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Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024 EN

16-10-2020 PE 630.241 TRAN PETI ITRE INTA BUDG AFET DEVE EMPL ENVI CONT ECON REGI IMCO PECH CULT AGRI AFCO FEMM JURI LIBE
Pe scurt
Rezumat : This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Online Platforms’ Moderation of Illegal Content Online EN

15-10-2020 PE 658.184 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.
Autori : Alexandre DE STREEL et al.

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers EN

17-08-2020 PE 652.732 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.
Autori : Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al.

Enforcement and cooperation between Member States EN

14-08-2020 PE 652.730 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : The original full study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act (DSA). Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised: the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies are then evaluated across a suite of Digital Single Market (DSM) legislation, alongside barriers to Member States cooperation and effective enforcement.
Autori : Melanie SMITH

E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age EN

17-07-2020 PE 652.728 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : This paper summarises the discussions that took place at the workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age”. The E-commerce directive was elaborated twenty years ago and has been key in regulating online services. However, the role of the internet has drastically evolved over the last two decades. The Chair of IMCO Committee Prof Dr Petra de Sutter and the Rapporteur for the Digital Services Act (DSA) Mr Alex Agius Saliba co-chaired this workshop in order to discuss which areas of the E-commerce directive are no longer fit for purpose and need reforming in the DSA.
Autori : LOUISE MATHILDE CAROLINE BLANDIN

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers EN

16-07-2020 PE 652.727 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.
Autori : Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al

Covid-19 Newsletter 2: Exit strategy EN

03-07-2020 PE 652.710 ITRE ECON IMCO EMPL ENVI
Briefing
Rezumat : As EU Member States embark on a cautious de-confinement path, the economy slides into recession and the question of the proportionality of public health-related measures and their economic consequences is increasingly present in the public debate. As long as a vaccine (or an effective treatment) for the Covid-19 disease is not found and deployed, post-Covid-19 societies will have to coexist with the virus, and find an equilibrium between the social constraints resulting from health protecting measures and the need to mitigate as much as possible a huge economic shock, which if not addressed adequately, could have unpredictable social and political consequences. The Covid-19 crisis has shown above all the importance of joint European action. Although public health is primarily the competence of the Member States, the European Parliament has called on the Commission and the Member States to act together and to rise to the challenge and ensure that the Union emerges stronger from this crisis. In particular, a differentiated but coordinated post-lockdown approach in the EU should be ensured, in order to avoid a resurgence of the virus. The present Covid-19 Newsletter focuses on the de-confinement strategies and EU measures to support the economic recovery. An update of ongoing Covid-19 related expertise work for the ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO committees is provided at the end of this document.
Autori : AOIFE KENNEDY, Zsuzsanna LAKY, Adolfo BARBERA DEL ROSAL, MATTEO CIUCCI, Christina RATCLIFF, Dirk VERBEKEN

Online Platforms' Moderation of Illegal Content Online EN

23-06-2020 PE 652.718 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : Online platforms have created content moderation systems, particularly in relation to tackling illegal content online. This study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and the practices by key online platforms. On that basis, it makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework within the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.
Autori : University of Namur (CRIDS/NADI) and VVA

How to Fully Reap the Benefits of the Internal Market for E-Commerce? EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.723 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : This paper provides a framework for maximising current and potential benefits of e-commerce for the single market while minimising economic and societal costs. It takes stock of the role of the e-Commerce Directive and analyses new challenges arising in the age of platforms. Forward-looking solutions are presented to enhance cross-border e-commerce in the EU, facilitate access to digital copyrighted content and improve the sustainability of online platforms. Finally, the paper reflects on the planned digital services act, outlining policy recommendations. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Nadina IACOB, Felice SIMONELLI

The Legal Framework for E-commerce in the Internal Market EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.724 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : This at a glance presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, Christina RATCLIFF

Artificial Intelligence:Opportunities and Challenges for the Internal Market and Consumer Protection EN

15-06-2020 PE 642.352 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : Developing appropriate policies and regulations for AI is a priority for the European Union. AI has become a powerful driver of social transformation, reshaping individual lives and interactions as well as economical and political organisations. AI brings huge opportunities for development, sustainability, health and knowledge, as well as significant risks of unemployment, discrimination, exclusion, etc. Multiple areas are affected by AI, such as data protection (lawful and proportionate processing of personal data, subject to oversight), fair algorithmic treatment (not being subject to unjustified prejudice resulting from automated processing), transparency and explicability (knowing how and why a certain algorithmic response has been given or a decision made), protection from undue influence (not being misled, manipulated, or deceived). This collection of studies presents research resulting from ongoing interest of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in improving functioning of the Digital Single Market and developing European digital policies based on scientific evidence and expertise.
Autori : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, KRISTINE MARIE SAKSENVIK NAESS, LOUISE MATHILDE CAROLINE BLANDIN

Artificial Intelligence (AI): New Developments and Innovations applied to E-Commerce EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.720 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The original full study discusses the opportunities and challenges brought by the recent and the foreseeable developments of Artificial Intelligence into online platforms and marketplaces. The paper advocates the importance to support trustworthy, explainable AI (in order to fight discrimination and manipulation, and empower citizens), and societal-aware AI (in order to fight polarisation, monopolistic concentration and excessive inequality, and pursue diversity and openness)
Autori : Prof. Dr Dino PEDRESCHI and Dr Ioanna MILIOU

New aspects and challenges in consumer protection EN

15-06-2020 PE 652.722 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The original full study discusses the new challenges and opportunities for digital services that are provided by artificial intelligence, in particular which regard to consumer protection, data protection, and providers’ liability. The discussion addresses the way in which digital services rely on Artificial Intelligence (AI) for processing consumer data and for targeting consumers with ads and other messages, with a focus on risks to consumer privacy and autonomy, as well as on the possibility of developing consumer-friendly AI applications. Also addressed is the relevance of AI for the liability of service providers in connection with the use of AI systems for detecting and responding to unlawful and harmful content.
Autori : Prof Dr Giovanni Sartor

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - June 2020 EN

12-06-2020 PE 630.249 INTA BUDG REGI IMCO LIBE
Pe scurt
Rezumat : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Sustainable Consumption and Consumer Protection Legislation EN

15-05-2020 PE 648.796 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : This paper analyses the contribution, or lack of contribution of, the current EU Consumer Protection Legislation to a sustainable consumption and a longer lifetime of products. In addition, it gives an overview of the most relevant best practices at national and international level and provides recommendations on the future development and possible reforms of European consumer protection legislation in order to contribute to a more sustainable consumption and a longer lifetime of products. This document was commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Bert KEIRSBILCK, KU Leuven Evelyne TERRYN, KU Leuven Anaïs MICHEL, KU Leuven Ivano ALOGNA, BIICL

The e-commerce Directive as the cornerstone of the Internal Market EN

15-05-2020 PE 652.715 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : The e-commerce Directive was adopted in 2000 and has played a key role in the development of online platforms in Europe. The study assesses the effects of the Directive as a cornerstone of the Digital Single Market. On that basis, it proposes some reforms for the future Digital Services Act.
Autori : Alexandre de STREEL and Martin HUSOVEC

Collection of studies for the IMCO Committee - Digital Services Act EN

15-05-2020 PE 652.712 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : While the E-commerce directive has been the cornerstone of the Internal Market for the last twenty years, Members of the European Parliament´s Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committe noted that the Digital Single Market is affected by increasing fragmentation in tackling illegal content online, difficulties to promote market entry and consumer welfare, and ineffectiveness of enforcement and cooperation between Member State. In order to improve functioning of the Single Market, IMCO Committee took the initiative to prepare a legislative report with recommendations to the Commission on a Digital Services Act (Rapporteur: MEP Alex Agius Saliba) and organised a workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age” during which MEPs discussed with experts, stakeholders and consumer protection organisations possibilities of efficient reforms of regulation and consumer protection on online marketplaces in the European Union. This collection of studies presents workshop proceedings and expert studies resulting from the ongoing interest of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in improving the functioning of the Digital Single Market and developing e-commerce rules based on scientific evidence and expertise.
Autori : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, Christiane BLONDIN

New Developments in Digital Services EN

15-05-2020 PE 652.716 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The study lays out predictions for digital services in the next one to ten years and provides recommendations for action for the European Parliament in preparation for the Digital Services Act.
Autori : Nick SOHNEMANN et al.

E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age - IMCO Workshop Proceedings EN

15-05-2020 PE 648.798 IMCO
Analiză aprofundată
Rezumat : The report summarises the discussion that took place at the workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age”. The E-commerce directive was elaborated twenty years ago and has been key in regulating online services. However, the role of the internet has drastically evolved over the last two decades. The Chair of IMCO Committee Prof Dr Petra de Sutter and the Rapporteur for the Digital Services Act (DSA) Mr Alex Agius Saliba co-chaired this workshop in order to discuss which areas of the E-commerce directive are no longer fit for purpose and need reforming in the DSA. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : LOUISE MATHILDE CAROLINE BLANDIN

The functioning of the Internal Market for Digital Services: responsibilities and duties of care of providers of Digital Services EN

15-05-2020 PE 648.802 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : The paper reflects on responsibilities and duties of care of online intermediaries as set out in the E-Commerce Directive and gives recommendations for a possible future EU Digital Services Act. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Jan Bernd NORDEMANN

The Legal Framework for E-commerce in the Internal Market EN

15-05-2020 PE 652.707 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : This study presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Ida RÜFFER, Carlos NOBREGA, Hans SCHULTE-NÖLKE, Aneta WIEWÓROWSKA-DOMAGALSKA

The e-commerce Directive as the cornerstone of the Internal Market EN

12-05-2020 PE 648.797 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : The e-commerce Directive was adopted in 2000 and has played a key role in the development of online platforms in Europe. The study assesses the effects of the Directive as a cornerstone of the Digital Single Market. On that basis, it proposes some reforms for the future Digital Services Act.
Autori : Alexandre de Streel

How to Fully Reap the Benefits of the Internal Market for E-Commerce? EN

12-05-2020 PE 648.801 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : This paper provides a framework for maximising current and potential benefits of e-commerce for the single market while minimising economic and societal costs. It takes stock of the role of the e-Commerce Directive and analyses new challenges arising in the age of platforms. Forward-looking solutions are presented to enhance cross-border e-commerce in the EU, facilitate access to digital copyrighted content and improve the sustainability of online platforms. Finally, the paper reflects on the planned digital services act, outlining policy recommendations. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Nadina IACOB, Felice SIMONELLI

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - May 2020 EN

11-05-2020 PE 630.248 ITRE ECON REGI BUDG IMCO EMPL ENVI LIBE DROI
Pe scurt
Rezumat : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

New Developments in Digital Services EN

07-05-2020 PE 648.784 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : The study lays out predictions for digital services in the next one to ten years and provides recommendations for action for the European Parliament in preparation for the Digital Services Act.
Autori : Nick SOHNEMANN et al.

Covid-19 Newsletter 1 EN

22-04-2020 PE 648.794 ITRE ECON IMCO EMPL ENVI
Briefing
Rezumat : In its resolution of 17 April 2020, the European Parliament called on the Commission and the Member States to act together and to ensure that the European Union will emerge stronger from the COVID-19 crisis. This newsletter on COVID-19 aims to keep the ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO committees updated about the main EU recent developments and responses to the current crisis.

The European Services Sector and the Green Transition EN

15-04-2020 PE 648.768 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The aim of this briefing is to answer the following question: How can the services sector contribute to the green transition, specifically in the digital area and taking into account the environmental footprint of the sector as well as its potential to replace environmentally harmful practices?
Autori : Patrik STRÖM

The EU’s Public Procurement Framework. How is the EU’s Public Procurement Framework contributing to the achievement of the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the Circular Economy Strategy? EN

15-04-2020 PE 648.770 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The present public procurement directives entered into force in 2014 allowing national authorities enough flexibility to align procurement with social and environmental objectives. However, public authorities have not sufficiently taken up the possibilities to use strategic public procurement to introduce sustainable, green, pre-procurement or innovation-focused tools. The existence of clear Guidelines and tools is essential to provide legal certainty for public procurement officials.in this respect, the European Commission has a central role to play and work is being undertaken to provide guidelines and off-the-shelf solutions. However, further action is needed to promote strategic public procurement and in particular Green Public Procurement requiring low carbon, life-cycle and circular approaches in public purchases. The EU should increase – in tandem with the provision of assistance and tools – the number of mandatory green procurement requirements, either through technical specifications in the sectoral directives or through delegated acts to the procurement directives. A voluntary approach is not sufficient. Member states should in turn professionalise the public procurement authorities and establish central purchasing bodies or national competence centres. There is a need for many member states to invest in professionalisation, training and ICT tools to mainstream strategic public procurement and in particular Green Public Procurement.
Autori : Jorge NÚÑEZ FERRER

Artificial Intelligence (AI): new developments and innovations applied to e-commerce EN

15-04-2020 PE 648.791 IMCO
Analiză aprofundată
Rezumat : This in-depth analysis discusses the opportunities and challenges brought by the recent and the foreseeable developments of Artificial Intelligence into online platforms and marketplaces. The paper advocates the importance to support trustworthy, explainable AI (in order to fight discrimination and manipulation, and empower citizens), and societal-aware AI (in order to fight polarization, monopolistic concentration and excessive inequality, and pursue diversity and openness). This document was prepared by the Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
Autori : Prof. Dr Dino PEDRESCHI

Enforcement and cooperation between Member States EN

15-04-2020 PE 648.780 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : This study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act. Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised; the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies are then evaluated across a suite of DSM legislation, alongside barriers to Member States cooperation and effective enforcement. The paper sets out several options for enforcement and concludes with a recommendation of a specific enforcement model for a new DSA.
Autori : Melanie SMITH

New aspects and challenges in consumer protection - Digital services and artificial intelligence EN

15-04-2020 PE 648.790 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : The study addresses the new challenges and opportunities for digital services that are provided by artificial intelligence, in particular which regard to consumer protection, data protection, and providers’ liability. The discussion addresses the way in which digital services rely on AI for processing consumer data and for targeting consumers with ads and other messages, with a focus on risks to consumer privacy and autonomy, as well as on the possibility of developing consumer-friendly AI applications. Also addressed is the relevance of AI for the liability of service providers in connection with the use of AI systems for detecting and responding to unlawful and harmful content. This document was provided/prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
Autori : Prof. Giovanni SARTOR

Promoting product longevity EN

16-03-2020 PE 648.788 IMCO
Pe scurt
Rezumat : Product longevity can play a useful role in achieving the Paris Agreement goals – material efficiency is an important contributor to energy efficiency and is also important in its own right. The product safety and compliance instruments available at European level can contribute to these efforts, if wisely applied.
Autori : J. Scott MARCUS et al.

Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges for the Internal Market and Consumer Protection EN

16-03-2020 PE 648.777 IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : Developing appropriate policies and regulations for AI is a priority for the European Union. AI has become a powerful driver of social transformation, reshaping individual lives and interactions as well as economical and political organisations. AI brings huge opportunities for development, sustainability, health and knowledge, as well as significant risks of unemployment, discrimination, exclusion, etc. Multiple areas are affected by AI, such as data protection (lawful and proportionate processing of personal data, subject to oversight), fair algorithmic treatment (not being subject to unjustified prejudice resulting from automated processing), transparency and explicability (knowing how and why a certain algorithmic response has been given or a decision made), protection from undue influence (not being misled, manipulated, or deceived). This collection of studies presents research resulting from ongoing interest of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in improving functioning of the Digital Single Market and developing European digital and AI related policy based on scientific evidence and expertise.
Autori : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, KRISTINE MARIE SAKSENVIK NAESS

Sustainable Consumption and Consumer Protection Legislation EN

16-03-2020 PE 648.769 IMCO
Analiză aprofundată
Rezumat : This paper analyses the contribution, or lack of contribution of, the current EU Consumer Protection Legislation to a sustainable consumption and a longer lifetime of products. In addition, it gives an overview of the most relevant best practices at national and international level and provides recommendations on the future development and possible reforms of European consumer protection legislation in order to contribute to a more sustainable consumption and a longer lifetime of products. This document was commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Autori : Bert KEIRSBILCK, KU Leuven ; Evelyne TERRYN, KU Leuven ; Anaïs MICHEL, KU Leuven and Ivano ALOGNA, BIICL

Promoting product longevity EN

16-03-2020 PE 648.767 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : Product longevity can play a useful role in achieving the Paris Agreement goals – material efficiency is an important contributor to energy efficiency and is also important in its own right. The product safety and compliance instruments available at European level can contribute to these efforts, if wisely applied.
Autori : J. Scott MARCUS et al.

Angajamentele asumate în cadrul audierilor comisarilor desemnați - Comisia Von der Leyen, 2019-2024

25-11-2019 PE 629.837 TRAN PETI ITRE INTA BUDG AFET DEVE EMPL ENVI CONT REGI IMCO ECON PECH CULT AGRI AFCO FEMM JURI LIBE
Briefing
Rezumat : Acest document reprezintă o compilație a subiectelor principale abordate și a angajamentelor asumate de vicepreședinții și de comisarii desemnați în cadrul audierilor lor în fața Parlamentului European. Scopul său este de a oferi cititorului un instrument practic și concis pentru a urmări eforturile și acțiunile viitoarei Comisii. Pentru o listă exhaustivă a tuturor angajamentelor asumate și a pozițiilor exprimate de candidați, pe site-ul Parlamentului European dedicat audierilor sunt disponibile stenogramele complete ale fiecărei audieri publice, precum și întrebările și răspunsurile scrise.

Commitments made at the hearing of Thierry BRETON, Commissioner-designate - Internal Market EN

22-11-2019 PE 642.340 ITRE IMCO
Briefing
Rezumat : The commissioner-designate, Thierry Breton, appeared before the European Parliament on 14 November 2019 to answer questions put by MEPs from the Committees on Industry, research and energy and Internal market and consumer protection. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - The digital economy and society; - A future-ready European industry and single market; and - Defence industry and space.
Autori : Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, Frederic GOUARDERES

Workshop on “Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles as regards their general safety and protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users” EN

15-10-2019 PE 642.351 IMCO
Studiu
Rezumat : In 2017, 25 300 people died in road accidents in Europe, while about a million were injured. Ms Róża THUN (MEP), the Chair of Digital Single Market Working Group of the IMCO Committee and the Rapporteur for the regulation on the “Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users”, chaired this expert workshop in order to explore how technological means, including artificial intelligence, can reduce the number of victims of road accidents. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
Autori : Maria AUDERA, Pablo DELGADO CUBILLO and Andreea DOBRITA