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Solidarity in EU asylum policy

23-03-2020

The unprecedented arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU in 2015 exposed a number of deficiencies in EU external border, asylum and migration policy, sparking EU action through various legal and policy instruments. While the EU has been relatively successful in securing external borders, curbing irregular migrant arrivals and increasing cooperation with third countries, Member States are still reluctant to show solidarity and do more to share responsibility for asylum-seekers. International ...

The unprecedented arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU in 2015 exposed a number of deficiencies in EU external border, asylum and migration policy, sparking EU action through various legal and policy instruments. While the EU has been relatively successful in securing external borders, curbing irregular migrant arrivals and increasing cooperation with third countries, Member States are still reluctant to show solidarity and do more to share responsibility for asylum-seekers. International cooperation and solidarity is key in helping to manage migration to and between states. Under international law, countries have certain legal obligations to assist and protect refugees that they accept on their territory, but the legal duties of other states to help and share that responsibility are less clear. At EU level, the principle of solidarity is set out in Article 80 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), however there is currently no consensus on whether it can be used as a stand-alone or joint legal basis for secondary legislation. Furthermore, the notions of 'solidarity' and 'fair sharing of responsibilities' for refugees or asylum-seekers are not defined in EU law. This has prompted EU institutions, academics and other stakeholders to propose different ways to resolve the issue, such as sharing out relevant tasks and pooling resources at EU level, compensating frontline Member States financially and through other contributions – such as flexible solidarity – and changing the focus of the European Court of Justice when interpreting EU asylum law. In recent years, the EU has provided the Member States most affected by migrant arrivals with significant financial and practical support, notably through the EU budget and the deployment of personnel and equipment. Nevertheless, the continued failure to reform the EU asylum system, as well as the implementation of temporary solidarity measures based on ad-hoc solutions, has exposed a crisis of solidarity that shows no signs of being resolved. The von der Leyen Commission has made it clear that the new EU asylum system 'should include finding new forms of solidarity and should ensure that all Member States make meaningful contributions to support those countries under the most pressure'.

Emergency measures on migration: Article 78(3) TFEU

06-03-2020

Article 78(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the adoption of provisional measures in emergency migratory situations at the EU's external borders. It was first used during the 2015 migration crisis. On the basis of that article, the Council of the EU adopted binding decisions providing for the relocation from Italy and Greece of 160 000 people so as to ensure a fair and balanced distribution of, and sharing of responsibility for, asylum-seekers who were ...

Article 78(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the adoption of provisional measures in emergency migratory situations at the EU's external borders. It was first used during the 2015 migration crisis. On the basis of that article, the Council of the EU adopted binding decisions providing for the relocation from Italy and Greece of 160 000 people so as to ensure a fair and balanced distribution of, and sharing of responsibility for, asylum-seekers who were already present in the EU. However, despite most Member States' willingness to relocate asylum-seekers, some challenged the Council's decision before the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) or refused to help implement the decision. On 1 March 2020, in the light of events on its Turkish border, Greece announced that it wanted Article 78(3) TFEU to be used to ensure full EU support in the situation of a sudden influx of third-country nationals into the EU.

Family reunification rights of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection

14-02-2020

Separation of family members can have devastating consequences on their well-being and ability to rebuild their lives. This is true for everybody, but especially so for persons who have fled persecution or serious harm and have lost family during forced displacement and flight. In the case of beneficiaries of international protection, family separation can affect their ability to engage in many aspects of the integration process, from education and employment to putting down roots, as well as harming ...

Separation of family members can have devastating consequences on their well-being and ability to rebuild their lives. This is true for everybody, but especially so for persons who have fled persecution or serious harm and have lost family during forced displacement and flight. In the case of beneficiaries of international protection, family separation can affect their ability to engage in many aspects of the integration process, from education and employment to putting down roots, as well as harming their physical and emotional health. That is why family reunification is a fundamental aspect of bringing normality to the lives of such people. While EU law ensures refugees and holders of subsidiary protection – the two types of beneficiaries of international protection – equal treatment in most areas, differences remain, among others, as regards family reunification in accordance with the Family Reunification Directive. Unlike refugees, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection do not enjoy the favourable conditions associated with the right to family reunification. After 2015, most EU Member States witnessed a significant increase in the number of asylum-seekers arriving in their territory, paralleled by an increase in the number of beneficiaries of international protection seeking reunification with their families. To establish some form of control over this unprecedented flow of people, Member States shifted away from awarding refugee status towards granting subsidiary protection, thus restricting the possibility of beneficiaries to reunite with their families. According to many legal experts, the fact that beneficiaries of subsidiary protection face stricter requirements regarding family reunification than do refugees disregards the particular circumstances related to their forced displacement and the corresponding difficulties they are likely to face in meeting these stricter requirements.

Review of the Juncker Commission

17-10-2019

Prior to his election as President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker set out the policy priorities that would serve as the political mandate for the Commission's 2014-2019 term of office. Although the new Commission will not take office on 1 November as scheduled, Juncker is due to make a statement during the October II plenary session on his term as President, and a debate will review the work of his Commission.

Prior to his election as President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker set out the policy priorities that would serve as the political mandate for the Commission's 2014-2019 term of office. Although the new Commission will not take office on 1 November as scheduled, Juncker is due to make a statement during the October II plenary session on his term as President, and a debate will review the work of his Commission.

Politische Maßnahmen der EU im Interesse der Bürger: Schutz der EU-Außengrenzen

28-06-2019

Durch die Ankunft von Flüchtlingen und irregulären Migranten in der EU in nie zuvor erreichtem Ausmaß, mit dem Höhepunkt im Jahr 2015, wurde eine Reihe von Mängeln und Schwachstellen der EU-Politik im Bereich der Außengrenzen deutlich. Die Anwendung der Schengen-Bestimmungen wurde beeinträchtigt, was dazu führte, dass mehrere Mitgliedstaaten wieder Grenzkontrollen einführten. Um diesen Problemen sowie dem Anstieg terroristischer Handlungen und schwerer grenzüberschreitender Straftaten entgegenzuwirken ...

Durch die Ankunft von Flüchtlingen und irregulären Migranten in der EU in nie zuvor erreichtem Ausmaß, mit dem Höhepunkt im Jahr 2015, wurde eine Reihe von Mängeln und Schwachstellen der EU-Politik im Bereich der Außengrenzen deutlich. Die Anwendung der Schengen-Bestimmungen wurde beeinträchtigt, was dazu führte, dass mehrere Mitgliedstaaten wieder Grenzkontrollen einführten. Um diesen Problemen sowie dem Anstieg terroristischer Handlungen und schwerer grenzüberschreitender Straftaten entgegenzuwirken, hat die EU einen weitreichenden Reformprozess eingeleitet. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Außengrenzen durch eine stärkere Verbindung von Grenzkontrollen und Sicherheit gefestigt werden. Einerseits konzentrierten sich die Maßnahmen zum Schutz der EU-Außengrenzen auf die Stärkung der EU-Regeln zum Grenzmanagement, wie beispielsweise den Schengener Grenzkodex, und die Stärkung und Aufwertung der Mandate relevanter EU-Agenturen wie Frontex, eu-Lisa, Europol und EASO. Andererseits wurden im Zusammenhang mit einer Reihe von wesentlichen Mängeln in den Informationssystemen der EU Anstrengungen zur besseren Nutzung der Möglichkeiten unternommen, die die Informationssysteme und -technologien für die Sicherheit, Strafregisterverwaltung sowie das Grenz- und Migrationsmanagement bieten. Dazu gehörten der Ausbau bestehender (SIS II, VIS, Eurodac, ECRIS-TCN) und die Einrichtung neuer IT-Systeme (ETIAS, Einreise-/Ausreisesystem) sowie die Verbesserung ihrer Interoperabilität. Das umfassendere Mandat und die Ausweitung der Aktivitäten im Bereich des E-Grenzmanagements spiegeln sich auch in der steigenden Höhe, Flexibilität und Vielfalt der EU-Mittel wider, die dafür sowohl im Rahmen des laufenden und zukünftigen EU-Haushaltsplans als auch darüber hinaus zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Dies ist die aktualisierte Fassung eines Briefings, das vor der Wahl zum Europäischen Parlament 2019 veröffentlicht wurde.

Überarbeitung des Visakodexes

10-04-2019

Im März 2018 legte die Kommission einen Vorschlag zur Überarbeitung des Visakodexes der Gemeinschaften (Visakodex) vor. Das wichtigste Ziel des Vorschlags besteht darin, die gemeinsame Visumpolitik zu stärken und dabei Bedenken im Zusammenhang mit der Migration und der Sicherheit Rechnung zu tragen, indem die Rolle der Visumpolitik bei der Zusammenarbeit der EU mit Drittstaaten gestärkt wird. Auch wirtschaftliche Überlegungen spielen dabei eine Rolle, denn durch die Vereinfachung der Visumverfahren ...

Im März 2018 legte die Kommission einen Vorschlag zur Überarbeitung des Visakodexes der Gemeinschaften (Visakodex) vor. Das wichtigste Ziel des Vorschlags besteht darin, die gemeinsame Visumpolitik zu stärken und dabei Bedenken im Zusammenhang mit der Migration und der Sicherheit Rechnung zu tragen, indem die Rolle der Visumpolitik bei der Zusammenarbeit der EU mit Drittstaaten gestärkt wird. Auch wirtschaftliche Überlegungen spielen dabei eine Rolle, denn durch die Vereinfachung der Visumverfahren für legal Reisende wird die Wirtschaft der EU gefördert und zu ihrer kulturellen und sozialen Entwicklung beigetragen. Die in den Trilog-Verhandlungen erzielte Einigung über den Vorschlag muss nun vom Europäischen Parlament bestätigt werden; die Abstimmung darüber soll während der April-II-Plenartagung stattfinden.

Resettlement of refugees: EU framework

29-03-2019

Resettlement is one tool to help displaced persons in need of protection reach Europe safely and legally, and receive protection for as long as necessary. It is a durable solution which includes selection and transfer of refugees from a country where they seek protection to another country. Apart from providing international protection to refugees, its aim is also to strengthen solidarity and responsibility-sharing between countries. For a resettlement to take place, the United Nations Refugee Agency ...

Resettlement is one tool to help displaced persons in need of protection reach Europe safely and legally, and receive protection for as long as necessary. It is a durable solution which includes selection and transfer of refugees from a country where they seek protection to another country. Apart from providing international protection to refugees, its aim is also to strengthen solidarity and responsibility-sharing between countries. For a resettlement to take place, the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) has to determine an applicant is a refugee according to the 1951 Geneva Convention, and has to identify resettlement as the most appropriate solution. On 13 July 2016, as part of the reform of the Common European Asylum System and the long-term policy on better migration management, the Commission presented a proposal which aims to provide for a permanent framework with standard common procedures for resettlement across the EU, and will complement current national and multilateral resettlement initiatives. Although a partial provisional agreement on the proposal was reached between the Parliament and Council in summer 2018, the Council has been unable to endorse that, nor agree on a mandate for further negotiations.

Reception of asylum-seekers - recast Directive

29-03-2019

States must treat asylum-seekers and refugees according to the appropriate standards laid down in human rights and refugee law. The current migration crisis revealed wide divergences in the level of reception conditions provided by Member States. While some are facing problems in ensuring adequate and dignified treatment of applicants, in others the standards of reception provided are more generous. This has led to secondary movements of asylum-seekers and refugees, and has put pressure on certain ...

States must treat asylum-seekers and refugees according to the appropriate standards laid down in human rights and refugee law. The current migration crisis revealed wide divergences in the level of reception conditions provided by Member States. While some are facing problems in ensuring adequate and dignified treatment of applicants, in others the standards of reception provided are more generous. This has led to secondary movements of asylum-seekers and refugees, and has put pressure on certain Member States. The aim of the proposed recast directive, which would replace the current Reception Conditions Directive, is to ensure greater harmonisation of reception standards and more equal treatment of asylum-seekers across all Member States, as well as to avoid ‘asylum shopping’ whereby asylum-seekers choose the Member State with the highest protection standards for their application. Although the co-legislators reached provisional agreement on the proposal in trilogue, Coreper was not able to confirm the Council’s support for that text and trilogue negotiations have yet to restart. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Das Visa-Informationssystem

06-03-2019

Im Mai 2018 hat die Kommission einen Vorschlag zur Verbesserung des Visa-Informationssystems vorgelegt, damit besser auf die sich abzeichnenden Herausforderungen in den Bereichen Sicherheit und Migration reagiert und der Schutz der Außengrenze der EU verbessert werden kann. Angestrebt wird, den Hintergrund von Personen, die ein Visum beantragen, gründlicher zu überprüfen, durch einen besseren Informationsaustausch zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten die Informationslücken im Sicherheitsbereich zu schließen ...

Im Mai 2018 hat die Kommission einen Vorschlag zur Verbesserung des Visa-Informationssystems vorgelegt, damit besser auf die sich abzeichnenden Herausforderungen in den Bereichen Sicherheit und Migration reagiert und der Schutz der Außengrenze der EU verbessert werden kann. Angestrebt wird, den Hintergrund von Personen, die ein Visum beantragen, gründlicher zu überprüfen, durch einen besseren Informationsaustausch zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten die Informationslücken im Sicherheitsbereich zu schließen und die vollständige Interoperabilität mit anderen EU-weiten Datenbanken zu gewährleisten. Das Europäische Parlament wird voraussichtlich in der März-I-Plenartagung über seinen Standpunkt zu dem Vorschlag abstimmen.

Reform of the Dublin system

01-03-2019

The refugee and migrant crisis in Europe has exposed the need for reform of the Common European Asylum System, in general, and of the Dublin rules, in particular. The Commission’s proposal of 4 May 2016 to reform the Dublin system would not change the existing criteria for determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application. Instead of a fundamental overhaul of the Dublin regime, as suggested by Parliament, the Commission proposed to streamline and supplement the current ...

The refugee and migrant crisis in Europe has exposed the need for reform of the Common European Asylum System, in general, and of the Dublin rules, in particular. The Commission’s proposal of 4 May 2016 to reform the Dublin system would not change the existing criteria for determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application. Instead of a fundamental overhaul of the Dublin regime, as suggested by Parliament, the Commission proposed to streamline and supplement the current rules with a corrective allocation mechanism. This mechanism would be triggered automatically were a Member State to be faced with disproportionate numbers of asylum-seekers. If a Member State decided not to accept the allocation of asylum-seekers from another one under pressure, a ‘solidarity contribution’ per applicant would have to be made instead. An agreement on the balance between responsibility and solidarity regarding the distribution of asylum-seekers will be a cornerstone for the new EU asylum policy. Although Parliament’s LIBE committee adopted its positon in autumn 2017, the Council has been unable to reach a position on the proposal.

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