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Parlamentarische Anhörungen der designierten Kommissionsmitglieder: Ein entscheidender Schritt beim Verfahren der Amtseinführung

23-09-2019

Die Anhörungen der designierten Kommissionsmitglieder durch die Ausschüsse des Europäischen Parlaments sind ein notwendiger Schritt, damit das Parlament seine Entscheidung über die Zustimmung oder Ablehnung des vorgeschlagenen Kollegiums sachkundig treffen kann. Jedes designierte Kommissionsmitglied stellt sich nach Beantwortung eines Fragebogens und der Vorlage seiner Interessenerklärung einer Einzelanhörung vor einem oder mehreren Ausschüssen des Parlaments. Bei Anhörungen in der Vergangenheit ...

Die Anhörungen der designierten Kommissionsmitglieder durch die Ausschüsse des Europäischen Parlaments sind ein notwendiger Schritt, damit das Parlament seine Entscheidung über die Zustimmung oder Ablehnung des vorgeschlagenen Kollegiums sachkundig treffen kann. Jedes designierte Kommissionsmitglied stellt sich nach Beantwortung eines Fragebogens und der Vorlage seiner Interessenerklärung einer Einzelanhörung vor einem oder mehreren Ausschüssen des Parlaments. Bei Anhörungen in der Vergangenheit wurde hauptsächlich kritisiert, dass es einigen Kandidaten an Fachwissen über ihren Geschäftsbereich mangelte, dass sie nur vage Antworten gaben und kaum zu Zusagen bereit waren und mögliche Interessenkonflikte im Zusammenhang mit dem zugewiesenen Geschäftsbereich und Bedenken gegenüber der Integrität des Kandidaten bestanden. Seit der Amtseinführung 2004 hat das Parlament seine Rolle bei der Ernennung der Kommission genutzt, um auf die Ersetzung bestimmter kontroverser Kandidaten zu dringen und Anpassungen bei bestimmten Geschäftsbereichen durchzusetzen, obwohl es das Kollegium nur als Ganzes ablehnen oder billigen kann. Einige Experten warnen zwar vor übermäßiger Politisierung der Anhörungen, andere jedoch begrüßen die gesteigerte Rechenschaftspflicht der Kommission gegenüber dem Parlament und sehen die sich vertiefende politische Verbindung zwischen den beiden als einen Schritt zu weiterer Demokratisierung des Entscheidungsprozesses der EU. Die Anhörungen sind zu einem entscheidenden Bestandteil der Kontrolle der Kommission durch das Parlament geworden und gewinnen an Bedeutung, um dem Parlament bei der Aufstellung der Agenda auf Ebene der EU zu einer Aufwertung zu verhelfen. Dies ist eine aktualisierte und erweiterte Fassung eines Briefings aus dem Jahr 2014 von Eva-Maria Poptcheva.

Nepal, Bhutan and their neighbours: Two Himalayan countries landlocked between India and China

05-04-2019

Nepal and Bhutan are two poor landlocked Himalayan countries, sandwiched between a democracy and an authoritarian one-party state: India and China. After an authoritarian past, during the last decade, they have begun reforms in order to switch towards a democratic model. After a long and complicated path, Nepal succeeded in adopting a new constitution in 2015. Its first post-constitution government is run by an alliance of communist parties. In Bhutan, the king has successfully steered the country ...

Nepal and Bhutan are two poor landlocked Himalayan countries, sandwiched between a democracy and an authoritarian one-party state: India and China. After an authoritarian past, during the last decade, they have begun reforms in order to switch towards a democratic model. After a long and complicated path, Nepal succeeded in adopting a new constitution in 2015. Its first post-constitution government is run by an alliance of communist parties. In Bhutan, the king has successfully steered the country towards democratisation, as confirmed by the October 2018 general elections. While historically the two countries have nurtured solid relations with India, in recent years Beijing has expanded its footprint in the region considerably, challenging Delhi's traditional sphere of influence and increasing its sense of encirclement. In 2017 this led to a crisis referred to as the 'Doklam Plateau standoff'. There is currently a window of opportunity for Nepal and Bhutan to diversify their economic and security partnership and to rebalance their foreign policies between their two big neighbours. The EU has been supporting the two countries on their democratic journey and tripled resources for both countries' development for the 2014-2020 period. As they are among the world's poorest countries, Nepal and Bhutan benefit from the EU's 'Everything But Arms' scheme, which grants full duty free and quota free access to the EU single market for all products.

Umsetzung des Assoziierungsabkommens zwischen der EU und der Ukraine

05-12-2018

Vier Jahre nach der Unterzeichnung des Assoziierungsabkommens EU-Ukraine und des vertieften und umfassenden Freihandelsabkommens und zwei Jahre, nachdem diese Abkommen vollständig in Kraft getreten sind, bewertet das Parlament nun deren Umsetzung. Der Ausschuss für auswärtige Angelegenheiten begrüßt in seinem Bericht eine Reihe von positiven Entwicklungen in der Ukraine, weist jedoch auch auf Mängel hin. Das Parlament wird die Angelegenheit in seiner Plenartagung im Dezember erörtern.

Vier Jahre nach der Unterzeichnung des Assoziierungsabkommens EU-Ukraine und des vertieften und umfassenden Freihandelsabkommens und zwei Jahre, nachdem diese Abkommen vollständig in Kraft getreten sind, bewertet das Parlament nun deren Umsetzung. Der Ausschuss für auswärtige Angelegenheiten begrüßt in seinem Bericht eine Reihe von positiven Entwicklungen in der Ukraine, weist jedoch auch auf Mängel hin. Das Parlament wird die Angelegenheit in seiner Plenartagung im Dezember erörtern.

Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia

16-05-2018

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the ...

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the two countries and justifies the type of relationship existing with the majority of nation holder. He also suggests that from one side, full integration is the goal that needs to be pursued, while at the same time it's important to ensure the cultural and national values of Latvians and Estonians.

Externe Autor

Angela DI GREGORIO

Simbabwe: Beginn einer neuen Ära?

31-01-2018

Im Anschluss an den erzwungenen Rücktritt von Präsident Robert Mugabe am 21. November 2017 nach 37 Jahren an der Macht wurde am 24. November 2017 der neue Präsident, Emmerson Mnangagwa, vereidigt. Präsident Mnangagwa hat seitdem bekräftigt, dass er sich für freie und faire Wahlen einsetzt sowie die Korruption bekämpfen und wieder mit der internationalen Staatengemeinschaft zusammenarbeiten will, um ausländische Investitionen anzuziehen und die Wirtschaft zu beleben.

Im Anschluss an den erzwungenen Rücktritt von Präsident Robert Mugabe am 21. November 2017 nach 37 Jahren an der Macht wurde am 24. November 2017 der neue Präsident, Emmerson Mnangagwa, vereidigt. Präsident Mnangagwa hat seitdem bekräftigt, dass er sich für freie und faire Wahlen einsetzt sowie die Korruption bekämpfen und wieder mit der internationalen Staatengemeinschaft zusammenarbeiten will, um ausländische Investitionen anzuziehen und die Wirtschaft zu beleben.

Tunisia: Progress achieved and prospects for the social dimension

30-11-2017

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the ...

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the stability and progress achieved, further reforms are needed.

EU support to democracy and good governance in Africa

17-11-2017

Support to democracy, good governance and human rights is a central component of EU cooperation with Africa, and of EU development aid to the continent, under the different frameworks shaping relations with African countries, such as the ACP framework for Sub-Saharan Africa, the Neighbourhood Policy for North Africa, and the Africa-EU Joint Strategy for cooperation at continental level. EU support is all the more important as democracy in many African countries is recent and still fragile. Democratic ...

Support to democracy, good governance and human rights is a central component of EU cooperation with Africa, and of EU development aid to the continent, under the different frameworks shaping relations with African countries, such as the ACP framework for Sub-Saharan Africa, the Neighbourhood Policy for North Africa, and the Africa-EU Joint Strategy for cooperation at continental level. EU support is all the more important as democracy in many African countries is recent and still fragile. Democratic progress has had its ups and downs on the African continent since the 1990s wave of democratisation. On the whole, the number of free countries has stagnated, and progress on good governance indicators has been slow. Popular support for democratic systems in African countries remains however high, justifying EU efforts to promote democracy. The EU has a vast array of tools at its disposal. It has used the conditionality enshrined in its bilateral agreements to respond to serious political crises, particularly in Africa. EU budget support, which is vital to several African countries, has been subject to similar democratic and human rights conditionality. EU development aid includes an important component supporting good governance and rule of law. The EU has become an important partner in election observation and democracy assistance, and most of Africa has received EU missions. However, whether these tools of democracy support can make a significant difference remains a complicated issue. Much depends on conditions on the ground and the willingness of the partner governments to make progress. As the EU is about to redefine its priorities for cooperation with the African continent, democracy and good governance are acknowledged as a central pillar of resilience, strongly interlinked with peace and stability.

The state of implementation of the associations and free trade agreements with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova with a particular focus on Ukraine and systemic analysis of key sectors

16-11-2017

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance ...

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance with the DCFTA were calculated, level of investment associated with the necessary modernisation to make these economies competitive were neglected. The discrepancy between costs and benefits should prompt the EU to be more flexible. Brussels’ achievements remain fragile. Informal interests continue to play important roles in these countries and have the potential to thwart reforms. In the absence of strong, de-politicised institutions, the EU should work to support political consolidation—the alternative is further polarisation and political fragility—while at the same time insisting on adherence to democratic standards and strengthened institutional checks and balances.

Externe Autor

Iulian GROZA; Balazs JARABIK (coordinator); Jana KOBZOVA; Dr. Viktor KONSTANTYNOV; Tsovinar KUIUMCHIAN; Leonid LITRA; Tornike SHARASHENIDZE; Isaac WEBB

Development Cooperation Instrument

13-10-2017

The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) is the main financial instrument in the EU budget for funding aid to developing countries, and as such complements the European Development Fund, which is outside the EU budget. The primary objective of the DCI is to alleviate poverty, but it also contributes to other international priorities of the EU such as the UN's post-2015 Development Agenda; sustainable economic, social and environmental development; and the promotion of democracy, the rule of law ...

The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) is the main financial instrument in the EU budget for funding aid to developing countries, and as such complements the European Development Fund, which is outside the EU budget. The primary objective of the DCI is to alleviate poverty, but it also contributes to other international priorities of the EU such as the UN's post-2015 Development Agenda; sustainable economic, social and environmental development; and the promotion of democracy, the rule of law, good governance and respect for human rights.

Kyrgyzstan's 2017 presidential election

09-10-2017

On 15 October 2017, Kyrgyz voters go to the polls. Despite worrying signs of backsliding into authoritarianism, the country is still the most democratic in Central Asia and the result is far from a foregone conclusion. The two main candidates are Sooronbai Jeenbekov, an ally of incumbent president Almazbek Atambayev, and his younger rival, Omurbek Babanov.

On 15 October 2017, Kyrgyz voters go to the polls. Despite worrying signs of backsliding into authoritarianism, the country is still the most democratic in Central Asia and the result is far from a foregone conclusion. The two main candidates are Sooronbai Jeenbekov, an ally of incumbent president Almazbek Atambayev, and his younger rival, Omurbek Babanov.

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