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Zveřejněno na 20-05-2020

Foresight within the EU institutions: The ESPAS process so far

20-05-2020

The European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) brings together the various European Union (EU) institutions and bodies in a process of administrative-level cooperation designed to identify and analyse the medium- and long-term trends facing the European Union and their implications for policy-makers. This dialogue was established in the early 2010s as a means of promoting longer-term thinking in the EU policy process and encouraging the Union’s various institutions to cooperate more closely ...

The European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) brings together the various European Union (EU) institutions and bodies in a process of administrative-level cooperation designed to identify and analyse the medium- and long-term trends facing the European Union and their implications for policy-makers. This dialogue was established in the early 2010s as a means of promoting longer-term thinking in the EU policy process and encouraging the Union’s various institutions to cooperate more closely in this field. This EPRS Briefing traces the origins of the ESPAS process and describes its operation to date, with the digital version of the Briefing offering links to some of its key output since 2012. A parallel Briefing will compare and contrast the three Global Trends Reports produced by the ESPAS process, in 2012, 2015 and 2019.

EU budgetary and financial response to the coronavirus crisis

20-05-2020

Within the limits of its powers, the EU has acted quickly to tackle the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences. Showing considerable flexibility, EU institutions have organised a package of measures (some already decided, others proposed or requested), to counter the crisis, drawing both on the EU budget and a wider economic package. Parliament is calling on the European Commission to propose a €2 trillion recovery package, distributed mostly through grants (over which Parliament will maintain ...

Within the limits of its powers, the EU has acted quickly to tackle the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences. Showing considerable flexibility, EU institutions have organised a package of measures (some already decided, others proposed or requested), to counter the crisis, drawing both on the EU budget and a wider economic package. Parliament is calling on the European Commission to propose a €2 trillion recovery package, distributed mostly through grants (over which Parliament will maintain scrutiny) rather than loans, and warns against the presentation of misleading figures. The recovery package should provide real funding to help those hardest-hit, and focus on climate mitigation, digitalisation and a new health programme. The Commission has committed to propose a comprehensive recovery plan, along with revised 2021-2027 MFF proposals, on 27 May 2020. In the meantime, France and Germany have suggested a €500 billion 'recovery fund'.

Understanding EU data protection policy

20-05-2020

The near-ubiquity of data in the lives of ordinary people, along with its exponential growth in generation rate and potential misuse, has made the protection of personal information an increasingly important social, legal and political matter for the EU. In recent years, both awareness of data rights and expectations for EU action in this area have grown considerably. The right to privacy and the right to protection of personal data are both enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU ...

The near-ubiquity of data in the lives of ordinary people, along with its exponential growth in generation rate and potential misuse, has made the protection of personal information an increasingly important social, legal and political matter for the EU. In recent years, both awareness of data rights and expectations for EU action in this area have grown considerably. The right to privacy and the right to protection of personal data are both enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU and the EU Treaties. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 gave the Charter the same legal value as the Treaties and abolished the pillar structure, providing a stronger basis for a more effective and comprehensive data protection regime in the EU. In 2012, the European Commission launched an ambitious reform to modernise the EU data protection framework. It resulted in the adoption in 2016 of the main EU data protection legislative instrument – the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – and the Law Enforcement Directive. The framework overhaul also included adopting an updated Regulation on Data Processing in the EU Institutions and reforming the ePrivacy Directive, pending in the Council since September 2017. The European Parliament has played a major role in passing these reforms, both as co-legislator and author of own-initiative reports and resolutions seeking to guarantee a high level of data protection to EU citizens. Last but not least, the European Court of Justice has also played an important part in building the EU data protection framework, with several landmark judgments delivered in recent years. In the coming years, potential challenges to the data protection framework include the question of how to adapt the GDPR to emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, facial recognition technology and the Internet of Things. Potential fragmentation issues include differing Member State interpretations of consent for data processing, while compliance burdens for SMEs and insufficient resources for data protection authorities may present challenges for enforcement. The European Commission is expected to address these issues in its upcoming evaluation of the GDPR.

Coronavirus and international sanctions: Should sanctions be eased during the pandemic?

20-05-2020

The coronavirus pandemic has raised concerns that international sanctions may be exacerbating the risk of a humanitarian crisis. In March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres called on world leaders to waive restrictions on food and medicines that are affecting the world's most vulnerable countries. Especially since the suffering caused by the international trade embargo against Iraq in the 1990s, the European Union has sought to design its sanctions for maximum effect at the least ...

The coronavirus pandemic has raised concerns that international sanctions may be exacerbating the risk of a humanitarian crisis. In March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres called on world leaders to waive restrictions on food and medicines that are affecting the world's most vulnerable countries. Especially since the suffering caused by the international trade embargo against Iraq in the 1990s, the European Union has sought to design its sanctions for maximum effect at the least possible humanitarian cost. Usually it does this by targeting restrictions at key individuals or organisations, and in some cases sectors, rather than a country's economy as a whole. Critics of sanctions claim that US-imposed trade restrictions have prevented Iran from purchasing essential medical supplies needed to fight the pandemic. They also argue that EU and US sanctions make desperately impoverished Zimbabwe and Sudan even more vulnerable than they would otherwise be. Both the European Union and the United States defend their policies, but acknowledge the importance of humanitarian exceptions. Although the European Union has not said that it will lift any of its restrictive measures, it has offered various forms of support to several sanctions-hit countries.

The ECB's Mandate: Perspectives on General Economic Policies

15-05-2020

The ECB has a clear primary objective to maintain price stability. The Treaty is less clear on how the ECB is required to fulfil its so-called secondary objective of “supporting general economic policies of the Union”. Just as the ECB was about to start its monetary policy strategy review which also provided an opportunity to clarify these elements of the mandate, the COVID-19 crisis brought the toughest test yet for its ability to deliver on the objectives. In addition, the German constitutional ...

The ECB has a clear primary objective to maintain price stability. The Treaty is less clear on how the ECB is required to fulfil its so-called secondary objective of “supporting general economic policies of the Union”. Just as the ECB was about to start its monetary policy strategy review which also provided an opportunity to clarify these elements of the mandate, the COVID-19 crisis brought the toughest test yet for its ability to deliver on the objectives. In addition, the German constitutional court delivered a judgement on the ECB’s public sector purchase programme (PSPP) which might bring further legal and economic consequences. In advance of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Christine Lagarde on 8 June 2020, the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel has prepared a set of five papers on this topic. This publication is provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Externí autor

Rosa M. LASTRA, Kern ALEXANDER, Karl WHELAN, Joseph E. GAGNON, Jacob F. KIRKEGAARD, David W. WILCOX, Christopher G. COLLINS, Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL, Emmanuelle FAURE, Paul HUBERT, Grégory CLAEYS

The Legal Framework for E-commerce in the Internal Market

15-05-2020

This study presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the ...

This study presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Externí autor

Ida RÜFFER, Carlos NOBREGA, Hans SCHULTE-NÖLKE, Aneta WIEWÓROWSKA-DOMAGALSKA

Zveřejněno na 19-05-2020

EU agricultural policy and climate change

19-05-2020

In December 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate and environmental emergency in Europe and across the globe – a recognition of the challenges that the EU faces in this area. The agricultural sector is not only affected by climate change but also contributes significantly to it, according to some assessments. Evidence from a range of reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre points to the impacts that climate change ...

In December 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate and environmental emergency in Europe and across the globe – a recognition of the challenges that the EU faces in this area. The agricultural sector is not only affected by climate change but also contributes significantly to it, according to some assessments. Evidence from a range of reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre points to the impacts that climate change will have on yields, length of growing season, water availability, biodiversity, and habitats. The pattern of climate change will have a differential impact in terms of the regions affected. A clear north–south divide emerges, with countries of southern Europe likely to face declining yields due to increased temperatures and reduced precipitation. In the legislative proposals for the common agricultural policy (CAP) for the post-2020 period, the European Commission has set a high level of ambition in both environmental and climate change objectives, taking into account the fact that agriculture is responsible for around 10 % of the EU's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The European Green Deal outlined in the Commission's political guidelines aims to make Europe the world's first climate-neutral continent by 2050. A range of mitigation and adaptation responses are available, designed to curb GHG emissions and reduce vulnerability to climate change. The EU can use the CAP as a tool to influence policy-making in the area of climate change. In fact, data on the operation and impact of the CAP on climate change and GHG emissions have been examined using a range of sources, including a study undertaken for the Commission. One of its conclusions is that there are a range of CAP measures that are only partially relevant to climate needs, as the CAP is constrained by the lack of compulsory implementation. Additionally, a series of inconsistencies and 'missed opportunities' were identified in the study. It remains to be seen how such findings will influence the content and design of the new CAP strategic plans, given that the Commission's future proposals for them include giving greater discretion to Member States.

Exceptional coronavirus support measures of benefit to EU regions

19-05-2020

The coronavirus pandemic is affecting the EU's regions in various ways. Although the virus has spread all over Europe, certain western EU regions have recorded relatively higher numbers of Covid-19 cases and deaths. Most of the deaths from the virus have so far been particularly concentrated in certain Italian, Spanish and French regions. Healthcare systems in many EU regions are under tremendous pressure as they tackle the inflated needs caused by the coronavirus. What is more, the pandemic is also ...

The coronavirus pandemic is affecting the EU's regions in various ways. Although the virus has spread all over Europe, certain western EU regions have recorded relatively higher numbers of Covid-19 cases and deaths. Most of the deaths from the virus have so far been particularly concentrated in certain Italian, Spanish and French regions. Healthcare systems in many EU regions are under tremendous pressure as they tackle the inflated needs caused by the coronavirus. What is more, the pandemic is also having a severe impact on the European economy. As many economic sectors have reduced their activities, the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to be felt in all EU regions. Although it is still too early to make concrete predictions, the economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic could well further impede the social, economic and territorial cohesion of the EU by increasing the existing divisions between EU regions. The European Commission has put forward a number of proposals to alleviate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on EU territories. The European Parliament has been supportive overall of the Commission's proposals. It triggered urgent procedures in order to approve them swiftly so that EU citizens could benefit quickly from their positive impact. Actions under various EU funds and policy instruments are now geared towards health-related purposes and the reigniting of the economy. In these critical times, cohesion policy could be no exception to the rule and is being drawn on increasingly to provide emergency relief. A number of amendments to the regulation governing the European structural and investment (ESI) funds have been approved by Parliament in order to allow flexible use of the funds in addressing the challenges posed by the crisis. A number of additional regulations and policy instruments meanwhile complement the ESI funds in the fight against the pandemic's negative consequences. Local and regional authorities are at the forefront of the pandemic as they are often responsible for providing much of the emergency response. They can use the newly adopted EU measures to reinforce their coronavirus action and to support their economic sectors.

The economy and coronavirus - Weekly Picks 19/05/2020

19-05-2020

This paper provides a summary of some recent analyses of the macroeconomic effects of the coronavirus and some policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate these negative effects.

This paper provides a summary of some recent analyses of the macroeconomic effects of the coronavirus and some policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate these negative effects.

The ESM Pandemic Crisis Support

19-05-2020

This paper provides a summary analysis of the European Stability Mechanism Pandemic Crisis Support instrument agreed by the Eurogroup. This instrument allows the ESM to provide financial assistance (either as loans or by purchasing sovereign bonds) to euro area Member States, to be used for recovering costs related to direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention due to the COVID- 19 crisis. The paper focuses on the main feature of the instrument, including its eligibility, the financial and ...

This paper provides a summary analysis of the European Stability Mechanism Pandemic Crisis Support instrument agreed by the Eurogroup. This instrument allows the ESM to provide financial assistance (either as loans or by purchasing sovereign bonds) to euro area Member States, to be used for recovering costs related to direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention due to the COVID- 19 crisis. The paper focuses on the main feature of the instrument, including its eligibility, the financial and the surveillance aspects.

Chystané akce

03-06-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | One of Them: From Albert Square to Parliament Square
Další akce -
EPRS
11-06-2020
CONT Public Hearing: Implementation of EU funds
Slyšení -
CONT
15-06-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | A Certain Idea of France: The life of Charles de Gaulle
Další akce -
EPRS

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