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US: Economic indicators and trade with EU

14-10-2019

The USA remains the EU's top trading partner and export market. The EU and US economies account for about half the entire world's GDP, and for nearly a third of world trade flows. The European Commission reported in 2016 that over 10 million European jobs depend on exports to the USA. This Infographic provides you with essential data on trade between the EU and US. This is an updated edition of an ‘at a glance’ note from July 2018.

The USA remains the EU's top trading partner and export market. The EU and US economies account for about half the entire world's GDP, and for nearly a third of world trade flows. The European Commission reported in 2016 that over 10 million European jobs depend on exports to the USA. This Infographic provides you with essential data on trade between the EU and US. This is an updated edition of an ‘at a glance’ note from July 2018.

International trade [What Think Tanks are thinking]

13-09-2019

The escalating trade conflict between the United States (US) and China has dampened economic growth in the European Union and other regions of the world, analysts say, and poses a further question mark over the continuity of the post-Cold War rules-based order. The EU is seeking to position itself as a defender of the multilateral rules-based system in the context of growing economic nationalism. The EU will need to coordinate closely its trade and climate policies, and think clearly about how best ...

The escalating trade conflict between the United States (US) and China has dampened economic growth in the European Union and other regions of the world, analysts say, and poses a further question mark over the continuity of the post-Cold War rules-based order. The EU is seeking to position itself as a defender of the multilateral rules-based system in the context of growing economic nationalism. The EU will need to coordinate closely its trade and climate policies, and think clearly about how best to defend its economic interests in the challenging new geopolitical environment facing the incoming European Commission. This note offers links to a series of recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks and research institutes on international trade policy. More reports on trade can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking' published in June 2018.

Internationaler Handel und Globalisierung

28-06-2019

Die Europäische Gemeinschaft wurde in der Überzeugung gegründet, dass wirtschaftliche Integration zu Frieden und wirtschaftlichem Wohlstand führt. Der Handel ist heute daher ein grundlegender Teil der Identität der Europäischen Union (EU). Angesichts des Erfolgs des Binnenmarkts bei der Förderung der längsten Friedensperiode in der europäischen Zeitgeschichte betrachtet sich die EU als ein Beispiel für den Nutzen von Handel, Globalisierung und wirtschaftlicher Öffnung. Die internationale Handelspolitik ...

Die Europäische Gemeinschaft wurde in der Überzeugung gegründet, dass wirtschaftliche Integration zu Frieden und wirtschaftlichem Wohlstand führt. Der Handel ist heute daher ein grundlegender Teil der Identität der Europäischen Union (EU). Angesichts des Erfolgs des Binnenmarkts bei der Förderung der längsten Friedensperiode in der europäischen Zeitgeschichte betrachtet sich die EU als ein Beispiel für den Nutzen von Handel, Globalisierung und wirtschaftlicher Öffnung. Die internationale Handelspolitik fällt in die ausschließliche Zuständigkeit der EU; mit dem gemeinsamen wirtschaftlichen Gewicht ihrer Mitgliedstaaten hinter sich ist die EU einer der Hauptakteure im Welthandel. Bei der Handelspolitik geht es jedoch um mehr als um Stabilität und Wachstum der EU, da sie auch genutzt wird, um die Entwicklung armer Länder voranzutreiben, internationale Bündnisse zu fördern und grundlegende Werte weltweit zu unterstützen. Als starke Partnerin in der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO) steht die EU hinter einem internationalen Handelssystem, das auf Regeln statt Macht basiert. Der Nutzen der Globalisierung und des Welthandels wurde in den letzten Jahren jedoch in Frage gestellt, auch in der EU. Dies hat zur Erneuerung ihrer Handelspolitik geführt, in deren Rahmen insbesondere eine neue Handelsstrategie und ein Reflexionspapier mit dem Titel „Die Globalisierung meistern“ vorgelegt wurden. In der neuen EU-Strategie „Handel für alle“ wird die geäußerte Kritik berücksichtigt; der Schwerpunkt liegt darauf, eine wirksamere, transparentere und stärker wertebasierte Handelspolitik zu erreichen. Entsprechend dieser Strategie hat die EU die laufenden Handelsverhandlungen mit frischer Kraft fortgesetzt und neue Gespräche über Handel und Investitionen eingeleitet, die zu modernen Abkommen mit Ländern wie Kanada und Japan geführt haben. Die EU steht aufgrund der großen Veränderungen im internationalen Handel, die sich im Westen und im Osten vollziehen, vor unsicheren Zeiten. In Reaktion darauf ist sie bestrebt, die wirtschaftliche Öffnung zu fördern; dabei setzt sie sich für ihre Werte ein und schützt ihre Interessen. Beispielsweise hat sich die EU gegen die Zölle der Vereinigten Staaten auf Stahl gewehrt und tritt weiterhin für eine regelgebundene internationale Handelsordnung ein. Angesichts strittiger Handelspraktiken von Drittstaaten, darunter China, hat die EU ihre Handelsschutzinstrumente modernisiert, einen neuen Mechanismus für die Überprüfung ausländischer Investitionen entwickelt und strebt eine Reform der WTO an. Die EU wird dieses Konzept in der kommenden Wahlperiode voraussichtlich beibehalten, sie wird die internationale Zusammenarbeit sowie den Abschluss neuer Übereinkommen, möglicherweise auch auf kontinentaler Ebene mit Afrika, fortsetzen und sich darum bemühen, ihre Bürger und Unternehmen vor wirtschaftlichem Schaden zu bewahren. Dies ist die aktualisierte Fassung eines Briefings, das vor der Europawahl 2019 veröffentlicht wurde.

Trade negotiations with Australia and New Zealand

03-05-2019

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement ...

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement and investment. It also highlights the current architecture of FTAs which Australia and New Zealand have established, especially the very recent Comprehensive and Progressive Trans Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), to which both are party. It explores how these agreements impact on the EU’s competitiveness in the Australian and New Zealand markets and how FTAs could be leveraged to improve EU integration with these partners and their broader region. The study also considers how trade and sustainable development (TSD) can be effectively integrated into the agreements, in line with the objectives of the EU’s ‘Trade for All’ strategy. Finally, several potential wider, more political impacts of the FTAs are underlined.

Externe Autor

Louise CURRAN

Understanding trade balances

08-02-2019

Trade policy discourse on both sides of the Atlantic has recently focused on trade deficits and surpluses. In the United States (US), President Donald Trump has routinely referred to the US trade deficit as a central indicator of the country's economic woes and made its reduction a key objective of US trade policy. In Europe, the world's largest trade surplus, run by Germany, has come under scrutiny. However, focusing on trade balances of exports and imports can be misleading in the trade policy ...

Trade policy discourse on both sides of the Atlantic has recently focused on trade deficits and surpluses. In the United States (US), President Donald Trump has routinely referred to the US trade deficit as a central indicator of the country's economic woes and made its reduction a key objective of US trade policy. In Europe, the world's largest trade surplus, run by Germany, has come under scrutiny. However, focusing on trade balances of exports and imports can be misleading in the trade policy context. Trade balances need to be considered as an integral part of a larger whole, the balance of payments of an economy. The imposition of specific trade policy measures, such as unilateral tariffs, cannot be expected to improve a trade balance significantly.

Consequences of US trade policy on EU-US trade relations and the global trading system

17-10-2018

The Trump Administration’s trade policy is driven by the belief that previous Administrations have let other countries take advantage of the United States for foreign policy reasons, as demonstrated by America’s more open trade regime and its trade deficits. It is determined to end this perceived imbalance by demanding reciprocity instead, and is willing to use tough tactics to achieve this through strict enforcement of its procurement and trade defense law; expansive tax provisions; bringing the ...

The Trump Administration’s trade policy is driven by the belief that previous Administrations have let other countries take advantage of the United States for foreign policy reasons, as demonstrated by America’s more open trade regime and its trade deficits. It is determined to end this perceived imbalance by demanding reciprocity instead, and is willing to use tough tactics to achieve this through strict enforcement of its procurement and trade defense law; expansive tax provisions; bringing the WTO dispute settlement to a halt; withdrawing from and forcing others to renegotiate existing bilateral and multilateral agreements; adopting a novel “national security” argument to justify breaking WTO tariff commitments for steel, aluminum and possibly autos; and enacting punitive tariffs on billions of dollars of imports from China, possibly threatening a trade war. The scenarios for U.S.-EU trade relations as well as the global trading system are anything but rosy. The EU can stand up to the Administration’s “bullying,” or it can take advantage of America’s need for a “re-balancing” to build its own stature by taking simple steps to improve EU-U.S. trade, forging a way forward in the WTO, and providing necessary leadership to address the dangers China’s economic system poses to the global trading order.

Externe Autor

Peter CHASE, Peter SPARDING, Yuki MUKAI

Eine neue Ära in den Beziehungen zwischen der EU und China: umfassendere strategische Zusammenarbeit?

19-07-2018

Trotz grundlegender Divergenzen, die vor allem mit staatlichen Eingriffen und den Grundrechten zusammenhängen, ist China für die EU ein wichtiger strategischer Partner. Die Partnerschaft erlaubt eine Zusammenarbeit zum beiderseitigen Vorteil und Dialog in vielfältigen Bereichen: von Investitionen über Verkehrswesen und Menschenrechte bis zur Cybersicherheit. Auf der Grundlage von Xi Jinpings „Gedankengut für das neue Zeitalter des Sozialismus chinesischer Prägung“ beschreitet China derzeit neue Wege ...

Trotz grundlegender Divergenzen, die vor allem mit staatlichen Eingriffen und den Grundrechten zusammenhängen, ist China für die EU ein wichtiger strategischer Partner. Die Partnerschaft erlaubt eine Zusammenarbeit zum beiderseitigen Vorteil und Dialog in vielfältigen Bereichen: von Investitionen über Verkehrswesen und Menschenrechte bis zur Cybersicherheit. Auf der Grundlage von Xi Jinpings „Gedankengut für das neue Zeitalter des Sozialismus chinesischer Prägung“ beschreitet China derzeit neue Wege. Obwohl Präsident Xi wiederholt bekundet hat, dass dem Markt eine entscheidende Rolle zukommen werde, ist Staatseigentum weiterhin der Eckpfeiler der chinesischen Wirtschaft, obwohl tiefgreifende Reformen erforderlich wären, um das Problem der Überkapazitäten in diversen Industriezweigen an der Wurzel anzugehen. Xis „Belt and Road Initiative“, die inzwischen auch in die Verfassung aufgenommen wurde, ist ein Leuchtturmprojekt zu internationaler Vernetzung und Infrastruktur, in dem chinesische Staatsunternehmen eine bestimmende Rolle spielen. Insgesamt soll der wichtige, aber komplexe Wandel Chinas hin zu einem nachhaltigeren Wachstum schließlich sowohl China als auch der ganzen Welt zugutekommen. Aufgrund der Interdependenz der Weltwirtschaft bleiben Folgewirkungen der Neuausrichtung Chinas auf die globale Wirtschaftsordnung nicht aus. China nimmt in der Weltordnungspolitik und der internationalen Rechtsordnung eine Schlüsselrolle ein, die auch mit entsprechender Verantwortung einhergeht. Peking hat damit begonnen, nicht mehr nur nationale Ziele zu verfolgen, sondern vielmehr eine selbstbewusste Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik und vermehrte finanzielle, wirtschaftliche und sicherheitspolitische Zusammenarbeit mit globaler Reichweite. China steht auch vor innenpolitischen Herausforderungen: Es gilt, Millionen Menschen aus der Armut zu befreien und stetig wachsenden Einkommensunterschieden sowie der Verschlechterung der Lage der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten und der vorherrschenden Korruption entgegenzuwirken.

Protectionism and international diplomacy

25-06-2018

Just three decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall signifying the end of Cold War aggression and the ascendancy of international liberalism, the world faces even greater uncertainty. In every region of the world, geopolitical shifts are taking place that have brought offensive trade agendas to the fore. The US has withdrawn from underwriting the post-World War Two international economic and foreign policy architecture, instead proposing to build a wall between itself and neighbouring Mexico, imposing ...

Just three decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall signifying the end of Cold War aggression and the ascendancy of international liberalism, the world faces even greater uncertainty. In every region of the world, geopolitical shifts are taking place that have brought offensive trade agendas to the fore. The US has withdrawn from underwriting the post-World War Two international economic and foreign policy architecture, instead proposing to build a wall between itself and neighbouring Mexico, imposing unilateral tariff increases while refusing to negotiate new international agreements. In Europe, the project of ever greater integration has been attacked by Brexit, as well as other populist sentiment against the perceived power of EU institutions and the forces of globalisation. The breakdown of the western coalition advocating global governance has left a power vacuum that other key players such as China are forced to respond to. These current tectonic shifts in power and foreign policy positions impact on every country and every individual in the early 21st century. While many governments strive to maintain international cooperation and further integration, it is an unpredictable era. For trade policy has established itself firmly within the arena of high foreign diplomacy and as a result, traditional assumptions and adherence to international norms can no longer be assumed in such a state of political and economic flux. Yet when trade policy becomes a tool of diplomacy and foreign policy, sound economic reasoning can be lost to political decision making. This report shines a spotlight on the rise of protectionism in the 21st century. It examines the diplomatic dynamics behind economic nationalism and its attack on the established liberal international institutions that were created after the second World War to settle disputes without recourse to war. Before focusing on the US, UK, EU and China, the first chapter centers on the threat to economic integration and cooperation in promoting sustainable development through the multilateral rules-based system established under the World Trade Organization.

Externe Autor

Ms Kamala DAWAR

Human rights in EU trade policy: Unilateral measures applied by the EU

30-05-2018

Protection of human rights is one of the EU's overarching objectives in its external action, in line with the Treaty on European Union. One of the EU's main tools to promote human rights in third countries is the generalised system of preferences (GSP), granting certain developing countries preferential trade access to the EU market. Covering 90 third countries, the scheme includes explicit human rights conditionality, providing that preferences can be withdrawn in case of massive and systematic ...

Protection of human rights is one of the EU's overarching objectives in its external action, in line with the Treaty on European Union. One of the EU's main tools to promote human rights in third countries is the generalised system of preferences (GSP), granting certain developing countries preferential trade access to the EU market. Covering 90 third countries, the scheme includes explicit human rights conditionality, providing that preferences can be withdrawn in case of massive and systematic violations of core human rights or labour rights norms. A special incentive arrangement under the GSP grants further tariff concessions to countries that ratify and implement a series of international conventions. Based on systematic monitoring by the European Commission, this special scheme is the most comprehensive and detailed human rights mechanism established in the framework of the common commercial policy. While the scheme has been particularly effective in encouraging beneficiary countries to make the necessary legislative and institutional changes, such progress has not been matched at the level of implementation. Suspension of preferences under GSP has been applied in only a few cases and, when it was, did not have an immediate and clear impact on the human rights situation. In practice, the EU has privileged a strategy of incentivising gradual progress through dialogue and monitoring, rather than withdrawing preferences. The EU's unilateral trade measures to protect human rights are not limited to the GSP. The EU has taken steps to prohibit or limit trade in items that could cause human rights violations, such as torture and execution equipment, and dual use goods. New legislation has recently been adopted on conflict minerals, and the European Parliament has called for a proposal for legislation to ban the import of goods produced using child labour. This is an updated edition of a briefing published in January 2017: PE 595.878.

EYE event - Trade for all: Please fasten your seat belt

16-05-2018

Long-term economic trends have transformed the world trading scene and, as underlined by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker in his 2017 State of the Union address, new challenges make it essential to strengthen the European trade agenda. In line with the 'trade for all' strategy, EU trade policy follows four main objectives: concluding balanced trade agreements, implementing the agreements in force effectively, tackling unfair trade practices and promoting a sustainable approach to ...

Long-term economic trends have transformed the world trading scene and, as underlined by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker in his 2017 State of the Union address, new challenges make it essential to strengthen the European trade agenda. In line with the 'trade for all' strategy, EU trade policy follows four main objectives: concluding balanced trade agreements, implementing the agreements in force effectively, tackling unfair trade practices and promoting a sustainable approach to trade.

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