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Recommendations on the economic policy of the euro area under the European Semester - January 2020

24-01-2020

This note looks at the recommendations on the economic policies of the euro area adopted by the Council in 2019, upon proposal of the Commission. Its scope is to assess their follow up, making use of proxies such as on how Eurogroup has integrated euro area recommendations concerns in their “thematic discussions” and its work programmes, as well as Commission’s assessment. It also looks at the Commission proposal for the 2020 euro area recommendation. In addition, the note provides an institutional ...

This note looks at the recommendations on the economic policies of the euro area adopted by the Council in 2019, upon proposal of the Commission. Its scope is to assess their follow up, making use of proxies such as on how Eurogroup has integrated euro area recommendations concerns in their “thematic discussions” and its work programmes, as well as Commission’s assessment. It also looks at the Commission proposal for the 2020 euro area recommendation. In addition, the note provides an institutional perspective of the euro area recommendations, in particular the process setting the 2019 euro area recommendations and the timeline for adoption of the 2020 euro area recommendation and includes broad comparisons to earlier recommendations, to illustrate how policy concerns have evolved over time. This note is regularly updated.

How flexible is the EU budget? Flexibility instruments and mechanisms in the multiannual financial framework (MFF)

23-01-2020

The 1988 introduction of multiannual financial frameworks (MFF) in the European Union (EU) budgetary system has improved financial predictability and facilitated the development of multiannual spending programmes, but has had to be balanced by measures that provided some flexibility and ability to react to unexpected situations. Over the years, these flexibility instruments and mechanisms have developed and proved to be useful. Occasions to use them were frequent, as the crises and challenges faced ...

The 1988 introduction of multiannual financial frameworks (MFF) in the European Union (EU) budgetary system has improved financial predictability and facilitated the development of multiannual spending programmes, but has had to be balanced by measures that provided some flexibility and ability to react to unexpected situations. Over the years, these flexibility instruments and mechanisms have developed and proved to be useful. Occasions to use them were frequent, as the crises and challenges faced by the EU required actions that could not be financed under the tight expenditure ceilings of the agreed MFFs. Experience of implementation of the 2014-2020 MFF demonstrated that, with neither relevant flexibility mechanisms nor the possibility to revise the MFF in the mid-term, achieving policy goals and reacting adequately to unexpected events and crises, especially in the area of migration and security, would be impossible. The flexibility of the EU budgets has already featured as an important issue in the negotiations of the 2021 2027 MFF. The views of the main actors – the European Commission, the Parliament and the Council – on enhancing and designing such flexibility instruments diverge. It has yet to be seen if the issue, following the pattern of the 2014-2020 MFF negotiations, will play a key role in reaching an agreement.

Economic Dialogue with the Commission on the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans

23-01-2020

Vice-president Dombrovskis and Commissioner Gentiloni have been invited to an Economic Dialogue on the European Commission Opinions on the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans of the Euro Area Member States. The Dialogue is based on Articles 7 and 15 of EU Regulation 473/2013.

Vice-president Dombrovskis and Commissioner Gentiloni have been invited to an Economic Dialogue on the European Commission Opinions on the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans of the Euro Area Member States. The Dialogue is based on Articles 7 and 15 of EU Regulation 473/2013.

Economic Dialogue with the European Commission on the 2020 European Semester Cycle

23-01-2020

Vice-President Dombrovskis and Commissioners Schmit and Gentiloni have been invited to an Economic Dialogue on the launch of the 2020 European Semester, in line with the relevant EU law. This briefing note covers the main elements of the 2020 European Semester Package proposed by the Commission. It gives an overview of the implementation of the previous Semester Cycles and of the on-going work to strengthen the governance and the resilience of Economic and Monetary Union. Further information is available ...

Vice-President Dombrovskis and Commissioners Schmit and Gentiloni have been invited to an Economic Dialogue on the launch of the 2020 European Semester, in line with the relevant EU law. This briefing note covers the main elements of the 2020 European Semester Package proposed by the Commission. It gives an overview of the implementation of the previous Semester Cycles and of the on-going work to strengthen the governance and the resilience of Economic and Monetary Union. Further information is available in separate briefings on the implementation of the Stability and Growth Pact and on the Commission opinions on the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans.

Implementation of the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure: State of play - January 2020

16-01-2020

This note presents the EU Member States' situation with respect to the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure, taking into account recent assessments and decisions by the European Commission and the Council. It also gives an overview of relevant comments on the MIP published by EU institutions. A separate EGOV note describes the MIP procedure. This document is regularly updated.

This note presents the EU Member States' situation with respect to the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure, taking into account recent assessments and decisions by the European Commission and the Council. It also gives an overview of relevant comments on the MIP published by EU institutions. A separate EGOV note describes the MIP procedure. This document is regularly updated.

Implementation of the Stability and Growth Pact - January 2020

16-01-2020

This document provides an overview of key developments under the preventive and corrective arms of the Stability and Growth Pact on the basis of (1) the latest Council decisions and recommendations in the framework of the Stability and Growth Pact; (2) the latest European Commission economic forecasts; and (3) the latest European Commission opinions on the Draft Budgetary Plans of euro area Member States. This document is regularly updated.

This document provides an overview of key developments under the preventive and corrective arms of the Stability and Growth Pact on the basis of (1) the latest Council decisions and recommendations in the framework of the Stability and Growth Pact; (2) the latest European Commission economic forecasts; and (3) the latest European Commission opinions on the Draft Budgetary Plans of euro area Member States. This document is regularly updated.

The EU and Latin America and the Caribbean: towards a stronger partnership?

13-01-2020

In the course of the past two and a half years, the European Parliament, the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the Council of Ministers have presented strategic documents on the EU's relations with Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the direction they should take in the coming years. This in-depth analysis aims to present the main points of view of the three EU institutions and the Member States on the future of EU-LAC ...

In the course of the past two and a half years, the European Parliament, the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the Council of Ministers have presented strategic documents on the EU's relations with Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the direction they should take in the coming years. This in-depth analysis aims to present the main points of view of the three EU institutions and the Member States on the future of EU-LAC relations. Its second half includes a critical assessment of some aspects of the bi-regional relationship as it has developed in recent years, particularly the institutional links and trade issues, and the challenges it may face in the coming years. Here, the focus is on the political divisions in the LAC region, the uncertainty about regional cooperation and integration and the possible challenges to multilateral policies.

CSDP Missions and Operations

10-01-2020

This policy brief provides an overview of what the EU has done through its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and operations since 2003, and which achievements and challenges it faces at the end of EU High Representative/Vice-President (HR/VP) Federica Mogherini’s mandate. It evaluates how the overall political context and the EU’s approach have evolved over time, and how this has affected the launch and implementation of CSDP actions. It looks at a range of criteria for evaluating ...

This policy brief provides an overview of what the EU has done through its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and operations since 2003, and which achievements and challenges it faces at the end of EU High Representative/Vice-President (HR/VP) Federica Mogherini’s mandate. It evaluates how the overall political context and the EU’s approach have evolved over time, and how this has affected the launch and implementation of CSDP actions. It looks at a range of criteria for evaluating the success of missions and operations such as effectiveness, degree of match between mission launch and EU interests at stake, responsiveness, coherence with wider policy strategies, coherence with values and norms, and degree of democratic scrutiny and oversight. It assesses some of the achievements as well as shortcomings of previous and ongoing missions and operations against these objectives. The brief identifies three underlying and cross-cutting problems hampering performance: (i) incompatible attitudes among Member States towards the use of force; (ii) resource disincentives and barriers to timely European solidarity; and (iii) gaps between early warning and early action. It outlines some selected initiatives launched and options discussed to address these shortcomings and improve the EU’s performance in crisis management operations.

Awtur estern

Christoph O. Meyer, Professor of European & International Politics, King’s College London, UK

CSDP defence capabilities development

10-01-2020

For several decades, European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Member States have worked closely to coordinate and, in some cases, jointly develop their military capabilities. Both NATO and the EU ask Member States to provide military capabilities to meet agreed force requirements. European states also cooperate increasingly closely over ways to increase efficiency and improve interoperability. Yet both EU and NATO force requirements suffer from longstanding capability shortfalls ...

For several decades, European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Member States have worked closely to coordinate and, in some cases, jointly develop their military capabilities. Both NATO and the EU ask Member States to provide military capabilities to meet agreed force requirements. European states also cooperate increasingly closely over ways to increase efficiency and improve interoperability. Yet both EU and NATO force requirements suffer from longstanding capability shortfalls. Neither modest growth in defence spending nor deeper cooperation have yet been sufficient to fill these gaps. Spurred on, however, by the impact of the 2008 financial crisis and the recent deterioration in security in the east and to the south of Europe, EU Member States have sought to re-invigorate their approach to collaborating on the development of defence capabilities. They have overhauled existing measures and introduced new initiatives, notably the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD) and Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). While it is too soon to judge the effectiveness of these initiatives, they do significantly extend the scope for action in this field. Success, however, will only be assured if EU Member States support the new ‘top-down’ initiatives while also delivering on their own ‘bottom-up’ commitments to funding and deeper levels of cooperation.

Awtur estern

Dr Ben Jones, Teaching Fellow in European Foreign Policy, King’s College London, UK

The EU’s Defence Technological and Industrial Base

10-01-2020

The EU’s Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB) has been a key focus of EU policy efforts in recent years, not just for security reasons, but also for economic ones. There have been a host of funds to strengthen and reinforce the EDTIB, and to ensure deeper cooperation, avoid duplication and underscore the interoperability of equipment. These funding streams have not been fully evaluated, but they are important symbols of the energy and commitment with which the EU has attempted to create ...

The EU’s Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB) has been a key focus of EU policy efforts in recent years, not just for security reasons, but also for economic ones. There have been a host of funds to strengthen and reinforce the EDTIB, and to ensure deeper cooperation, avoid duplication and underscore the interoperability of equipment. These funding streams have not been fully evaluated, but they are important symbols of the energy and commitment with which the EU has attempted to create an integrated pan-EU defence industry. There have, however, been challenges. The EU Member States remain predisposed to procuring weapons nationally or internationally, rather than regionally. There is a question as to whether these funds are great enough to be genuinely transformative, or whether in practice they are insufficient in relation to investment in the domestic defence industries. Finally, efforts to integrate the EDTIB also risk the EU being seen as protectionist, which may lead other major weapons suppliers such as the US to respond in kind.

Awtur estern

Dr Benedict Wilkinson, Associate Director of the Policy Institute, King’s College London, UK

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The Future of Artificial Intelligence for Europe
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‘Sidetracked’ - A dystopian Brexit novel: David Harley in conversation
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