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Independence with Weak Accountability: The Swiss Case EN

29-09-2020 PE 652.738 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : The Swiss National Bank is highly independent but weakly accountable. Weak accountability is rooted in the formal legislation on central banking but also in the reputation of the Bank, which is unanimously considered as highly successful. The ECB too is highly independent and weakly accountable but it faces diverse public opinions whose views differ across countries. Buttressing ECB accountability is important, therefore, and the European Parliament should consider strengthening the Monetary Dialogue. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Szerzők : Charles WYPLOSZ

Options for the ECB’s Monetary Policy Strategy Review EN

25-09-2020 PE 652.753 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The ECB is the most important institution for the success of the EMU. It started successfully but the crisis revealed weaknesses related to the incomplete nature of the EMU. The ECB was too timid in using its power, which deepened the euro crisis and led to divergences that threaten the viability of the EMU. With suitable modifications of its monetary policy strategy, and better use of the authority delegated to it, the ECB could greatly improve its success in fulfilling its mandate. This document was provided by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Szerzők : Yvan LENGWILER, Athanasios ORPHANIDES

Country-specific recommendations: An overview - September 2020 EN

22-09-2020 PE 624.404 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This note provides an overview of the country-specific recommendations issued annually to EU Member States under the European Semester for economic policy coordination. It presents how these recommendations evolved over time (2012-2020), including from the legal base perspective. Finally, it gives insights on the level of implementation of recommendations issued under the 2012-2019 European Semester cycles. The note is updated on a regular basis.
Szerzők : Jost ANGERER, OVIDIU IONUT TURCU, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Shaping a European Child Guarantee EN

22-09-2020 PE 642.387 EMPL
Briefing
Összefoglaló : The briefing presents data on the problem of child poverty in the European Union followed by an overview of policy initiatives by the Commission, the Council and the European Palriament. It concludes with points from the debate in research on how to shape an effective Child Guarantee. The note covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Szerzők : Susanne KRAATZ

Post-COVID-19 Global Currency Order: Risks and Opportunities for the Euro EN

22-09-2020 PE 652.751 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The issuance of EU debt in the context of the recovery plan for Europe creates scope for strengthening the international role of the euro. However, with a large share of safe euro assets likely to be absorbed by the pandemic emergency purchase programme of the ECB, a shortage of eligible bonds stands to impede such progress. The ECB could decisively increase the supply of safe assets by issuing tradable ECB certificates of deposit as a way of overcoming this obstacle. This document was provided by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).
Szerzők : Barry EICHENGREEN, Daniel GROS

The role (and accountability) of the President of the Eurogroup EN

21-09-2020 PE 602.116 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This note provides an overview of the role of the President of the Eurogroup, the procedures for his/her appointment, as well as proposals on a “full time position” as part of the wider debate on deepening the Economic and Monetary Union. The note also briefly addresses the mandate and working methods of the Eurogroup. In addition, this note refers to the debate around the transparency of Eurogroup proceedings. It is updated regularly.
Szerzők : Kajus HAGELSTAM, WOLFGANG LEHOFER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

Institutional set up of macroprudential policy in the European Union EN

18-09-2020 PE 645.701 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This briefing provides an overview of the institutional macroprudential framework in the European Union (EU), distribution of powers and responsibilities and interactions between different institutions.
Szerzők : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

EU/EA measures to mitigate the economic, financial and social effects of coronavirus - State-of-play 18 September 2020 EN

18-09-2020 PE 645.723 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : This document compiles information, obtained from public sources, on the measures proposed and taken at the EU or Euro Area level to mitigate the economic and social effects of Covid19. It will be regularly updated, following new developments.
Szerzők : Kajus HAGELSTAM, Jost ANGERER, Marcel MAGNUS, Drazen RAKIC, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

The ECB's Asset Purchase Programmes: Experience and Future Perspectives EN

18-09-2020 PE 652.749 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : In response to the unprecedented shock brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the European Central Bank (ECB) has deployed a massive package of monetary policy stimulus to safeguard the monetary policy transmission mechanism and keep the euro area economy afloat. As part of this package, the ECB has stepped up its asset purchases, including with the introduction of the new pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP) with an envelope of EUR 1.35 trillion by June 2021. Over the years, the impact and the side effects of the non-standard asset purchase programmes have been widely debated. Should they remain as part of the ECB’s toolkit in the future, considering that inflation is expected to stay low and that interest rates are in negative territory? Six papers were prepared for the ECON Committee by the Monetary Expert Panel, presenting empirical evidence and discussing future perspectives of the ECB’s asset purchase programmes. This publication is prepared by Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Lagarde on 28 September 2020.
Szerzők : Pierre L. SIKLOS, Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL, Paul HUBERT, Luigi BONATTI, Andrea FRACASSO, Roberto TAMBORINI, Joscha BECKMANN, Salomon FIEDLER, Klaus-Jürgen GERN, Stefan KOOTHS, Josefine QUAST, Maik WOLTERS, Angela CAPOLONGO, Daniel GROS, Pierpaolo BENIGNO, Paolo CANOFARI, Giovanni DI BARTOLOMEO, Marcello MESSORI

The legal nature of Country-Specific Recommendations EN

17-09-2020 PE 528.767 ECON
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : The Country-Specific Recommendations (CSRs) are annually adopted by the Council based on the Commission (COM) proposals within the framework of the European Semester. The CSRs provide integrated guidance on macro-fiscal and macro-structural measures based on the COM assessment of Member States' medium-term budgetary plans and national reform programmes in light of broad policy priorities endorsed by the European Council or adopted by the Council on th basis of the Annual Growth Survey. The Council also adopts policy recommendations to the euro area as a whole in accordance with Article 136 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) following a COM proposal. Table 1 displays the development of the number of CSRs and the minimum and maximum number per Member State.
Szerzők : Jost ANGERER, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Macroprudential policy toolkit for the banking sector EN

17-09-2020 PE 645.702 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This briefing provides an overview of European Union’s macroprudential policy toolkit that could be applied to the banking sector. Not all the tools described in this briefing are available for all national macroprudential authorities in the European Union (EU), due to different national legislations. Even though most of the instruments are targeted at the banking sector, national specificities in some cases permit the use of the same instrument to other financial institutions.
Szerzők : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Research for CULT Committee - Shaping digital education policy Concomitant expertise for INI report EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.209 CULT
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : This research project assesses the Digital Education Action Plan published in 2018 in terms of organisational and content-related challenges. It outlines concrete recommendations on how an updated Digital Education Action Plan could mitigate the weaknesses of the current plan, through a more holistic vision of the digital transformation in education, a focus on quality infrastructure for digital education for all, the further empowerment of educators and the further development of ‘whole-school’ approaches to digital education.
Szerzők : Simon BROEK; Bert-Jan BUISKOOL

Research for TRAN Committee - COVID-19 and urban mobility: impacts and perspectives EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.213 TRAN
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : The briefing provides an overview on the state of play and trends of urban transport since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines four scenarios, the prevalence of one or the other depending on the priorities established by policy makers and service providers. The briefing delivers general recommendations for a post-COVID-19 smart and sustainable urban transport and a set of desirable actions on how to integrate EU response into existing policy priorities.
Szerzők : Università degli Studi Roma Tre: Giacomo Lozzi, Edoardo Marcucci, Valerio Gatta, Valerio Pacelli Panteia B.V: Maria Rodrigues, Tharsis Teoh

Accountability Mechanisms of Major Central Banks and Possible Avenues to Improve the ECB's Accountability EN

15-09-2020 PE 652.748 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Independece of monetary authorities is a key tenet of modern central banking. Indepedence, however, must go hand in hand with accountability towards the public and its elected representatives. Four studies were prepared for the ECON Committee by the Monetary Expert Panel, comparing the accountability practices of major central banks in other juristictions (the Bank of England, the Swiss National Bank, the Bank of Japan and the Federal Reserve) with those of the European Central Bank (ECB) and offering recommendations on how to improve the ECB's accoutability framework.
Szerzők : Rosa M. LASTRA, Charles WYPLOSZ, Grégory CLAEYS, Marta DOMÍNGUEZ-JIMÉNEZ, Karl WHELAN

The impact of algorithms for online content filtering or moderation - Upload filters EN

15-09-2020 PE 657.101 JURI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, addresses automated filtering of online content. The report introduces automated filtering as an aspect of moderation of user-generated materials. It presents the filtering technologies that are currently deployed to address different kinds of media, such as text, images, or videos. It discusses the main critical issues under the present legal framework and makes proposals for regulation in the context of a future EU Digital Services Act.
Szerzők : Prof. Giovanni Sartor and Dr. Andrea Loreggia

Police Information Exchange - The future developments regarding Prüm and the API Directive EN

15-09-2020 PE 658.542 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to provide background information and policy recommendations concerning police information exchange and in particular the future developments regarding Prüm and the API Directive (Directive 2004/82/EC).
Szerzők : Dr Niovi VAVOULA, Queen Mary University of London

Obstacles to participation in local and European elections, inside the E.U. EN

15-09-2020 PE 658.593 PETI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, addresses some major issues of obstacles to elections in general and of obstacles to participation inside the EU more specifically. This is done by focusing on Member States and examples with regard to municipal elections, and European elections, but also in general on de-facto access to the exercise of the right to vote. Various recommendations are formulated.
Szerzők : Aalt Willem HERINGA, Professor of Comparative Constitutional and Administrative Law, Maastricht University, NL; Hoai-Thu NGUYEN, Policy Fellow for EU Institutions and Democracy, Jacques Delors Centre, Berlin, DE."

The European Parliament’s carbon footprint: Towards carbon neutrality EN

14-09-2020 PE 652.735 ENVI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The study analyses the European Parliament’s (EP) carbon footprint in the context of the recent EP resolutions, in which it declared a climate emergency in Europe and requested the development of a strategy to become itself carbon-neutral by 2030. The analysis takes into account the various sources contributing to the EP’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including those related to its function in three different sites and the traveling of its Members and staff. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, and the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) Unit at the request of the committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI).
Szerzők : Georgios AMANATIDIS, Srdan RANDIC

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - September 2020 EN

11-09-2020 PE 648.238 BUDG CULT AFET EMPL LIBE
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The platform economy and precarious work EN

11-09-2020 PE 652.734 EMPL
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was prepared at the request of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament.
Szerzők : Harald Hauben (ed.), Karolien Lenaerts,Willem Waeyaert

Economic Dialogue with the other EU Institutions under the European Semester Cycles during the 9th legislative term State of play - September 2020 EN

09-09-2020 PE 624.436 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This document provides an overview of Economic Dialogues with the other institutions of the European Union that has taken place in the competent Committee of the European Parliament since September 2019 under the European Semester Cycles. It also includes an overview of the respective legal bases for these dialogues. For an overview Economic Dialogues between January 2014 and January 2019, please see separate document.
Szerzők : Kajus HAGELSTAM

Disinformation and Science: Report of an investigation into gullibility of false science news in central European countries EN

04-09-2020 PE 653.300 ITRE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The main aim of this report is to present and discuss the results of a survey concerning perspectives on fake news among undergraduate university students in central and eastern Europe. The survey was carried out in spring 2020 during the coronavirus pandemic, using an online questionnaire. Misinformation is always troubling, especially in science. Scientists feel distressed when public understanding diverges from the truth. Intentional disinformation (fake news), however, is not always the cause of misinformation. The report discusses the causes related to social trust and types of media consumption. The sample of the study consisted of several hundred bachelors or masters students from each participating country. Half of the students were recruited from social sciences areas of study and the other half of the sample were recruited from natural sciences areas. The method of approaching the students was online questioning. One university was chosen from each participating country, and the link to the questionnaire was sent by that university's administration to the students. The response to the questionnaire was naturally anonymous and voluntary.

The role of fiscal rules in relation with the green economy EN

03-09-2020 PE 651.364 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : This paper discusses the analytical basis for facilitating green public investment under the Stability and Growth Pact fiscal rules. It concludes that additional public debt created by deficit-financed green public investment is likely to increase fiscal sustainability risks. However, such additional risks could be justified to avoid the economic damages (which would also have long run consequences for public finances) arising in the absence of sufficient green public investment. Tre trade off could be improved if green public investment were financed through EU debt.
Szerzők : Carlo Cottarelli

Benefits and drawbacks of an “expenditure rule”, as well as of a "golden rule", in the EU fiscal framework EN

01-09-2020 PE 645.732 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Focusing the EU fiscal framework on an expenditure rule could help to increase transparency, compliance and ownership. In various other respects, like estimation errors or counter-cyclicality of prescribed fiscal policy, an expenditure rule is similar to a structural balance rule. If the EU decides to go beyond the current focus on fiscal aggregates, a two-rule system aimed at safeguarding specific expenditures could be placed at the centre of the EU fiscal framework. The key challenge is to define and measure the protected expenditures.
Szerzők : Wolf Heinrich REUTER

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the President of the Council (ECOFIN) EN

31-08-2020 PE 651.366 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : Olaf Scholz, Minister of Finance of Germany, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of President of the ECOFIN Council during the German Presidency (July-December 2020). In accordance with the Treaty of the Union, “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing provides an overview of the German Presidency priorities in ECON matters, including the establishment of the new and temporary EU recovery plan, and the Council’s work relating to the implementation of the European Semester for economic coordination.
Szerzők : Alice ZOPPÉ, Jost ANGERER, WOLFGANG LEHOFER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, REBECCA SARAH FANNY SEGALL, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Macro-Financial Assistance to EU Member - States State of Play - August 2020 EN

31-08-2020 PE 651.367 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : This document provides regularly updated information on EU Member States which receive or received financial assistance from the ESM, the EFSF, the EFSM, the EU balance of payments assistance facility, other Member States and/or the IMF. Since August 2018 all financial assistance programmes to EU Member States have been concluded; therefore, the document focuses on the implementation of the enhanced surveillance framework for Greece and post-programme reviews for Ireland, Portugal, Romania, Cyprus and Spain undertaken by the European Commission (EC) in liaison with the ECB (Post-Programme Surveillance, PPS), the IMF (Post-Programme Monitoring, PPM, and Article IV assessments) and the ESM (Early Warning System, EWS).
Szerzők : Jost ANGERER, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

The role of fiscal rules in relation with the green economy EN

31-08-2020 PE 614.524 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study argues that to achieve the necessary green transition in the EU, additional public investment by Member States will need to be mobilised throughout the next decade. In light of the macroeconomic environment of very low interest rates, this calls for a reform of the EU fiscal framework. The paper discusses three approaches for a reform of the fiscal rules to better reflect the need for higher (debt-financed) green public investment: (1) an exemption clause for green public investment; (2) the implementation of a green golden rule; (3) a country-specific benchmark share of government expenditures dedicated to green public investment recommended by the European Commission.
Szerzők : Atanas Pekanov, Margit Schratzenstaller

The ESM Pandemic Crisis Support EN

28-08-2020 PE 651.350 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This paper provides a summary analysis of the European Stability Mechanism Pandemic Crisis Support instrument agreed by the Eurogroup. This instrument allows the ESM to provide financial assistance (either as loans or by purchasing sovereign bonds) to euro area Member States, to be used for recovering costs related to direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention due to the COVID- 19 crisis. The paper focuses on the main feature of the instrument, including its eligibility, the financial and the surveillance aspects.
Szerzők : Alice ZOPPÉ, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS

Implementation of the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure: State of play August 2020 EN

27-08-2020 PE 497.739 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : This note presents the EU Member States' situation with respect to the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure, taking into account recent assessments and decisions by the European Commission and the Council. It also gives an overview of relevant comments on the MIP published by EU institutions. A separate EGOV note describes the MIP procedure. This document is regularly updated.
Szerzők : Alice ZOPPÉ

Policies to Ensure Access to Affordable Housing EN

19-08-2020 PE 652.733 EMPL
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This publication analyses the current situation and key challenges with regard to housing affordability in the EU, as well as policies to ensure access to affordable housing at national and EU levels. After assessing the key trends, the authors also provide recommendations for policy makers and stakeholders on improving the affordability of housing. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL).
Szerzők : Dovydas CATURIANAS et al.

Policies to Ensure Access to Affordable Housing EN

18-08-2020 PE 652.729 EMPL
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study analyses the current situation and key challenges with regard to housing affordability in the EU, as well as policies to ensure access to affordable housing at national and EU levels. After assessing the key trends, the authors also provide recommendations for policy makers and stakeholders on improving the affordability of housing. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL).
Szerzők : Dovydas CATURIANAS, Piotr LEWANDOWSKI, Jakub SOKOŁOWSKI, Zuzanna KOWALIK, Egidijus BARCEVIČIUS.

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers EN

17-08-2020 PE 652.732 IMCO
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.
Szerzők : Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al.

State of play of existing instruments for combating impunity for international crimes EN

14-08-2020 PE 603.499 DROI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of the fight against impunity for core international crimes, collectively providing political, technical and financial assistance to international, regional and domestic accountability efforts. Focusing on the current EU framework on accountability and six country situations (Rwanda, Colombia, Venezuela, Myanmar, Syria and Iraq), this study offers recommendations to guide future EU policy and the engagement of the European Parliament in the fight against impunity. The recommendations include enhancing the capacity, efficiency and coordination of EU institutions working on accountability, as well as encouraging comprehensive, impartial and inclusive approaches to country situations. EU action in bilateral and multilateral fora is also covered, with a view to enhancing the universal reach of accountability mechanisms and the protection of their integrity, encouraging cooperation and assistance, and to upholding the principle of complementarity.
Szerzők : Olympia BEKOU

Enforcement and cooperation between Member States EN

14-08-2020 PE 652.730 IMCO
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : The original full study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act (DSA). Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised: the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies are then evaluated across a suite of Digital Single Market (DSM) legislation, alongside barriers to Member States cooperation and effective enforcement.
Szerzők : Melanie SMITH

How the COVID-19 crisis has affected security and defence-related aspects for the EU EN

27-07-2020 PE 603.510 SEDE
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This briefing examines the impact that the COVID-19 crisis has had on security and defence-related aspects for the European Union (EU) between December 2019 and June 2020. Based on this analysis, it identifies key problems or questions that require more attention from policymakers in the coming months and years. Four areas are singled out for analysis, as follows. Section (i), on the security environment and implications for strategy, discusses how COVID-19 tends to feed violent conflict and empowers non-state actors, but also highlights new opportunities to make cease-fires stick. It makes the case for examining in what areas and through what steps Europe can strengthen its self-reliance, unity and strategic leadership capability amidst the growing risk of great power competition. Section (ii), on Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and defence-related mechanisms, capabilities and resources, identifies the growing risk to Europe’s defence budget, capabilities and ambitions and suggests a number of ways in which Member States can manage these risks through fiscal measures, greater prioritisation and collaboration. Section (iii) highlights the multi-faceted positive contributions that the armed forces have made to support civilian authorities at home, but suggests substantial untapped potential to do more in future emergencies. It makes the case for analysing the long-term implications of COVID-19 on readiness and generating forces for overseas operations. Section (iv), on the different ways CSDP operations and missions have been affected by COVID-19 and the ways in which they have adapted to support host countries, makes the case for tackling pre-existing problems with staffing of missions and the resilience of missions to infectious diseases. It also recommends reviewing the rationale and scope for what might be termed ‘health diplomacy’.
Szerzők : Christoph O. Meyer, Sophia Besch, Prof. Martin Bricknell, Dr Ben Jones

How to make the European Semester more effective and legitimate? EN

24-07-2020 PE 651.365 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : The Commission has launched an assessment and revision of the so-called six-pack and two-pack legislative packages. This paper assesses the successes and shortcomings of the European Semester with a focus on legitimacy, effectiveness and ownership. It argues that in order to address these problems, the framework should be redesigned from a new starting point, which builds on existing divisions of competence and clear decision making structures. This would help to restore the honesty and credibility of the Semester, which should be geared at supporting accountability at the national level.
Szerzők : Päivi LEINO-SANDBERG, Fernando LOSADA FRAGA

A Balanced Arctic Policy for the EU EN

20-07-2020 PE 603.498 AFET
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : The EU is currently working towards updating its Arctic policy. It needs to respond to two major changes that affect the region and pose challenges to the role of the EU in the Arctic; accelerated climate change and increased geoeconomic and geopolitical competition. The EU finds itself in a rather unique position. As a supranational institution with competences in parts of the Arctic, and with Member States having territories in the region, as well as institutionalised linkages with Arctic countries Iceland and Norway — with whom the EU shares the European Economic Area (EEA) — it needs to balance sectoral policies, priority areas and addressing different Arctics. The EU should therefore create ‘more EU in the Arctic’ by broadening the scope of its existing Arctic policy, as well as incorporating ‘more Arctic in the EU’ by stipulating that the Arctic becomes a cross-cutting consideration in other relevant EU policies. In addition, the EU will need to address hard and soft security issues within existing functional, regional and global frameworks and continue engaging in dialogue and confidence-building measures with Russia. Finally, a revised EU Arctic policy needs to be proactive and ambitious, based on existing strengths and expertise within the EU. At the same time, in an Arctic that witnesses the return of geopolitics, the ‘civilian power’ EU will encounter challenges assuming its role in the region. How it narrates its future position in the Arctic will play a tangible role in negotiating this position politically.
Szerzők : Dr. Petra Dolata, University of Calgary

Benefits and drawbacks of an “expenditure rule”, as well as of a "golden rule", in the EU fiscal framework EN

20-07-2020 PE 614.523 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Given the current crisis, all fiscal rules have been suspended. When the economy recovers, both expenditure and structural balance rules will be more difficult to apply as the level and growth of potential output will become more uncertain. Focussing on reducing high debt levels might at that point be more appropriate. The economic argument for a golden rule is that debt can be used to finance the creation of public capital. But this implies that any golden rule should only exempt net investment, which is much lower than the gross investment.
Szerzők : Daniel GROS, Marvin JAHN

The ECB’s Monetary Policy Response to the COVID-19 Crisis EN

17-07-2020 PE 648.787 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : (Updated 8 June 2020) The coronavirus pandemic is taking a heavy toll on the euro area economy, necessitating a timely and resolute macroeconomic policy response. The ECB's Governing Council acted decisively by taking a series of measures that collectively provide a substantial monetary policy stimulus aimed at safeguarding the effective transmission of monetary policy and preventing a serious deterioration of financial conditions. This briefing includes the most recent Governing Council decisions of 4 June.
Szerzők : Drazen RAKIC

E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age EN

17-07-2020 PE 652.728 IMCO
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This paper summarises the discussions that took place at the workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age”. The E-commerce directive was elaborated twenty years ago and has been key in regulating online services. However, the role of the internet has drastically evolved over the last two decades. The Chair of IMCO Committee Prof Dr Petra de Sutter and the Rapporteur for the Digital Services Act (DSA) Mr Alex Agius Saliba co-chaired this workshop in order to discuss which areas of the E-commerce directive are no longer fit for purpose and need reforming in the DSA.
Szerzők : LOUISE MATHILDE CAROLINE BLANDIN

External Imbalances in the Euro Area - July 2020 EN

16-07-2020 PE 528.753 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This note provides a short overview of the latest data related to external imbalances in euro area Member States, with specific reference to some indicators included in the scoreboard of the Macroeconomic Imbalances Procedure.
Szerzők : Alice ZOPPÉ, FRANCESCO-SAVERIO LENZI

Assessment of COVID-19 surveillance case definitions and data reporting in the European Union EN

16-07-2020 PE 652.725 ENVI
Briefing
Összefoglaló : In a rapidly evolving pandemic, it is fundamental to ensure consistency of definitions across Member States to provide the necessary comparability to evaluate the public health response, the stress on the health system and the impact on the population’s health. All institutional bodies in the Member States follow, or base their approaches, on technical guidance by the European Centre for Diseases and Control (ECDC). The approach to defining possible and probable cases shows considerable heterogeneity, while for confirmed cases, all Member States use the same definition requiring laboratory detection of SARS-CoV-2 with Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparability of the numbers of confirmed cases across the EU is still heavily dependent on the testing policies adopted. This heterogeneity seems rooted in rapidly evolving scientific advances and the different perceptions of risk in the technical institutions of Member States. Many Member States still do not have an official definition of death due to COVID-19 available online and do not report on whether COVID-19 is the a primary or a secondary cause of death. Recovery definition is broadly based on either clinical criteria or testing criteria (SARS-CoV-2 not detected anymore); only a few countries adopted a definition of recovery based solely on clinical criteria. While recovery based on clinical criteria has some advantages, it also carries some risks of early discharge / end of isolation when still infectious. Harmonisation of COVID-19 case definitions is essential to mitigate disputes about data quality between Member States and coordinate, implement and evaluate EU policies.
Szerzők : André PERALTA-SANTOS

Research for PECH Committee – Implementation of the current EU fisheries control system by Member States (2014-19) EN

16-07-2020 PE 652.205 PECH
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study assesses the implementation of the EU fisheries control system under the current Regulation (EC) No 1244/2009. It focuses on the infringement procedures, sanctions and the application of the point system for serious infringements by Member States from 2014 to 2019. The research shows results based on interviews and survey replies by 17 out of 22 coastal Member States. And it presents case studies for the following seven countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania and Spain.
Szerzők : Blomeyer & Sanz: Margarita SANZ, Kim STOBBERUP, Roland BLOMEYER

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers EN

16-07-2020 PE 652.727 IMCO
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.
Szerzők : Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al

Documenting climate mainstreaming in the EU budget - making the system more transparent, strigent and comprehensive EN

16-07-2020 PE 654.166 BUDG CONT
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study examines the current methodologies used for tracking climate-related and biodiversity-related expenditure in the EU budget. It identifies strengths and weaknesses of the current methodologies, and examines proposed changes to the methodologies for the 2021-2027 financial perspective. On this basis, it identifies potential objectives for strengthening the tracking mechanisms, and puts forward suggested approaches to meeting those objectives.
Szerzők : Martin NESBIT Thorfinn STAINFORTH Kaley HART Evelyn UNDERWOOD Gustavo BECERRA Institute for European Environmental Policy

EU development cooperation and ethical certification schemes: impact, transparency and traceability EN

15-07-2020 PE 603.487 DEVE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : ‘Transparency’, ‘Traceability’, ‘Sustainable standards’, ‘good agricultural practices’ and ‘zero-deforestation’ are all fine terms which [alongside many others] have emerged in connection with the cocoa sector’s certification process. But does the reality of this process justify using such terms? Our initial conclusions in this study, based on an analysis of existing research over recent years, revealed that a considerable number of investigations had been commissioned by the certification schemes themselves. Key findings presented by the various studies all conveyed a positive tone. However, on closer inspection we felt that smallholders covered by the programmes were ‘following party lines’ rather than speaking freely. This suspicion was well-founded. Having built up trust in the villages during several years of field-work, we eventually gained access to exclusive data held by the cooperatives and certification programmes. We have used this evidence in order to draw a comparison between the virtual world portrayed by certification schemes’ narrative and the real world being faced by cocoa producers. Certification schemes claim that they give a sense of trust within the value chain, particularly in regard to produce traceability. They also claim to assist farmers, by way of training, various inputs (fertilisers etc.) and credit schemes. In reality, these ‘advantages’ are not visible at farm level. Budgets prepared by cooperatives to justify the use of premiums reflect structural flaws in certification and access to information. Serious questions arise surrounding deforestation, child labour and the payment of premiums. Social investment is minimal and consumers’ perception diverges from the reality. In conclusion, we make a number of key proposals and suggestions based on stakeholders’ complaints and recommendations.
Szerzők : Enrique URIBE LEITZ, François RUF

Study in focus; Employment and social situation in Germany EN

15-07-2020 PE 652.731 EMPL
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : The note provides a summary of key findings from the study of the labour market and social situation in Germany including major trends, policy responses and challenges for the future. The note covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Szerzők : Susanne KRAATZ, MONIKA MARZENA SZPEJNA

Next Generation EU - Where are assigned revenue? Which impact in 2021? EN

15-07-2020 PE 656.549 BUDG CONT
Briefing
Összefoglaló : Exception to the budgetary principle of universality, assigned revenues flatten at 10.5 % in last years. In the emergency European Recovery Instrument, “Next Generation EU”, put forward by the Commission EUR 500 billion are external assigned revenue. In 2021, contributions from “Next Generation EU” are planned to provide an additional EUR 211.3 billion of assigned revenue. in 2021, assigned revenue will surge to EUR 220 000 million in commitments and EUR 46 100 million in payments, from a total amount of EUR 17 405.5 million in commitment appropriations and EUR 19 159.6 million in payments appropriations in 2019. On assigned revenue, the European Parliament is excluded from the decision-making process. Given the size of the amount in question, the budgetary treatment of external assigned revenue should be reassessed.
Szerzők : Alexandre MATHIS

Pilot Projects and Preparatory Actions in the EU Budget 2014-2019 EN

15-07-2020 PE 654.474 BUDG CONT
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study performs a “reality check” of Pilot Projects and Preparatory Actions (PPPAs) included in the EU budget over 2014-2019 and assesses their use as a strategic political tool. It covers 324 PPPAs with an aggregate value of EUR 337 million to date. PPPAs can trigger new or fine-tune existing legislation or policy and generate important lessons learnt. However, there is no systematic data to assess their effectiveness. The study identifies a series of areas for improvement.
Szerzők : Blomeyer & Sanz Roderick ACKERMANN, Roland BLOMEYER, José PAPI, Margarita SANZ

Hate speech and hate crime in the EU and the evaluation of online content regulation approaches EN

15-07-2020 PE 655.135 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study was commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. The study argues that hate speech and hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality, reinforcing tensions between social groups, disturbing public peace and public order, and jeopardising peaceful coexistence. The lack of adequate means of prevention and response violates values enshrined in Article 2 of the TEU. Member States have diverging rules, and national public administrations are torn by disagreement in values. Therefore, EU regulation is needed to reinforce the existing standards and take measures to counter hate speech and counter-act against hate speech and hate crime. The study – on the basis of a cross-country comparison conducted – proposes concrete, enforceable and systematic soft and hard law measures to counter hate speech and hate crimes EU-wide efficiently.
Szerzők : Judit BAYER, Petra BÁRD

SAFETY OF JOURNALISTS AND THE FIGHTING OF CORRUPTION IN THE EU EN

15-07-2020 PE 655.187 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Journalism and journalists face a growing range of threats, including violence and harassment; the misuse of defamation and other laws against them, and restrictive measures on freedom of information and expression adopted in response to the Covid-19 crisis. States must ensure a safe and favourable environment for journalists to perform their public watchdog function. This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines the overall chilling effect of crimes and threats against journalists and explores various regulatory and other measures to counter them.
Szerzők : Tarlach McGONAGLE

Climate Change and Migration EN

15-07-2020 PE 655.591 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines legal and policy responses to environmental migration and displacement. Following a review of international, regional and national initiatives and legal instruments, it offers recommendations on ways to better address root causes and consequences of the climate change-migration nexus in Europe and beyond.
Szerzők : Albert KRALER, Danube University Krems Caitlin KATSIAFICAS, International Centre for Migration Policy Development Martin WAGNER, International Centre for Migration Policy Development

Artificial Intelligence and Law Enforcement - Impact on Fundamental Rights EN

15-07-2020 PE 656.295 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines the impact on fundamental rights of Artificial Intelligence in the field of law enforcement and criminal justice, from a European Union perspective. It presents the applicable legal framework (notably in relation to data protection), and analyses major trends and key policy discussions. The study also considers developments following the Covid-19 outbreak. It argues that the seriousness and scale of challenges may require intervention at EU level, based on the acknowledgement of the area’s specificities.
Szerzők : Prof. Dr. Gloria GONZÁLEZ FUSTER, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)
A dokumentum típusa

Összefoglaló

The Post-2020 European Disability Strategy EN

15-07-2020 PE 656.398 PETI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, analyses the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 and makes recommendations regarding the new European Disability Strategy. The study reflects on the design and implementation of the current Strategy, as well as its achievements and shortcomings. The study makes recommendations in respect of the post-2020 European Disability Strategy. Those recommendations are addressed to the European Parliament, the European Commission and other EU institutions, Member States and key stakeholders, and relate to the groundwork needed to prepare the new Strategy, and the design, content and mechanisms for implementation and enforcement.
Szerzők : Lisa WADDINGTON, Faculty of Law, Maastricht University (NLs) Andrea BRODERICK, Faculty of Law, Maastricht University (NLs)
A dokumentum típusa

Összefoglaló

Artificial Intelligence and Civil Liability EN

14-07-2020 PE 621.926 JURI
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study – commissioned by the Policy Department C at the request of the Committee on Legal Affairs – analyses the notion of AI-technologies and the applicable legal framework for civil liability. It demonstrates how technology regulation should be technology-specific, and presents a Risk Management Approach, where the party who is best capable of controlling and managing a technology-related risk is held strictly liable, as a single entry point for litigation. It then applies such approach to four case-studies, to elaborate recommendations.
Szerzők : Andrea BERTOLINI, Ph.D., LL.M. (Yale) Assistant Professor of Private Law, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (Pisa) Director of the Jean Monnet - European Centre of Excellence on the Regulation of Robotics and AI (EURA)

Organised Property Crime in the EU EN

14-07-2020 PE 656.042 LIBE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE), aims to provide information on Organised Property Crime in the EU, by offering a strategic discussion on the Union policies on this topic and highlighting key recommendations for future action. The study proposes a holistic approach to the problem, adding new elements to existing measures.
Szerzők : Ernesto U. SAVONA, Director of Transcrime (Joint Research Centre on Transnational Crime) Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan (www.transcrime.it) Matteo ANASTASIO, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and intern at Transcrime-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan
A dokumentum típusa

Összefoglaló

COVID-19: List of the measures taken in relation to the ITRE remit May-June 2020 EN

13-07-2020 PE 652.726 ITRE
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This briefing summarises the recent measures taken by the European Commission on matters within the remit of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy in response to the urgent and ongoing COVID-19 crisis, while referencing relevant parts of the resolution of the European Parliament of 15 May 2020 on the new multiannual financial framework, own resources and the recovery plan.
Szerzők : MATTEO CIUCCI, Frederic GOUARDERES

How EU funds tackle economic divide in the European Union EN

13-07-2020 PE 654.525 BUDG CONT
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : When assessing the benefits Member States (MS) receive from the European Union (EU) budget, they primarily focus on their individual net positions, i.e. the net balance between their national contributions and the transfers received from the EU budget. This ‘juste retour’ thinking is associated with several limitations and problems and completely neglects the benefits accruing to MS beyond the pure financial streams related to the EU budget. MS may enjoy the indirect benefits that are related to the various interventions and policies financed from the EU budget. Benefits may be also created for the EU as a whole in the case of policies coordinated and financed by the EU, replacing or complementing individual un-coordinated action at MS level and thus creating additional added value through making use of synergies. MS also benefit from intra-EU direct investments, intra-EU trade and the EU’s network effects. Therefore, the net position view could be complemented by additional indicators providing a more comprehensive picture of the overall benefits resulting for MS from the EU membership and budget and several reform options within the EU budget could help to overcome the net position view and support a debate focused less on national and more on the common interest of the EU altogether.
Szerzők : WIIW: Mr Robert Stehrer, Mr Roman Stöllinger, Mr Gabor Hunya, Ms Doris Hanzl-Weiss, Mr Mario Holzner, Mr Oliver Reiter WIFO: Ms Margit Schratzenstaller, Ms Julia Bachtrögler Blomeyer & Sanz: Ms Veronika Kubeková, Mr Roland Blomeyer

The economy and coronavirus: Weekly Picks 09/07/2020 EN

09-07-2020 PE 651.359 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This paper provides a summary of recent analyses of the economic and budgetary effects of the coronavirus, the preparations of the next European Council on the recovery instruments, the German Presidency priorities in the area of ECOFIN and of some policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate the negative economic effects of the pandemic.
Szerzők : Jost ANGERER, KRISTINA GRIGAITE, FRANCESCO-SAVERIO LENZI, ANDREA DI FILIPPO

The European Parliament’s right of initiative EN

09-07-2020 PE 655.134 AFCO
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : The European Parliament is the only democratically elected body in the EU. Yet, unlike most parliaments, it has no formal right of legislative initiative. Initiating legislation lies almost solely with the EU's executive bodies, the Commission, and – to a limited but increasing extend – the European Council and the Council. This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, reveals that Parliament’s „own-initiative-reports” form a widely underestimated and unrecognized tool to informally shape the EU’s policy agenda. The study provides for a comprehensive analysis of non-legislative and legislative own-initiative reports. We argue that Parliament is able to create a cooperative environment in order to bring the Commission in line with its own legislative priorities and sometimes very specific legislative requests. Building on the empirical evidence of Parliament’s practice since 1993, we finally discuss means and ways for pragmatic reform and Treaty revision.
Szerzők : Andreas MAURER, Michael C. WOLF

Composition of Public Expenditures in the EU EN

06-07-2020 PE 634.371 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This briefing provides an overview of the structure of public expenditures across EU Member States, by delving into their composition according to the classification of the functions of government provided by Eurostat. The overview aims at identifying similarities and differences among EU Members States in 2018 and spotting possible trends of convergence and divergence since 2008. This note is regularly updated.
Szerzők : Alice ZOPPÉ, FRANCESCO-SAVERIO LENZI

The role of fiscal rules in relation with the green economy - A new start after the outbreak EN

06-07-2020 PE 651.382 ECON
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : According to this study the fiscal framework in principle provides sufficient flexibility to accommodate the call on government budgets from the European Green Deal – even in the very challenging fiscal landscape that is currently unfolding. However, it also observes that for this to hold in practice a number of conditions must be met, including a strong design of policies, a careful assessment of their budgetary impact and the integration of the relevant governance processes.
Szerzők : Paul van den Noord

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - July 2020 EN

03-07-2020 PE 630.250 ITRE BUDG AFET AGRI FEMM CONT
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Covid-19 Newsletter 2: Exit strategy EN

03-07-2020 PE 652.710 ITRE ECON IMCO EMPL ENVI
Briefing
Összefoglaló : As EU Member States embark on a cautious de-confinement path, the economy slides into recession and the question of the proportionality of public health-related measures and their economic consequences is increasingly present in the public debate. As long as a vaccine (or an effective treatment) for the Covid-19 disease is not found and deployed, post-Covid-19 societies will have to coexist with the virus, and find an equilibrium between the social constraints resulting from health protecting measures and the need to mitigate as much as possible a huge economic shock, which if not addressed adequately, could have unpredictable social and political consequences. The Covid-19 crisis has shown above all the importance of joint European action. Although public health is primarily the competence of the Member States, the European Parliament has called on the Commission and the Member States to act together and to rise to the challenge and ensure that the Union emerges stronger from this crisis. In particular, a differentiated but coordinated post-lockdown approach in the EU should be ensured, in order to avoid a resurgence of the virus. The present Covid-19 Newsletter focuses on the de-confinement strategies and EU measures to support the economic recovery. An update of ongoing Covid-19 related expertise work for the ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO committees is provided at the end of this document.
Szerzők : AOIFE KENNEDY, Zsuzsanna LAKY, Adolfo BARBERA DEL ROSAL, MATTEO CIUCCI, Christina RATCLIFF, Dirk VERBEKEN

Implementation of Country Specific Recommendations under the MIP - July 2020 EN

02-07-2020 PE 542.650 ECON
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This note provides an overview of the implementation rate of Country-Specific Recommendations (CSRs) issued under the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (see a separate EGOV note for details on the MIP procedure). Figures presented in this overview refer only to Member States experiencing macroeconomic imbalances and are based on the implementation assessments performed by the Commission in its annual Country Reports.
Szerzők : MATTEO CIUCCI, Alice ZOPPÉ

The economy and coronavirus: Weekly Picks 01/07/2020 EN

01-07-2020 PE 651.358 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : This paper provides a summary of recent analyses of the economic and financial effects of the coronavirus, an overview of the proposed new temporary European Union Recovery Instrument, and some policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate the negative economic effects of the pandemic.
Szerzők : Jost ANGERER, KRISTINA GRIGAITE, FRANCESCO-SAVERIO LENZI, ANDREA DI FILIPPO

Energy-intensive industries EN

01-07-2020 PE 652.717 ITRE
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Energy-intensive industries need to reach climate neutrality by 2050. This study describes the technologies available for the decarbonisation of the iron and steel, chemicals, refining and cement industries as well as the existing financial instruments. Technology and policy roadmaps are presented to help shape the Green Deal and enhance the transition to a climate neutral European industry.
Szerzők : JSander de BRUYN, Chris JONGSMA, Bettina KAMPMAN, Benjamin GÖRLACH and Jan-Erik THIE

Challenges for environmental and indigenous peoples’ rights in the Amazon region EN

30-06-2020 PE 603.488 DROI
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : The present analysis examines the environmental and human rights challenges in the Amazon region. It finds that the Amazonian countries pursue development policies in the region based on the exploitation on an industrial scale of natural and non-renewable resources that have caused and continue to cause deforestation, loss of biodiversity and engender human rights violations in particular affecting indigenous peoples. The analysis acknowledges the measures taken by the Amazonian countries to establish protected areas and support indigenous territories and their rights but concludes that the laws need strengthening and effective enforcement. The analysis argues that the protection of the Amazon biome is an essential part of the global efforts to reduce greenhouse gases and concurs with the view of some scientists that there is an urgency to stop forest loss. The analysis further notes that the most effective guardians of the Amazonian forest and its biodiversity are its indigenous peoples. The analysis concludes by arguing that the European Union has an interest in contributing to the protection of the Amazon and its indigenous peoples. It recommends, among other things, that the EU strengthen its direct support to Amazonian indigenous peoples and environmental defenders and develop effective measures which target EU-based companies whose activities cause deforestation.
Szerzők : Dr. Julian BURGER

Banking Union: Wirecard EN

29-06-2020 PE 651.357 ECON
Briefing
Összefoglaló : The briefing provides a short overview (based on public information) to the insolvency of Wirecard AG, a group that provided electronic payment processing and that includes a less-significant banking entity (which is not part of the insolvency proceedings). The case is not directly linked to the corona crisis, but it brings to the fore relevant issues related to supervision of payment-related services and the role of auditors.
Szerzők : Marcel MAGNUS, CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

A Comprehensive EU Strategy for Africa EN

25-06-2020 PE 603.506 AFET
Briefing
Összefoglaló : The new EU-Africa Strategy presented by the Commission on 9 March puts a reinforced emphasis on the creation of a real partnership with a continent whose relevance for Europe is growing by the day. The three briefings focus on different aspects of this new partnership, the first one dealing with the implications for the political dialogue with a focus on (good) governance and the even bigger challenge of security and migration. The second briefing has a look at more ‘traditional’ aspects of this relationship, development and humanitarian aid, complemented with the rising challenge of climate change. The new approach is also illustrated by the emphasis put on the promotion of bilateral trade and investment relations, the topic of the third briefing. All these briefings also try to incorporate first elements on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the bilateral relationship.
Szerzők : Morten BØÅS, Ondřej HORKÝ-HLUCHÁŇ,Ainhoa MARIN-EGOSCOZABAL

A Comprehensive EU Strategy for Africa - Political Dialogue: Governance, Security and Migration EN

25-06-2020 PE 603.507 AFET
Briefing
Összefoglaló : Much has changed since the creation of the Joint Africa-European Union (EU) Strategy in 2007. The developing world has been changing fast. Development policy and practices are also transforming, albeit at a slower pace. The divide between emerging economies and ‘fragile states’ is increasing. This is also the case in Africa. As not only Africa, but also the EU-Africa relationship is changing and evolving into new dimensions, there is clearly a need to develop a new European strategy, constructed on the basis of an emerging continent. Africa is home to the youngest population in the world and some of the world’s most fragile states. However, it is also a continent with emerging markets and more effective governments. This brief aims to clarify how well the new Strategy must manage to mainstream a European approach to Africa that considers both the inter-continental dialogue and the diversity of development on this emerging continent within the fields of governance, security and migration. As the COVID-19 has turned into a pandemic, the brief also suggests that the new European strategy must reflect this development and the European Parliament should closely monitor the situation as it discusses the Strategy.
Szerzők : Morten BØÅS

A Comprehensive EU Strategy for Africa - Development, Humanitarian Aid and Climate Change EN

25-06-2020 PE 603.508 AFET
Briefing
Összefoglaló : The new EU Strategy for Africa attempts to reflect the continent’s growing relevance within a partnership rather than through a donor-recipient framework. However, this leads to a prioritisation of the formal, productive and technology sectors as well as climate mitigation at the expense of agriculture, informal sector, human development and climate adaptation. With such skewed priorities, this Strategy is ill-adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Institutionally, political will is needed to ensure that the continent-to-continent approach is not hampered by parallel, contradictory and fragmenting forces within the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) and the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) governance frameworks. Financially, mutual accountability must be strengthened by joint funding of joint actions. An inclusive institutional mechanism is also needed to promote political and civil society participation as well as policy coherence for sustainable development beyond migration and climate. More generally, the Strategy advances a government-to-government type of partnership at the expense of a more people-centred approach that is more in line with the ‘principled pragmatism’ of the EU.
Szerzők : Ondřej HORKÝ-HLUCHÁŇ

A Comprehensive EU Strategy for Africa - Trade and Investments EN

25-06-2020 PE 603.509 AFET
Briefing
Összefoglaló : The new European Commission (EC) is putting EU-African relations to the fore. A Joint Communication of the EC towards a comprehensive Strategy with Africa stresses the African Continent’s strategic importance and the EU’s need to strengthen its partnership with (and not for) Africa. Proposals in the Joint Communication maintain promotion of sustainable investments with Africa on top of the EU’s agenda. Partnership with Africa to attract investors and boost regional as well as continental integration are specific actions aimed to attain sustainable growth and jobs in African countries. This emphasis is not new, being in line with a geopolitically oriented Commission and the European Union’s (EU) trend of shifting from a Donor-recipient model to a relationship based on mutual cooperation, pursuing common interests and mutual benefits. As the COVID-19 pandemic takes hold in Africa during 2020, it is becoming more urgent that EU and African relations post COVID-19 be tailored to a new scenario and show tangible action using partnership rhetoric.
Szerzők : Ainhoa MARIN-EGOSCOZABAL

Online Platforms' Moderation of Illegal Content Online EN

23-06-2020 PE 652.718 IMCO
Tanulmány
Összefoglaló : Online platforms have created content moderation systems, particularly in relation to tackling illegal content online. This study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and the practices by key online platforms. On that basis, it makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework within the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.
Szerzők : University of Namur (CRIDS/NADI) and VVA

A roadmap to completing the Banking Union EN

19-06-2020 PE 645.707 ECON
Részletes elemzés
Összefoglaló : Completing the Banking Union has been a long term endeavour, on the back of the less successful negotiations on its third leg - the common deposit guarantee scheme. The current crisis caused by the outbreak of COVID-19 will evidently put the current setup of Banking Union to test, but may also create a new impetus and political will for it’s completion. This briefing, based on two earlier EGOV briefings (here and here), (1) sets out the main milestones of such process so far, (2) outlines where work was before the coronavirus outbreak and (3) points to areas where progress is still missing and should continue once the urgency of the current crisis is mitigated. It will be regularly updated on the basis of available public information.
Szerzők : CRISTINA SOFIA PACHECO DIAS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Banks' exposures to Home sovereign bonds EN

15-06-2020 PE 651.344 ECON
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This background document summarises information that was published by the European Banking Authority and that sheds some light on the status quo of the 'sovereign-bank' nexus, in view of the fact that the link between sovereign and bank credit risk has been identified as a risk to financial stability.
Szerzők : Marcel MAGNUS, ANDREA DI FILIPPO

How to Fully Reap the Benefits of the Internal Market for E-Commerce? EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.723 IMCO
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This paper provides a framework for maximising current and potential benefits of e-commerce for the single market while minimising economic and societal costs. It takes stock of the role of the e-Commerce Directive and analyses new challenges arising in the age of platforms. Forward-looking solutions are presented to enhance cross-border e-commerce in the EU, facilitate access to digital copyrighted content and improve the sustainability of online platforms. Finally, the paper reflects on the planned digital services act, outlining policy recommendations. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Szerzők : Nadina IACOB, Felice SIMONELLI

The Legal Framework for E-commerce in the Internal Market EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.724 IMCO
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : This at a glance presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Szerzők : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, Christina RATCLIFF

The platform economy and precarious work EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.750 EMPL
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was prepared at the request of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament.
Szerzők : Harald Hauben (ed.), Karolien Lenaerts,Willem Waeyaert

Nominations for Members of the European Court of Auditors EN

15-06-2020 PE 654.527 BUDG CONT
Rövid áttekintés
Összefoglaló : Short presentation of - Treaty provisions and appointment procedure, - upcoming and recent nominations and - avenues for further research.
Szerzők : Michaela FRANKE