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Ημερομηνία

Ten issues to watch in 2020

06-01-2020

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are biodiversity, EU policies for children, the 5G era, the price for energy transition, 'gamification' of EU democracy, finding solutions for asylum policy, the EU's long-term budget, climate action, the US elections, and the Arctic.

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are biodiversity, EU policies for children, the 5G era, the price for energy transition, 'gamification' of EU democracy, finding solutions for asylum policy, the EU's long-term budget, climate action, the US elections, and the Arctic.

United States: Export Control Reform Act (ECRA)

22-11-2019

Against the backdrop of the growing relevance of certain new technologies for security and defence, the United States of America introduced the Export Control Reform Act (ECRA) in 2018. The Act aims to restrict the export of emerging and foundational technologies that can potentially be used for civilian and military purposes ('dual use technologies') and that have not been subject to export control in the past. The adoption of the Act coincides with growing concerns about China's access to critical ...

Against the backdrop of the growing relevance of certain new technologies for security and defence, the United States of America introduced the Export Control Reform Act (ECRA) in 2018. The Act aims to restrict the export of emerging and foundational technologies that can potentially be used for civilian and military purposes ('dual use technologies') and that have not been subject to export control in the past. The adoption of the Act coincides with growing concerns about China's access to critical new technologies. The first set of controls, targeting various 'emerging technologies' that China has stated a desire to develop, will take effect in 2020. Controls on 'foundational technologies' should come later, although specific details about which technologies will be included in this category are not yet available. Functionally, ECRA represents a modification of the existing US Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Under the EAR, the Bureau of Industry and Security assigns an Export Control Classification Number to each technology, which determines the specific restrictions that apply to it. There has been significant debate around ECRA in the USA. Industry leaders have expressed concern about their level of input in the process and have urged the government to clarify its definitions of emerging and foundational technologies. Overall, stakeholders emphasise that aspirations to safeguard national security must be balanced with support for economic growth and innovation. The timing of ECRA coincides with the review of dual-use export controls in the European Union (EU). There have been calls for increased dialogue with the USA and other crucial partners on export control, as well as for a coordinated EU response to ECRA.

Commitments made at the hearing of Josep BORRELL FONTELLES, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President-designate of the European Commission

22-11-2019

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President designate of the European Commission, Josep Borrell, appeared before the European Parliament on 7 October 2019 to answer MEPs’ questions. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document.

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President designate of the European Commission, Josep Borrell, appeared before the European Parliament on 7 October 2019 to answer MEPs’ questions. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document.

Impeachment of the United States President

24-10-2019

On 24 September 2019, the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi (Democrat, California), announced the launch of an impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump, the fourth President in the history of the United States to face the prospect of such an inquiry. The US Constitution provides for an impeachment process, but interpretations of the relevant clauses vary, creating controversy.

On 24 September 2019, the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi (Democrat, California), announced the launch of an impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump, the fourth President in the history of the United States to face the prospect of such an inquiry. The US Constitution provides for an impeachment process, but interpretations of the relevant clauses vary, creating controversy.

Liberté d’expression, une perspective de droit comparé - Canada

15-10-2019

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet plus général qui vise à jeter les bases d’une comparaison des régimes juridiques applicables à la liberté d’expression dans différents ordres juridiques. Le document expose, relativement au Canada et en rapport avec le thème de l'étude, la législation en vigueur, la jurisprudence la plus significative et la notion de liberté d’expression avec ses limites actuelles et en prospective, et s’achève par quelques conclusions avec possibles solutions face aux défis ...

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet plus général qui vise à jeter les bases d’une comparaison des régimes juridiques applicables à la liberté d’expression dans différents ordres juridiques. Le document expose, relativement au Canada et en rapport avec le thème de l'étude, la législation en vigueur, la jurisprudence la plus significative et la notion de liberté d’expression avec ses limites actuelles et en prospective, et s’achève par quelques conclusions avec possibles solutions face aux défis futurs. Au Canada, la liberté d’expression est garantie par la Constitution. Des lois provinciales relayent aussi sa protection dans les domaines du droit privé. Au gré des décisions, ce droit a mobilisé plusieurs théories justificatives (recherche de vérité, participation citoyenne, épanouissement personnel, etc.), interprétées avec beaucoup de latitude par les tribunaux. Le consensus moderne est qu’aucune théorie ne prévaut, la liberté d’expression évoluant avec les valeurs de la société canadienne.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

EPRS, Comparative Law

Freedom of expression, a comparative law perspective - The United States

15-10-2019

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project, which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing freedom of expression in different legal systems. The document analyses, with reference to the United States of America and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law, and the concept of freedom of expression with its current and prospective limits, ending with some conclusions and possible solutions for future challenges. The legislative ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project, which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing freedom of expression in different legal systems. The document analyses, with reference to the United States of America and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law, and the concept of freedom of expression with its current and prospective limits, ending with some conclusions and possible solutions for future challenges. The legislative foundation for freedom of expression law in the United States is grounded in the First Amendment to the Constitution. Based on this text, the Supreme Court has created the freedom of expression doctrinal framework by which lower courts and other branches of government are bound. Unlike other jurisdictions, the United States grants broad freedom of expression protections based largely on the idea that “good” speech will prevail over “bad” speech in the open market.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

EPRS, Comparative Law

Free trade or geo-economics? Trends in world trade

27-09-2019

The European Union (EU) is the biggest integrated economic zone and a guarantor of an open and predictable regulatory system able to determine its own economic destiny. But the behaviour of other global powers is increasingly calling this ability into question. China and the United States, especially, do not separate economic interests from geopolitical interests in the same way the EU does and are increasingly trying to gain geopolitical advantage using their economic might. The EU is known as ...

The European Union (EU) is the biggest integrated economic zone and a guarantor of an open and predictable regulatory system able to determine its own economic destiny. But the behaviour of other global powers is increasingly calling this ability into question. China and the United States, especially, do not separate economic interests from geopolitical interests in the same way the EU does and are increasingly trying to gain geopolitical advantage using their economic might. The EU is known as a fierce defender of a multilateral rules - based trade system with free but fair trade as its strategic policy objective. The EU will therefore do its utmost to save a ‘meaningful multilateralism’ by helping to reform the WTO, improve multilateral investment protection and conclude multilateral trade agreements. At the same time, the EU will defend its own interests by negotiating bilateral trade deals and applying trade defence and investment screening where needed. The EU has a strong interest in keeping the use of geo-economic measures manageable and avoid escalation into a trade war.

Balanced and fairer world trade defence: EU, US and WTO perspectives

29-05-2019

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade ...

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade Defence Instruments (TDI), known as ‘TDI methodology’ and ‘TDI modernisation’. These new rules aim at enhancing the EU’s trade defence, without deviating from its commitment to an open economic environment set in an international rules based order. The US has its own rules and practice for trade defence and continues to distinguish between countries having a market economy and those who don’t - a difference abandoned by the EU in its latest reform. Moreover, the Trump Administration has imposed many new tariffs on foreign imports, often based on the national security exception provided by the WTO - a justification contested by most of the countries targeted. Furthermore, the US expressed concerns about the system of dispute settlement in the WTO, blocking nominations to its Appellate Body. Experts gave their views on whether all these recent developments are contributing to an international trade defence regime that is ‘fair’ and ‘balanced’, taking into account the different perspectives.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Erdal YALCIN, Hannes WELGE, André SAPIR, Petros C. MAVROIDIS

Women’s role in peace processes

15-05-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, aims to provide insight on the meaningful inclusion of women - where women have decision-making authority - in peace and transition processes. Inclusive peace frameworks not only better reflect the diversity of society, they increase the durability and the quality of peace. Yet, awarding decision-making authority to those waging the war and ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, aims to provide insight on the meaningful inclusion of women - where women have decision-making authority - in peace and transition processes. Inclusive peace frameworks not only better reflect the diversity of society, they increase the durability and the quality of peace. Yet, awarding decision-making authority to those waging the war and not to those waging the peace remains a reoccurring theme in most armed conflict situations. The study presents available data on fragility and armed conflict and takes stock of the global arms trade. It examines progress on the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent resolutions. It assesses global commitments, European Union application of the Women, Peace and Security agenda, National Action Plans and global peace and security indicators. The study explores women’s participation across the peace-making landscape, including peace and transition processes. Moreover, an evaluation of the factors that enhance and constrain women’s meaningful participation in peace-making is put forward. The study highlights the impact of war on women and children and draws attention to the engagement of women across the peace-making landscape in two case studies, Rwanda and Syria. Lastly, the study provides recommendations to achieve sustainable peace and transform global power dynamics that currently favour traditional security perspectives.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Dr. Christina BACHE, London School of Economics and Political Science, IDEAS

Competition issues in the Area of Financial Technology (FinTech): Study presentation

04-04-2019

The study presented in this event deals with the new competition challenges brought about by the increasing number of FinTech services, which are provided by newcomer start-ups, traditional financial institutions and big tech companies. Namely, network effects derived from the use of online-platforms, the use of customer data, algorithms, standardisation and interoperability can result in anticompetitive behaviour. The analysis takes a service-by-service approach to provide both, a descriptive breakdown ...

The study presented in this event deals with the new competition challenges brought about by the increasing number of FinTech services, which are provided by newcomer start-ups, traditional financial institutions and big tech companies. Namely, network effects derived from the use of online-platforms, the use of customer data, algorithms, standardisation and interoperability can result in anticompetitive behaviour. The analysis takes a service-by-service approach to provide both, a descriptive breakdown and normative tools to anticipate and manage anticompetitive behaviours as they occur. This presentation was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

David RAMOS MUÑOZ Juan Pablo VILLAR GARCÍA et al.

Προσεχείς εκδηλώσεις

21-01-2020
Outlook for the MENA Region: What future for stabilisation and reconstruction?
Άλλη δραστηριότητα -
EPRS

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