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Access to Abortion Services for Women in the EU - Slovakia EN

23-10-2020 PE 659.922 FEMM
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This paper, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, provides basic information on access to abortion services in Slovakia. The legal status of abortions in the country is under permanent pressure despite the legally binding decision by the Constitutional Court back in 2007 which safeguarded women´s right to free choice. Eleven proposals to restrict abortion have been presented in the National Parliament, in the last two years. Medical abortion is not available in the country, and together with conscientious objection applied in health services and current COVID-19 pandemics access to abortion services is further limited.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD

The environmental impacts of plastics and micro-plastics use, waste and pollution: EU and national measures EN

22-10-2020 PE 658.279 PETI
Étude
Résumé : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions (PETI), focuses on the pervasive use of plastics and reviews the rising consensus on the potential eco-toxicological impacts of these materials, in particular of smaller plastic particles, dubbed microplastics. It discusses possible mitigation strategies aimed at curtailing the prevalence of (micro)plastics, as well as emerging alternatives and their environmental adequacy. Propelled by increasing awareness of the impacts of plastics and by public opinion, in recent years a multitude of norms, regulations, laws and recommendations have been proposed and/or implemented. These vary greatly across local, national, regional and international levels, and it is not clear what the beneficial impacts of these tools are. This study assesses these existing instruments, analyses whether they are based on sound scientific data, and discusses foreseeable challenges that could restrain the relevance and suitability of existing and future legislative proposals.
Auteurs : João PINTO DA COSTA (lead author), Teresa ROCHA-SANTOS, Armando C. DUARTE, Department of Chemistry and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Portugal

EU/EA measures to mitigate the economic, financial and social effects of coronavirus State-of-play 20 October 2020 EN

21-10-2020 PE 645.723 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This document compiles information, obtained from public sources, on the measures proposed and taken at the EU or Euro Area level to mitigate the economic and social effects of Covid19. It will be regularly updated, following new developments.
Auteurs : Kajus HAGELSTAM, Jost ANGERER, Marcel MAGNUS, Drazen RAKIC, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

European Parliament’s Banking Union reports in 2015 - 2019 EN

21-10-2020 PE 651.372 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This briefing provides an overview of the European Parliament’s expectations and priorities for the Banking Union as set out in its annual Banking Union reports. The first section of this briefing provides a short overview of the 2019 Banking Union report, the ECB Banking Supervisor’s response, as well as concrete actions expected from the Single Resolution Board, who as yet have not provided a formal response to any of Parliament’s Banking Union reports. In order to better contextualise the themes of latest Banking Union report, the subsequent section addresses the main themes raised in previous Banking Union reports (2015-2018). The annex of the briefing includes a comparison of the positions taken by the European Parliament in its Banking Union reports in the following policy areas: banking developments and structures; institutional and organisational issues; regulatory issues; completing the banking union; risk assessment; supervisory issues and priorities; crisis management; policies related to anti-money-laundering; and climate and sustainability issues.
Auteurs : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE, ISABEL LARA MIRANDA

RESEARCH FOR PECH COMMITTEE: Impact of the use of offshore wind and other marine renewables on European fisheries EN

20-10-2020 PE 652.212 PECH
Étude
Résumé : The study provides an overview of general impacts of the development of offshore wind farms and other marine renewables on the European fishing sector. It further highlights pathways for possible co-existence solutions of both sectors, a description of best practice examples and lessons learnt, the identification of research gaps and last but not least the presentation of policy recommendations.
Auteurs : Vanessa STELZENMÜLLER, Antje GIMPEL, Jonas LETSCHERT, Casper KRAAN, Ralf DÖRING

The role of Points of Single Contact and other information services in the Single Market EN

20-10-2020 PE 658.179 IMCO
Étude
Résumé : This study analyses the role and development of Points of Single Contact and other information services. It reviews recent policy documents, and identifies a range of weaknesses for the provision of contact points. The main recommendations are to improve monitoring (using the indicators and the Single Market Scoreboard) and make use of infringement proceedings in case of non-compliance. The actions could build on the instruments available under the recent Single Digital Gateway Regulation. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Auteurs : Pau SALSAS-FORN et al.

How can international trade contribute to sustainable forestry and the preservation of the world’s forests through the Green Deal? EN

19-10-2020 PE 603.513 INTA
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : High deforestation rates, particularly in tropical areas, remain a pressing concern for the international community, given their impacts on the global climate and the loss of biodiversity. The EU has committed to promoting sustainable forest management both domestically and internationally. However, efforts so far have concentrated on promoting the legality of trade in timber and timber products, via policy instruments such as FLEGT and the EU Timber Regulation. EU trade policy could be employed more systematically to promote sustainable forestry and deforestation-free value chains. The report proposes eleven measures to this end, both at the unilateral, bilateral and multilateral level, that inter alia combine market access incentives on the part of consumer markets such as the EU with obligations to promote principles of sustainable production on the part of producer countries.
Auteurs : Werner RAZA, Bernhard TRÖSTER, Bernhard WOLFSLEHNER, Markus KRAJEWSKI.

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024 EN

16-10-2020 PE 630.241 TRAN PETI ITRE INTA BUDG AFET DEVE EMPL ENVI CONT ECON REGI IMCO PECH CULT AGRI AFCO FEMM JURI LIBE
En bref
Résumé : This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - November 2020 EN

15-10-2020 PE 648.239 ECON REGI BUDG AFET JURI
En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Study in focus: Regulatory Sandboxes and Innovation Hubs for FinTech EN

15-10-2020 PE 658.182 ECON
En bref
Résumé : The original full study analyses the design and operation of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of jurisdictions’ regulatory response to financial innovation, focusing on the models adopted in the EU and the EFTA countries. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : RADOSTINA PARENTI

Barriers to Competition through Joint Ownership by Institutional Investors EN

15-10-2020 PE 658.183 ECON
En bref
Résumé : In recent years, the phenomenon of common ownership by institutional investors has sparked considerable debate about its impact on competition and companies’ corporate governance. The original full study analyses some specific features of common ownership by institutional investors in the European banking sector, at the intersection between competition policy, financial sector regulation and corporate governance rules. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : S. FRAZZANI, K. NOTI, M. P. SCHINKEL, J. SELDESLACHTS, A. BANAL ESTAÑOL, N. BOOT, C. ANGELICI

Online Platforms’ Moderation of Illegal Content Online EN

15-10-2020 PE 658.184 IMCO
En bref
Résumé : The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.
Auteurs : Alexandre DE STREEL et al.

What role for the European Semester in the recovery plan? EN

15-10-2020 PE 651.370 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This briefing paper argues that the political imperative to ensure that the economic stimulus from the EU’s new commonly funded facilities is provided expeditiously will prevail against desires to create a robust governance framework for these funds within the European Semester process. The pandemic-related suspension of the Stability and Growth Pact creates a need to reform the Pact ahead of its future reintroduction. This presents an opportunity to incorporate more of the Semester’s reform implementation agenda directly into the Pact’s policy prescriptions.
Auteurs : Jacob Funk KIRKEGAARD

How to provide political guidance to the Recovery and Resilience Facility? EN

14-10-2020 PE 651.371 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) constitutes an unprecedented EU-wide resource to address the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the EU economies. As the governance of the RRF is integrated in the European Semester, it fundamentally changes its character from a non-binding structure for policy coordination to a vehicle for the allocation of a major economic impetus. In light of this, this paper analyses the ways that parliamentary control and oversight of the RRF can be best secured at the EU-level.
Auteurs : Ben CRUM

Commitments made at the hearing of Valdis Dombrovskis Commissioner for Trade EN

08-10-2020 PE 639.316 ECON INTA BUDG AFET DEVE
Briefing
Résumé : The Commission Executive Vice-President/Commissioner-designate, Valdis Dombrovskis, appeared before the European Parliament on 02 October 2020 to answer questions put by MEPs from the Committee on International Trade, in association with the Committees on Foreign Affairs, on Economic and Monetary Affairs, on Development and on Budgets. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio as Trade Commissioner, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - A level playing field for all; - Strengthening Europe’s global leadership; - Trade for sustainable development and climate action
Auteurs : Mario DAMEN, WOLFGANG IGLER

Thematic Digest on EU Economic Governance Review EN

08-10-2020 PE 651.361 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This document presents the summaries of some papers in the area of EU economic governance, recently published by the European Parliament upon a request of the Economic and Monetary Committee (ECON). The thematic papers presented in this digest provides hopefully information and suggestions which will be useful for the on-going debate among policy makers, namely on the review of the EU legal framework for economic governance. They are written by external experts and supervised by the Economic Governance Support Unit.
Auteurs : DONELLA BOLDI

Guidance by the EU supervisory and resolution authorities on Brexit EN

08-10-2020 PE 651.369 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing gives an overview of the repercussions of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU on financial services, followed by the most recent guidance from the ECB Banking Supervisor, the Single Resolution Board and the three European Supervisory Authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Securities and Markets Authority; and the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority. The work of the European Systemic Risk Board on Brexit is also highlighted.
Auteurs : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Commitments made at the hearing of Mairead MCGUINNESS, Commissioner-designate - Financial services, financial stability and the Capital Markets Union EN

08-10-2020 PE 658.180 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : The Commissioner-designate, Mairead McGuinness, appeared before the European Parliament on 02 October 2020 to answer questions put by MEPs from the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs. During the hearing, she made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to her portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to her by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission and include Banking Union, Capital Markets Union and SMEs access to finance, sustainable finance, FinTech strategy and cryptocurrencies, comprehensive approach to fighting money laundering and more resilience to extraterritorial sanctions.
Auteurs : RADOSTINA PARENTI, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Background Reader On The European Semester Autumn 2020 Edition EN

08-10-2020 PE 624.444 ECON
Étude
Résumé : This fourth edition of the background reader on the European Semester, prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit (EGOV) in the Directorate for Economic and Scientific Policies of the European Parliament, provides an overview of publications related to the European Semester from a parliamentary perspective. It aims at further increasing the links between Members of the European Parliament and national Parliaments, notably during inter-parliamentary meetings.
Auteurs : Kajus HAGELSTAM, WOLFGANG LEHOFER

New life for an old framework: redesigning the European Union's expenditure and golden fiscal rules EN

07-10-2020 PE 645.733 ECON
Étude
Résumé : In the context of the review of the EU economic governance framework, this study recommends a multi-year ahead expenditure rule anchored in an appropriate public debt target, augmented with an asymmetric golden rule that provides extra fiscal space only in times of a recession. An improved governance framework should strengthen national fiscal councils and include a European fiscal council, while financial sanctions should be replaced with instruments related to surveillance, positive incentives, market discipline and increased political cost of non-compliance.
Auteurs : Zsolt Darvas, Julia Anderson - Bruegel

The Effectiveness of Conflict of Interest Policies in the EU- Member States EN

07-10-2020 PE 651.697 JURI
Étude
Résumé : This comparative study - commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs - analyses the effectiveness of relevant rules, policies and practices within Member States regarding conflict of interest for top political appointment (Head of Government, Ministers and other high ranking officials). The research highlights the theoretical and practical aspects of the notion of conflict of interest, giving some policy recommendations
Auteurs : Christoph DEMMKE; Maros PAULINI; Jari AUTIONIEMI; Florian LENNER

The role (and accountability) of the President of the Eurogroup EN

06-10-2020 PE 602.116 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This note provides an overview of the role of the President of the Eurogroup, the procedures for his/her appointment, as well as proposals on a “full time position” as part of the wider debate on deepening the Economic and Monetary Union. The note also briefly addresses the mandate and working methods of the Eurogroup. In addition, this note refers to the debate around the transparency of Eurogroup proceedings. It is updated regularly.
Auteurs : Kajus HAGELSTAM, WOLFGANG LEHOFER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

What Role for the European Semester in the recovery plan? EN

06-10-2020 PE 651.368 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : Accessing funds of the EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) depends on detailed national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) being agreed upon, and projects meeting implementation milestones. The RRPs will be embedded in the European Semester, the EU’s framework for economic policy coordination. This paper suggests that there are risks to the implementation of the RRPs, and/or to an objective evaluation of their progress. While the Treaty specifies that the execution of economic policy coordination shall be done by the Member States within the Council, the involvement of the European Parliament would potentially increase transparency and accountability for national policy makers (as well as the Commission and Council), which could improve project delivery and thus benefit the recovery.
Auteurs : Thomas Wieser

The ECB’s Monetary Policy Response to the COVID-19 Crisis EN

30-09-2020 PE 648.787 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : (Updated 25 September 2020) The coronavirus pandemic is taking a heavy toll on the euro area economy, necessitating a timely and resolute macroeconomic policy response. The ECB's Governing Council acted decisively by taking a series of measures that collectively provide a substantial monetary policy stimulus aimed at safeguarding the effective transmission of monetary policy and preventing a serious deterioration of financial conditions.
Auteurs : Drazen RAKIC

Research for AGRI Committee -The upcoming Commission's Communication on the long-term vision for rural areas EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.214 AGRI
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This in-depth analysis provides a preliminary analysis of the upcoming Commission’s communication on a long term vision for rural areas. It presents the key features of the communication and its implications for the CAP, takes stock of the current and future EU policy tools to support rural areas and provides background material on the economic, demographic, social and spatial challenges they are faced with.
Auteurs : Albert MASSOT MARTI, François NEGRE

This Time is Different: The PEPP Might Not Work in a Sectoral Recession EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.739 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The COVID-19 recession is different from previous downturns because it originates in demand and supply disturbances which are highly specific to certain sectors (contact-intensive services). This sectoral nature renders aggregate demand policies, including monetary policy, much less effective. The PEPP was essential to prevent a financial crisis in the Spring of 2020; but there is no need to increase its size. In a sectoral recession, one should not expect much impact from central bank bond buying on inflation. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Angela CAPOLONGO, Daniel GROS

COVID-19 and the Future of Quantitative Easing in the Euro Area: Three Scenarios with a Trilemma EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.740 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : We present the set of measures that the ECB has undertaken to fight the pandemic crisis by outlining the deep impact that COVID-19 is having on economic structures, and by highlighting the differences between the current policy package and previous ECB’s programmes. Moreover, we discuss what are the challenges that await the ECB in the medium to long run, contingent on different post-COVID scenarios concerning economic growth and inflation, considering its peculiar multinational jurisdiction. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Luigi BONATTI, Andrea FRACASSO, Roberto TAMBORINI

The ECB’s Asset Purchase Programmes: Effectiveness, Risks, Alternatives EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.741 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : We summarise the empirical evidence on effects of asset purchases in the euro area, including the PEPP programme launched in response to the COVID-19 crisis. We conclude that QE is particularly effective during times of high financial stress, i.e. at the peak of a crisis, but tends to lose impact over time. At the same time, QE policies come with prominent risks which may materialise only in the longer term. We suggest a scheme of rule-based intervention in sovereign debt markets that preserves the role of yield spreads as a market signal, while containing the risk of bad equilibria. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Joscha BECKMANN, Salomon FIEDLER, Klaus-Jürgen GERN, Stefan KOOTHS, Josefine QUAST, Maik WOLTERS

APP vs PEPP: Similar, But With Different Rationales EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.743 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : ECB’s asset purchase programmes have been implemented at different times in different economic environments and may pursue different objectives. From the point of view of removing financial fragmentation and taming sovereign stress in the euro area, the PEPP has been successful so far. Moreover, this outcome was obtained without fully using its potential resources. To date and contingent on the available set of information, the current monetary stance has not gone too far and it retains some ammunitions. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL and Paul HUBERT

Accountability at the Fed and the ECB EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.745 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This paper reviews the independence and accountability of the ECB and the Federal Reserve. While the ECB makes significant efforts to be accountable for its actions, there are several improvements that could be made to European institutions to improve its independence and accountability. These include reforming the process of appointing ECB Executive Board members, improving the transparency of ECB decision-making and reforming aspects of the Monetary Dialogue to make the questioning more effective. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Karl WHELAN

Theory, Evidence, and Risks of the ECB’s Asset Purchase Programme EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.746 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : In response to the COVID-19 crisis, the ECB has relaunched a massive asset purchase programme within its combined-arms monetary strategy. This paper presents and discusses the theory and the evidence of the central bank’s asset purchases, mainly in the euro area. It analyses the role of asset purchase programmes in the ECB’s toolkit and the potential associated risks, focusing specifically on the problems of the programmes’ unwinding. Finally, the paper offers some possible alternatives to the asset purchase programmes. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Pierpaolo BENIGNO, Paolo CANOFARI, Giovanni DI BARTOLOMEO, Marcello MESSORI

How Can the European Parliament Better Oversee the European Central Bank? EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.747 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This paper assesses how the European Parliament (EP) holds the European Central Bank (ECB) accountable. The same exercise is done for the Bank of Japan, in order to identify possible lessons for the ECB and the EP. Possible improvements to the ECB accountability framework include procedural changes to the Monetary Dialogue to increase its effectiveness, the release of detailed minutes and votes from ECB governing council meetings, and the establishment of a ranking by the EU legislators of the ECB’s secondary objectives. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Grégory CLAEYS, Marta DOMÍNGUEZ-JIMÉNEZ

Evaluating the EU’s Response to the US Global Gag Rule EN

30-09-2020 PE 621.927 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This study commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, maps out the challenges the European Union faces in promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights and the prevention of gender based violence in its external action, especially in providing aid to developing countries against the backdrop of US Global Gag Rules.
Auteurs : Clara COTRONEO, Petra JENEY, European Institute of Public Administration

Impact of noise pollution on residents of large cities, with special regard to noise pollution from aircrafts EN

30-09-2020 PE 650.787 PETI
Étude
Résumé : This study, provided by the Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions, aims to provide a clear and simple overview to the non-expert reader, on the Impact of aircrafts noise pollution on residents of large cities, as well as to give recommendations addressed to the most relevant actors. Noise is one of the most important problems linked to aviation. It can lead to health issues, as well as to negative social and economic effects. Examples of health issues produced by aviation are sleep disturbance, community annoyance, cardiovascular disease, and mental health problems.
Auteurs : Ted ELLIFF, Michele CREMASCI, Violaine HUCK - ENVISA, Paris

Politique de cohésion de l’Union européenne dans les zones non urbaines

30-09-2020 PE 652.210 REGI
Étude
Résumé : This study looks at the role of EU Cohesion Policy in non-urban (rural) areas. It analyses the challenges of these areas and discusses the extent and thematic orientation of rural Cohesion Policy funding. The study then presents the relationship between Cohesion Policy and CAP, before giving an overview of the role of Cohesion Policy for healthcare. It also reflects on the implications of Cohesion Policy proposals post-2020 for rural areas, before providing final conclusions and recommendations for a long-term policy vision.
Auteurs : Stefan KAH, Neli GEORGIEVA, Liliana FONSECA - EPRC

Go Big or Go Home? The ECB’s Asset Purchase Programmes in Macroeconomic Perspective EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.742 ECON
Étude
Résumé : Until this year, governments in the single currency area appeared to be ‘missing in action’. There is belated recognition that monetary and fiscal policies must coordinate especially in crisis conditions. The euro area has experienced crisis or near crisis conditions for over a decade. Lessons are being learned late but there continue to be several gaps that the euro area and its members need to close. The paper highlights these and the continuing threats to the single currency area. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Pierre L. SIKLOS

Accountability Mechanisms of the Bank of England and of the European Central Bank EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.744 ECON
Étude
Résumé : This paper analyses the accountability mechanisms of the European Central Bank and of the Bank of England and focuses on parliamentary accountability for the monetary policy functions. The paper suggests ways to improve the Monetary Dialogue between the ECB and the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (European Parliament). This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Rosa M. LASTRA

Regulatory Sandboxes and Innovation Hubs for FinTech EN

30-09-2020 PE 652.752 ECON
Étude
Résumé : The unprecedented leap and the disruption potential of the emerging technological developments in finance have challenged the existing institutional and regulatory arrangements in the financial sector. Jurisdictions across globe have adopted various initiatives to keep abreast of the rapid technological developments and to encourage the development of their FinTech ecosystems. This study examines the setting up of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of the overall strategies pursued by jurisdictions in response to the FinTech developments. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : RADOSTINA PARENTI

The gendered impact of the Covid-19 crisis and post-crisis period EN

30-09-2020 PE 658.227 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Outbreaks affect men, women and other genders differentially. This can be both the direct infections with a pathogen, or the secondary effects of public health response policies. COVID-19 is no exception, and the gendered impacts thus far and in the future are numerous. This study outlines some of the key gendered effects thus far and suggestions for how these may extend into the post-crisis period based on currently available data on COVID and longer-term effects of previous outbreaks. This includes the lack of sex-disaggregated data, the role of healthcare workers and care workers, domestic violence, the impact of quarantine on feminised sectors of the economy, the additional unpaid labour on women as a result of lockdown, access to maternity, sexual and reproductive health services. This study commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee.
Auteurs : Clare WENHAM, Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, United Kingdom

In the name of COVID: An Assessment of the Schengen Internal Border Controls and Travel Restrictions in the EU EN

30-09-2020 PE 659.506 LIBE
Étude
Résumé : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, assesses the mobility restrictive measures adopted by the EU and its Member States in the fight against COVID-19. It examines the reintroduction of Schengen internal border controls and intra- and extra-EU travel restrictions. It assesses their compatibility with the Schengen Borders Code, including proportionality, non-discrimination, privacy and free movement. The research demonstrates that policy priorities have moved from a logic of containment to one characterized by a policing approach on intra-EU mobility giving priority to the use of police identity/health checks, interoperable databases and the electronic surveillance of every traveller. It concludes that Schengen is not in 'crisis'. Instead there has been an ‘EU enforcement and evaluation gap’ of Member States compliance with EU rules in areas falling under EU competence.
Auteurs : Sergio Carrera, Ngo Chun Luk

Geopolitical implications of the COVID-19 pandemic EN

29-09-2020 PE 603.511 AFET
Étude
Résumé : Since the Coronavirus began its spread across the world, many analysts have speculated about its impact: would it merely accelerate previously-existing trends, or would it prove to be a geopolitical ‘game-changer’, creating a world profoundly different than before? The answer is much more complex than either or: the world during and after COVID-19 will have elements of both, the old and the new, the known and the unknown. This study explores both dimensions of the pandemic’s impact: how does it affect the geopolitical context it erupted into, and what possibility space does it open up? The first section assesses the geopolitical trends antedating the pandemic and measures its present and expected impact on them, while the second section lays out the space for action and change created by the disruption. In the third section, the interplay of trends and uncertainties is explored in three scenarios set in 2025: Strategic Distancing; Europe in Self-isolation; and Lockdown World. The study finds that European foreign policy is entering an era of re-definition in which the European Parliament should play a crucial role. This means outlining the elements of strategic autonomy, but also streamlining them with each other. As such, classical foreign policy needs to join forces with other policy areas such as environmental and technological matters, trade, strategic communication – and of course, health. In that sense alone, the pandemic is already proving to be a game-changer.
Auteurs : Florence GAUB, Lotje BOSWINKEL; EUISS

Update on recent banking developments EN

29-09-2020 PE 651.360 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing gives an update on recent events and developments in the Banking Union, based on publicly available information. The following topics are specifically addressed in the first section: banking statistics, non-performing loans, Wirecard, and the equivalence regime in financial services., The second section of this briefing gives a state-of-play on the Commission’s work programme on some financial services: Green Finance Strategy, Fintech and digital currencies, the COVID-19 financial services package, Anti-money laundering framework, and the Capital Market Union.
Auteurs : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Greenhouse gas emissions from shipping: waiting for concrete progress at IMO level EN

29-09-2020 PE 652.754 ENVI
Briefing
Résumé : At the 72th session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) the initial International Maritime Organization (IMO) strategy was agreed, which aims for emissions from international shipping to peak as soon as possible and to reduce the total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels and in line with the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement. A revised IMO strategy is scheduled to be approved by 2023 at MEPC80. A list of candidate short, medium and long-term measures are included within the initial IMO strategy in order to achieve the 2050 GHG emissions reduction target. However it will only be decided up until 2023 which candidate short-term measures will be adopted (based on timeframe agreed at MEPC73) with the medium and long-term candidate measures to be adopted only after 2023 and 2030 respectively.
Auteurs : Sean Healy

Independence with Weak Accountability: The Swiss Case EN

29-09-2020 PE 652.738 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The Swiss National Bank is highly independent but weakly accountable. Weak accountability is rooted in the formal legislation on central banking but also in the reputation of the Bank, which is unanimously considered as highly successful. The ECB too is highly independent and weakly accountable but it faces diverse public opinions whose views differ across countries. Buttressing ECB accountability is important, therefore, and the European Parliament should consider strengthening the Monetary Dialogue. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Charles WYPLOSZ

EU External Migration Policy and the Protection of Human Rights EN

28-09-2020 PE 603.512 DROI
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This in-depth analysis focuses on the human rights implications of EU external migration policy interventions: (1) identifying human rights obligations owed to third-country nationals when engaging in cooperation with third countries and non-EU actors; (2) assessing the means and level of compliance with these obligations when designing and implementing the main policy instruments; and (3) determining the existence and adequacy of operational, reporting, monitoring and accountability mechanisms available in each case to track and respond to potential violations. Particular attention is paid to soft-law tools, on account of their enhanced potential to erode the enforceability of obligations, to downgrade democratic accountability and generally undermine the rule of law. Paving the way for the New Pact on Migration and Asylum, special emphasis is placed on cooperation under the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, the EU Agenda on Migration and the Migration Partnership Framework, including informal arrangements concluded by Frontex or by the Member States themselves. Four case studies guide the analysis and illustrate findings: (1) the EU-Turkey Statement; (2) the multi-modal cooperation with Libya; (3) the Joint Way Forward with Afghanistan; and (4) collaboration with Niger under the EUCAP Sahel mission. The in-depth analysis reveals that the full effect of the EU fundamental rights acquis in extra-territorial situations has not been duly accounted for and proposes a system to ensure compliance with the relevant standards covering the pre-conclusion, design, adoption, implementation, evaluation and review phases, highlighting the role of the European Parliament and civil society organisations.
Auteurs : Dr Violeta MORENO-LAX,

Options for the ECB’s Monetary Policy Strategy Review EN

25-09-2020 PE 652.753 ECON
Étude
Résumé : The ECB is the most important institution for the success of the EMU. It started successfully but the crisis revealed weaknesses related to the incomplete nature of the EMU. The ECB was too timid in using its power, which deepened the euro crisis and led to divergences that threaten the viability of the EMU. With suitable modifications of its monetary policy strategy, and better use of the authority delegated to it, the ECB could greatly improve its success in fulfilling its mandate. This document was provided by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Yvan LENGWILER, Athanasios ORPHANIDES

Country-specific recommendations: An overview - September 2020 EN

22-09-2020 PE 624.404 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This note provides an overview of the country-specific recommendations issued annually to EU Member States under the European Semester for economic policy coordination. It presents how these recommendations evolved over time (2012-2020), including from the legal base perspective. Finally, it gives insights on the level of implementation of recommendations issued under the 2012-2019 European Semester cycles. The note is updated on a regular basis.
Auteurs : Jost ANGERER, OVIDIU IONUT TURCU, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Shaping a European Child Guarantee EN

22-09-2020 PE 642.387 EMPL
Briefing
Résumé : The briefing presents data on the problem of child poverty in the European Union followed by an overview of policy initiatives by the Commission, the Council and the European Palriament. It concludes with points from the debate in research on how to shape an effective Child Guarantee. The note covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Auteurs : Susanne KRAATZ

Post-COVID-19 Global Currency Order: Risks and Opportunities for the Euro EN

22-09-2020 PE 652.751 ECON
Étude
Résumé : The issuance of EU debt in the context of the recovery plan for Europe creates scope for strengthening the international role of the euro. However, with a large share of safe euro assets likely to be absorbed by the pandemic emergency purchase programme of the ECB, a shortage of eligible bonds stands to impede such progress. The ECB could decisively increase the supply of safe assets by issuing tradable ECB certificates of deposit as a way of overcoming this obstacle. This document was provided by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Auteurs : Barry EICHENGREEN, Daniel GROS

Institutional set up of macroprudential policy in the European Union EN

18-09-2020 PE 645.701 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing provides an overview of the institutional macroprudential framework in the European Union (EU), distribution of powers and responsibilities and interactions between different institutions.
Auteurs : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

The ECB's Asset Purchase Programmes: Experience and Future Perspectives EN

18-09-2020 PE 652.749 ECON
Étude
Résumé : In response to the unprecedented shock brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the European Central Bank (ECB) has deployed a massive package of monetary policy stimulus to safeguard the monetary policy transmission mechanism and keep the euro area economy afloat. As part of this package, the ECB has stepped up its asset purchases, including with the introduction of the new pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP) with an envelope of EUR 1.35 trillion by June 2021. Over the years, the impact and the side effects of the non-standard asset purchase programmes have been widely debated. Should they remain as part of the ECB’s toolkit in the future, considering that inflation is expected to stay low and that interest rates are in negative territory? Six papers were prepared for the ECON Committee by the Monetary Expert Panel, presenting empirical evidence and discussing future perspectives of the ECB’s asset purchase programmes. This publication is prepared by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Lagarde on 28 September 2020.
Auteurs : Pierre L. SIKLOS, Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL, Paul HUBERT, Luigi BONATTI, Andrea FRACASSO, Roberto TAMBORINI, Joscha BECKMANN, Salomon FIEDLER, Klaus-Jürgen GERN, Stefan KOOTHS, Josefine QUAST, Maik WOLTERS, Angela CAPOLONGO, Daniel GROS, Pierpaolo BENIGNO, Paolo CANOFARI, Giovanni DI BARTOLOMEO, Marcello MESSORI

The legal nature of Country-Specific Recommendations EN

17-09-2020 PE 528.767 ECON
En bref
Résumé : The Country-Specific Recommendations (CSRs) are annually adopted by the Council based on the Commission (COM) proposals within the framework of the European Semester. The CSRs provide integrated guidance on macro-fiscal and macro-structural measures based on the COM assessment of Member States' medium-term budgetary plans and national reform programmes in light of broad policy priorities endorsed by the European Council or adopted by the Council on th basis of the Annual Growth Survey. The Council also adopts policy recommendations to the euro area as a whole in accordance with Article 136 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) following a COM proposal. Table 1 displays the development of the number of CSRs and the minimum and maximum number per Member State.
Auteurs : Jost ANGERER, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Macroprudential policy toolkit for the banking sector EN

17-09-2020 PE 645.702 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing provides an overview of European Union’s macroprudential policy toolkit that could be applied to the banking sector. Not all the tools described in this briefing are available for all national macroprudential authorities in the European Union (EU), due to different national legislations. Even though most of the instruments are targeted at the banking sector, national specificities in some cases permit the use of the same instrument to other financial institutions.
Auteurs : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Research for CULT Committee - Shaping digital education policy Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.209 CULT
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This research project assesses the Digital Education Action Plan published in 2018 in terms of organisational and content-related challenges. It outlines concrete recommendations on how an updated Digital Education Action Plan could mitigate the weaknesses of the current plan, through a more holistic vision of the digital transformation in education, a focus on quality infrastructure for digital education for all, the further empowerment of educators and the further development of ‘whole-school’ approaches to digital education.
Auteurs : Simon BROEK; Bert-Jan BUISKOOL

Research for TRAN Committee - COVID-19 and urban mobility: impacts and perspectives EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.213 TRAN
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The briefing provides an overview on the state of play and trends of urban transport since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines four scenarios, the prevalence of one or the other depending on the priorities established by policy makers and service providers. The briefing delivers general recommendations for a post-COVID-19 smart and sustainable urban transport and a set of desirable actions on how to integrate EU response into existing policy priorities.
Auteurs : Università degli Studi Roma Tre: Giacomo Lozzi, Edoardo Marcucci, Valerio Gatta, Valerio Pacelli Panteia B.V: Maria Rodrigues, Tharsis Teoh

Accountability Mechanisms of Major Central Banks and Possible Avenues to Improve the ECB's Accountability EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.748 ECON
Étude
Résumé : Independece of monetary authorities is a key tenet of modern central banking. Indepedence, however, must go hand in hand with accountability towards the public and its elected representatives. Four studies were prepared for the ECON Committee by the Monetary Expert Panel, comparing the accountability practices of major central banks in other juristictions (the Bank of England, the Swiss National Bank, the Bank of Japan and the Federal Reserve) with those of the European Central Bank (ECB) and offering recommendations on how to improve the ECB's accoutability framework.
Auteurs : Rosa M. LASTRA, Charles WYPLOSZ, Grégory CLAEYS, Marta DOMÍNGUEZ-JIMÉNEZ, Karl WHELAN

The impact of algorithms for online content filtering or moderation - Upload filters EN

15-09-2020 PE 657.101 JURI
Étude
Résumé : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, addresses automated filtering of online content. The report introduces automated filtering as an aspect of moderation of user-generated materials. It presents the filtering technologies that are currently deployed to address different kinds of media, such as text, images, or videos. It discusses the main critical issues under the present legal framework and makes proposals for regulation in the context of a future EU Digital Services Act.
Auteurs : Prof. Giovanni Sartor and Dr. Andrea Loreggia

Police Information Exchange - The future developments regarding Prüm and the API Directive EN

15-09-2020 PE 658.542 LIBE
Étude
Résumé : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to provide background information and policy recommendations concerning police information exchange and in particular the future developments regarding Prüm and the API Directive (Directive 2004/82/EC).
Auteurs : Dr Niovi VAVOULA, Queen Mary University of London

Obstacles to participation in local and European elections, inside the E.U. EN

15-09-2020 PE 658.593 PETI
Étude
Résumé : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, addresses some major issues of obstacles to elections in general and of obstacles to participation inside the EU more specifically. This is done by focusing on Member States and examples with regard to municipal elections, and European elections, but also in general on de-facto access to the exercise of the right to vote. Various recommendations are formulated.
Auteurs : Aalt Willem HERINGA, Professor of Comparative Constitutional and Administrative Law, Maastricht University, NL; Hoai-Thu NGUYEN, Policy Fellow for EU Institutions and Democracy, Jacques Delors Centre, Berlin, DE."

The European Parliament’s carbon footprint: Towards carbon neutrality EN

14-09-2020 PE 652.735 ENVI
Étude
Résumé : The study analyses the European Parliament’s (EP) carbon footprint in the context of the recent EP resolutions, in which it declared a climate emergency in Europe and requested the development of a strategy to become itself carbon-neutral by 2030. The analysis takes into account the various sources contributing to the EP’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including those related to its function in three different sites and the traveling of its Members and staff. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, and the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) Unit at the request of the committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI).
Auteurs : Georgios AMANATIDIS, Srdan RANDIC

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - September 2020 EN

11-09-2020 PE 648.238 BUDG CULT AFET EMPL LIBE
En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The platform economy and precarious work EN

11-09-2020 PE 652.734 EMPL
Étude
Résumé : Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was prepared at the request of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament.
Auteurs : Harald Hauben (ed.), Karolien Lenaerts,Willem Waeyaert

Economic Dialogue with the other EU Institutions under the European Semester Cycles during the 9th legislative term State of play - September 2020 EN

09-09-2020 PE 624.436 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This document provides an overview of Economic Dialogues with the other institutions of the European Union that has taken place in the competent Committee of the European Parliament since September 2019 under the European Semester Cycles. It also includes an overview of the respective legal bases for these dialogues. For an overview Economic Dialogues between January 2014 and January 2019, please see separate document.
Auteurs : Kajus HAGELSTAM

The role of fiscal rules in relation with the green economy EN

03-09-2020 PE 651.364 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This paper discusses the analytical basis for facilitating green public investment under the Stability and Growth Pact fiscal rules. It concludes that additional public debt created by deficit-financed green public investment is likely to increase fiscal sustainability risks. However, such additional risks could be justified to avoid the economic damages (which would also have long run consequences for public finances) arising in the absence of sufficient green public investment. Tre trade off could be improved if green public investment were financed through EU debt.
Auteurs : Carlo Cottarelli

Benefits and drawbacks of an “expenditure rule”, as well as of a "golden rule", in the EU fiscal framework EN

01-09-2020 PE 645.732 ECON
Étude
Résumé : Focusing the EU fiscal framework on an expenditure rule could help to increase transparency, compliance and ownership. In various other respects, like estimation errors or counter-cyclicality of prescribed fiscal policy, an expenditure rule is similar to a structural balance rule. If the EU decides to go beyond the current focus on fiscal aggregates, a two-rule system aimed at safeguarding specific expenditures could be placed at the centre of the EU fiscal framework. The key challenge is to define and measure the protected expenditures.
Auteurs : Wolf Heinrich REUTER

Fair minimum wages for Europe: State of play and lessons from research EN

31-08-2020 PE 642.386 EMPL
Briefing
Résumé : The note gives an overview of the situation of low-wage earners and of the international and European development of policy initiatives to promote fair minimum wages. Based on lessons from research it identifies gaps in existing minimum wage schemes as well as points for consideration for future frameworks.
Auteurs : Susanne KRAATZ

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the President of the Council (ECOFIN) EN

31-08-2020 PE 651.366 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : Olaf Scholz, Minister of Finance of Germany, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of President of the ECOFIN Council during the German Presidency (July-December 2020). In accordance with the Treaty of the Union, “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing provides an overview of the German Presidency priorities in ECON matters, including the establishment of the new and temporary EU recovery plan, and the Council’s work relating to the implementation of the European Semester for economic coordination.
Auteurs : Alice ZOPPÉ, Jost ANGERER, WOLFGANG LEHOFER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Macro-Financial Assistance to EU Member - States State of Play - August 2020 EN

31-08-2020 PE 651.367 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This document provides regularly updated information on EU Member States which receive or received financial assistance from the ESM, the EFSF, the EFSM, the EU balance of payments assistance facility, other Member States and/or the IMF. Since August 2018 all financial assistance programmes to EU Member States have been concluded; therefore, the document focuses on the implementation of the enhanced surveillance framework for Greece and post-programme reviews for Ireland, Portugal, Romania, Cyprus and Spain undertaken by the European Commission (EC) in liaison with the ECB (Post-Programme Surveillance, PPS), the IMF (Post-Programme Monitoring, PPM, and Article IV assessments) and the ESM (Early Warning System, EWS).
Auteurs : Jost ANGERER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

The role of fiscal rules in relation with the green economy EN

31-08-2020 PE 614.524 ECON
Étude
Résumé : This study argues that to achieve the necessary green transition in the EU, additional public investment by Member States will need to be mobilised throughout the next decade. In light of the macroeconomic environment of very low interest rates, this calls for a reform of the EU fiscal framework. The paper discusses three approaches for a reform of the fiscal rules to better reflect the need for higher (debt-financed) green public investment: (1) an exemption clause for green public investment; (2) the implementation of a green golden rule; (3) a country-specific benchmark share of government expenditures dedicated to green public investment recommended by the European Commission.
Auteurs : Atanas Pekanov, Margit Schratzenstaller

The ESM Pandemic Crisis Support EN

28-08-2020 PE 651.350 ECON
Briefing
Résumé : This paper provides a summary analysis of the European Stability Mechanism Pandemic Crisis Support instrument agreed by the Eurogroup. This instrument allows the ESM to provide financial assistance (either as loans or by purchasing sovereign bonds) to euro area Member States, to be used for recovering costs related to direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention due to the COVID- 19 crisis. The paper focuses on the main feature of the instrument, including its eligibility, the financial and the surveillance aspects.
Auteurs : Alice ZOPPÉ, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

Implementation of the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure: State of play August 2020 EN

27-08-2020 PE 497.739 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This note presents the EU Member States' situation with respect to the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure, taking into account recent assessments and decisions by the European Commission and the Council. It also gives an overview of relevant comments on the MIP published by EU institutions. A separate EGOV note describes the MIP procedure. This document is regularly updated.
Auteurs : Alice ZOPPÉ

Policies to Ensure Access to Affordable Housing EN

19-08-2020 PE 652.733 EMPL
En bref
Résumé : This publication analyses the current situation and key challenges with regard to housing affordability in the EU, as well as policies to ensure access to affordable housing at national and EU levels. After assessing the key trends, the authors also provide recommendations for policy makers and stakeholders on improving the affordability of housing. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL).
Auteurs : Dovydas CATURIANAS et al.

Policies to Ensure Access to Affordable Housing EN

18-08-2020 PE 652.729 EMPL
Étude
Résumé : This study analyses the current situation and key challenges with regard to housing affordability in the EU, as well as policies to ensure access to affordable housing at national and EU levels. After assessing the key trends, the authors also provide recommendations for policy makers and stakeholders on improving the affordability of housing. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL).
Auteurs : Dovydas CATURIANAS, Piotr LEWANDOWSKI, Jakub SOKOŁOWSKI, Zuzanna KOWALIK, Egidijus BARCEVIČIUS.

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers EN

17-08-2020 PE 652.732 IMCO
En bref
Résumé : This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.
Auteurs : Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al.

State of play of existing instruments for combating impunity for international crimes EN

14-08-2020 PE 603.499 DROI
Étude
Résumé : The European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of the fight against impunity for core international crimes, collectively providing political, technical and financial assistance to international, regional and domestic accountability efforts. Focusing on the current EU framework on accountability and six country situations (Rwanda, Colombia, Venezuela, Myanmar, Syria and Iraq), this study offers recommendations to guide future EU policy and the engagement of the European Parliament in the fight against impunity. The recommendations include enhancing the capacity, efficiency and coordination of EU institutions working on accountability, as well as encouraging comprehensive, impartial and inclusive approaches to country situations. EU action in bilateral and multilateral fora is also covered, with a view to enhancing the universal reach of accountability mechanisms and the protection of their integrity, encouraging cooperation and assistance, and to upholding the principle of complementarity.
Auteurs : Olympia BEKOU

Enforcement and cooperation between Member States EN

14-08-2020 PE 652.730 IMCO
En bref
Résumé : The original full study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act (DSA). Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised: the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies are then evaluated across a suite of Digital Single Market (DSM) legislation, alongside barriers to Member States cooperation and effective enforcement.
Auteurs : Melanie SMITH

How the COVID-19 crisis has affected security and defence-related aspects for the EU EN

27-07-2020 PE 603.510 SEDE
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing examines the impact that the COVID-19 crisis has had on security and defence-related aspects for the European Union (EU) between December 2019 and June 2020. Based on this analysis, it identifies key problems or questions that require more attention from policymakers in the coming months and years. Four areas are singled out for analysis, as follows. Section (i), on the security environment and implications for strategy, discusses how COVID-19 tends to feed violent conflict and empowers non-state actors, but also highlights new opportunities to make cease-fires stick. It makes the case for examining in what areas and through what steps Europe can strengthen its self-reliance, unity and strategic leadership capability amidst the growing risk of great power competition. Section (ii), on Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and defence-related mechanisms, capabilities and resources, identifies the growing risk to Europe’s defence budget, capabilities and ambitions and suggests a number of ways in which Member States can manage these risks through fiscal measures, greater prioritisation and collaboration. Section (iii) highlights the multi-faceted positive contributions that the armed forces have made to support civilian authorities at home, but suggests substantial untapped potential to do more in future emergencies. It makes the case for analysing the long-term implications of COVID-19 on readiness and generating forces for overseas operations. Section (iv), on the different ways CSDP operations and missions have been affected by COVID-19 and the ways in which they have adapted to support host countries, makes the case for tackling pre-existing problems with staffing of missions and the resilience of missions to infectious diseases. It also recommends reviewing the rationale and scope for what might be termed ‘health diplomacy’.
Auteurs : Christoph O. Meyer, Sophia Besch, Prof. Martin Bricknell, Dr Ben Jones

How to make the European Semester more effective and legitimate? EN

24-07-2020 PE 651.365 ECON
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The Commission has launched an assessment and revision of the so-called six-pack and two-pack legislative packages. This paper assesses the successes and shortcomings of the European Semester with a focus on legitimacy, effectiveness and ownership. It argues that in order to address these problems, the framework should be redesigned from a new starting point, which builds on existing divisions of competence and clear decision making structures. This would help to restore the honesty and credibility of the Semester, which should be geared at supporting accountability at the national level.
Auteurs : Päivi LEINO-SANDBERG, Fernando LOSADA FRAGA

A Balanced Arctic Policy for the EU EN

20-07-2020 PE 603.498 AFET
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : The EU is currently working towards updating its Arctic policy. It needs to respond to two major changes that affect the region and pose challenges to the role of the EU in the Arctic; accelerated climate change and increased geoeconomic and geopolitical competition. The EU finds itself in a rather unique position. As a supranational institution with competences in parts of the Arctic, and with Member States having territories in the region, as well as institutionalised linkages with Arctic countries Iceland and Norway — with whom the EU shares the European Economic Area (EEA) — it needs to balance sectoral policies, priority areas and addressing different Arctics. The EU should therefore create ‘more EU in the Arctic’ by broadening the scope of its existing Arctic policy, as well as incorporating ‘more Arctic in the EU’ by stipulating that the Arctic becomes a cross-cutting consideration in other relevant EU policies. In addition, the EU will need to address hard and soft security issues within existing functional, regional and global frameworks and continue engaging in dialogue and confidence-building measures with Russia. Finally, a revised EU Arctic policy needs to be proactive and ambitious, based on existing strengths and expertise within the EU. At the same time, in an Arctic that witnesses the return of geopolitics, the ‘civilian power’ EU will encounter challenges assuming its role in the region. How it narrates its future position in the Arctic will play a tangible role in negotiating this position politically.
Auteurs : Dr. Petra Dolata, University of Calgary

Benefits and drawbacks of an “expenditure rule”, as well as of a "golden rule", in the EU fiscal framework EN

20-07-2020 PE 614.523 ECON
Étude
Résumé : Given the current crisis, all fiscal rules have been suspended. When the economy recovers, both expenditure and structural balance rules will be more difficult to apply as the level and growth of potential output will become more uncertain. Focussing on reducing high debt levels might at that point be more appropriate. The economic argument for a golden rule is that debt can be used to finance the creation of public capital. But this implies that any golden rule should only exempt net investment, which is much lower than the gross investment.
Auteurs : Daniel GROS, Marvin JAHN