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Research for CULT Committee - Shaping digital education policy Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.209 CULT
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This research project assesses the Digital Education Action Plan published in 2018 in terms of organisational and content-related challenges. It outlines concrete recommendations on how an updated Digital Education Action Plan could mitigate the weaknesses of the current plan, through a more holistic vision of the digital transformation in education, a focus on quality infrastructure for digital education for all, the further empowerment of educators and the further development of ‘whole-school’ approaches to digital education.
Auteurs : Simon BROEK; Bert-Jan BUISKOOL

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - September 2020 EN

11-09-2020 PE 648.238 BUDG CULT AFET EMPL LIBE
En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Research for CULT Committee - The Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Cultural and Creative Sectors EN

15-05-2020 PE 629.220 CULT
Briefing
Résumé : In this introductory in-depth analysis, we report six key findings on the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the cultural and creative sectors (CCS). Finding 1: AI challenges the creative value-chain in two ways: shifting services performed by humans to algorithms and empowering the individual creator. Finding 2: AI-generated content challenges authorship, ownership and copyright infringement. New exclusive rights on datasets must be designed in order to better incentivise innovation and research. Finding 3: European cultural institutions have rich datasets of cultural artefacts that could be made accessible to a larger audience. AI has the potential to create rich ways for users to navigate through cultural content. Good practices in AI for cultural heritage accessibility need to be formalised and shared among the European cultural networks. Finding 4: The use of AI for media content brings up issues regarding cultural and linguistic diversity. Public policies and measures are required to prevent discrimination in AI-based distribution platforms. Finding 5: AI governance is centralised, which has an impact in the CCS. Funding instruments are needed to support less-centralised, human-centred AI. Finding 6: The Union supports a rich environment for AI-Art, resulting in the development of critical discourse on technology and AI by the public, which should be sustained in the long run.
Auteurs : Baptiste Caramiaux

Research for CULT Committee - The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education EN

15-05-2020 PE 629.222 CULT
Briefing
Résumé : There are two different types of AI in wide use today. Recent developments have focused on data-driven machine learning, but in the last decades, most AI applications in education (AIEd) have been based on representational / knowledge-based AI. Data-driven AI uses a programming paradigm that is new to most computing professionals. It requires competences which are different from traditional programming and computational thinking. It opens up new ways to use computing and digital devices. But the development of state-of-the-art AI is now starting to exceed the computational capacity of the largest AI developers. The recent rapid developments in data-driven AI may not be sustainable. The impact of AI in education will depend on how learning and competence needs change, as AI will be widely used in the society and economy. AIEd should be used to help schools and educational institutions in transforming learning for the future. Many AIEd systems have been developed over the years, but few of these have shown clear scientific impact on learning. Evidence is lacking partly because the contexts of teaching and learning vary across classrooms, schools, educational systems, and countries. Local knowledge and capacity is critical for effective adoption and shaping of AIEd, and new scaling models are needed. Co-design of AIEd with teachers is a possible way to advance new scaling models. AI has a great potential in compensating learning difficulties and supporting teachers. The Union/ the EU needs a “clearing house” that helps teachers and policy-makers make sense of the fast developments in this area.
Auteurs : Ilkka Tuomi

Research for CULT Committee - The use of Artificial Intelligence in the Audiovisual Sector - Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

15-05-2020 PE 629.221 CULT
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This briefing paper takes a look at the use of AI technologies in the wider audiovisual sector. A survey with ten questions concerning the most important aspects was circulated to 85 contacts at 73 organisations. A total of 22 responses were received. The main findings are as follows: 1. Almost all respondents report broad use of AI technologies, especially for automated indexing, improved content accessibility as well as localisation. AI is used for processing audio or video, language or text data or for knowledge management purposes. 2. Among the technologies used are ASR, TTS, NLP, NER, MT, summarisation, search and recommender engines, content classification, subtitling, vision and metadata extraction (see Appendix 2: Glossary – Terms and Abbreviations). 3. AI technologies foreseen for future use are more experimental and include the automated detection of illegal content and deep fakes as well as flexible curation technologies. 4. There is a big demand for large amounts of training data including labelled, structured and unstructured data, domain-specific training data, acoustic data and data for illegal content. 5. There is also a need for more language technologies for all European languages, including ASR, TTS, MT, content curation services and metadata extraction as well as Linked Data. 6. In terms of policies, it is suggested to focus upon an ethical framework regarding the use and misuse of AI that protects human values and fosters cultural and linguistic diversity. It should also protect against the misuse of AI for false news and misinformation. 7. Regarding opportunities, many respondents suggest concentrating on the AI-based production of high quality content. In addition, AI allows unlimited localisation and makes it possible for a fragmented and culturally diverse ecosystem to survive in a world dominated by capital-intensive ventures based in the US. 8. The consumption of intentionally created false or manipulative content is seen as an imminent danger. It is stressed that, as video is quickly becoming our main means of communication, there is a threat that relates to the use of AI for misinformation and manipulation, which could have an impact on the foundations of our democratic society. 9. The awareness of the European AI tool market varies. Some perceive the market to be non-existent, others perceive it to be highly fragmented. Due to the dominance of non-European technology enterprises, European companies should be supported more. 10. Collaboration at the European level is seen as essential because individual players have limitations and difficulties in using AI technologies. Europe’s multilingualism is seen as crucial: to guarantee inclusiveness and accessibility, tools need to be made available, especially for under-resourced languages.
Auteurs : Georg Rehm

Research for CULT Committee - Virtual formats versus physical mobility - Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

16-03-2020 PE 629.217 CULT
Briefing
Résumé : This short briefing paper is part of the study into effective measures to ‘green’ the Erasmus+, Creative Europe and European Solidarity Corps programmes, which aims to provide input for the CULT Committee own-initiative report (“INI report”) on effective measures to “green” the CULT programmes.
Auteurs : Bert-Jan Buiskool; Marye Hudepohl

Research for CULT Committee - Effective measures to ‘green’ Erasmus+, Creative Europe and European Solidarity Corps programmes - Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

16-03-2020 PE 629.218 CULT
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This introductory briefing paper introduce five key messages on how the Erasmus+, European Solidarity Corps (ESC) and Creative Europe (CE) programmes (and the proposals for successor programmes) address environmental challenges.
Auteurs : Bert-Jan Buiskool; Marye Hudepohl

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024 EN

25-11-2019 PE 630.241 TRAN PETI ITRE INTA BUDG AFET DEVE EMPL ENVI CONT ECON REGI IMCO PECH CULT AGRI AFCO FEMM JURI LIBE
En bref
Résumé : This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Engagements pris lors des auditions des commissaires désignés - Commission Von der Leyen, 2019-2024

25-11-2019 PE 629.837 TRAN PETI ITRE INTA BUDG AFET DEVE EMPL ENVI CONT REGI IMCO ECON PECH CULT AGRI AFCO FEMM JURI LIBE
Briefing
Résumé : Le présent document est une compilation des points essentiels évoqués par les vice-présidents et commissaires désignés ainsi que des principaux engagements pris par ceux-ci au cours de leurs auditions respectives devant le Parlement européen. Il vise à constituer un outil pratique et concis de suivi des efforts et des actions de la future Commission. Pour obtenir une liste complète de l'ensemble des engagements pris et des positions adoptées par les candidats, le compte rendu in extenso de chaque audition publique est disponible sur la page web consacrée aux auditions du Parlement européen, de même que les questions et les réponses écrites.

Commitments made at the hearing of Margaritis SCHINAS, Vice-President-designate - Promoting the European Way of Life EN

22-11-2019 PE 621.920 CULT LIBE
Briefing
Résumé : The Vice President-designate, Margaritis Schinas, appeared before the European Parliament on 03 October 2019 to answer questions from MEPs in the Committees on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Culture and Education, Employment and Social Affairs. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Skills, education and integration; - Finding common ground on migration; and - Security Union.
Auteurs : Katarzyna Anna ISKRA, INA SOKOLSKA, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Commitments made at the hearing of Mariya GABRIEL, Commissioner-designate - Innovation and Youth EN

22-11-2019 PE 638.438 ITRE CULT
Briefing
Résumé : The commissioner-designate, Mariya Gabriel, appeared before the European Parliament on 30 September 2019 to answer questions from MEPs’ in the Committees on Industry, Research and Energy and on Culture and Education. During the hearing, Ms Gabriel made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to her portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to her by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Education, research and innovation; and - Culture, youth and sport.
Auteurs : Katarzyna Anna ISKRA, Frederic GOUARDERES, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - October 2019 EN

21-10-2019 PE 629.838 INTA BUDG CULT ENVI FEMM CONT
En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Recherche de la commission CULT – L’éducation et la jeunesse dans l’Union européenne – Défis actuels et perspectives

02-09-2019 PE 629.204 CULT
Étude
Résumé : Le présent document est la synthèse de l’étude intitulée «L’éducation et la jeunesse dans l’Union européenne – Défis actuels et perspectives ». L’intégralité de l’étude, disponible en anglais, peut être téléchargée à l’adresse suivante : http://bit.ly/2ksTB4H
Auteurs : RAND Europe: Axelle Devaux, Fay Dunkerley, Nadja Koch, Michaela Bruckmayer, William Phillips, Victoria Jordan

Recherche pour la commission CULT – Les secteurs de la culture et de la création dans l’Union européenne – principaux défis, évolutions et perspectives

28-08-2019 PE 629.203 CULT
Étude
Résumé : Le présent document est la synthèse de l’étude intitulée « Les secteurs de la culture et de la création dans l’Union européenne – principaux défis, évolutions et perspectives ». L’intégralité de l’étude, disponible en anglais, peut être téléchargée à l’adresse suivante : http://bit.ly/2lCi9bw
Auteurs : KEA European Affairs: Clémentine Daubeuf, Arthur Le Gall, Teodora Pletosu, Marianthi Kopellou ; PPMI: Donatas Pocius, Olha Koshchiyenko, Rasa Goštautaitė