowns; and projects addressing the socio-economic consequences of decommissioning ...

Following the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, the EU launched several nuclear decommissioning assistance programmes (NDAP) to help Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Slovakia safely close and dismantle their early Soviet-designed reactors while acceding to the EU. The NDAPs provide financial assistance for decommissioning, dismantling and waste management projects; energy-sector projects aimed at mitigating the consequences of reactor shutdowns; and projects addressing the socio-economic consequences of decommissioning. The European Commission estimates that between 1999 and 2020, financial support for the NDAP programmes will total approximately €3.8 billion.

An EU Strategy for Relations with Iran after the Nuclear Deal

23-06-2016

This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are ...

This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are a number of areas where both actors can benefit from cooperation; trade, environmental and sustainability issues, education, and combatting drug trade. Even when pursuing more contentious issues such as human rights, having a strategic and fully-fledged multilevel relationship will be helpful. There are also a number of political crisis in the region (ISIS, migration) where reaching a solution without Iranian involvement will either be unnecessarily costly or near impossible.

Externí autor

Rouzbeh PARSI (European Iran Research Group, Lund University, Sweden)

Chystané akce

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