10

Ergebnis(se)

Wort/Wörter
Art der Veröffentlichung
Politikbereich
Verfasser
Schlagwortliste
Datum

Safeguarding competition in air transport

20-05-2019

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, ...

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, the Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a regulation on safeguarding competition in air transport. The objective of the proposal is to provide effective legislation in order ‘to maintain conditions conducive to a high level of Union connectivity and to ensure fair competition with third countries’ air carriers’. Parliament and Council reached agreement on the text in November 2018. The text was formally adopted by Parliament on 14 March 2019 and by Council on 9 April. Signed on 17 April, the new regulation comes into force on 30 May 2019. Fifth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Modernising trade defence instruments

03-07-2018

Trade defence instruments (TDIs) play a vital role in countering unfair trade practices from third countries and in levelling the playing field for EU companies, notably in times of mounting global overcapacity in a number of sectors. In April 2013, the Commission adopted a proposal to modernise the EU's basic Anti dumping and Anti-subsidy (AD/AS) Regulations. The reform was intended to enhance the transparency and predictability of investigations and increase the effectiveness and enforcement of ...

Trade defence instruments (TDIs) play a vital role in countering unfair trade practices from third countries and in levelling the playing field for EU companies, notably in times of mounting global overcapacity in a number of sectors. In April 2013, the Commission adopted a proposal to modernise the EU's basic Anti dumping and Anti-subsidy (AD/AS) Regulations. The reform was intended to enhance the transparency and predictability of investigations and increase the effectiveness and enforcement of AD/AS measures. Parliament adopted its position on the proposal in 2014, but the procedure was deadlocked in the Council until November 2016. Following interinstitutional negotiations, a political agreement was achieved in December 2017. After the Council’s adoption of its first-reading position in April 2018, the text was formally adopted by Parliament in May 2018. In 2016, the legislative procedure on the reform of the methodology for calculating AD duties was launched as a second pillar of the TDI reform. See also our 'EU Legislation in progress' briefing on that proposal: Protection from dumped and subsidised imports. Second edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Competition in Air Transport

16-04-2018

Competition in the aviation sector pertains to different sets of rules, competition law on the one hand and, given the cross-border interdependencies of transport markets, international rules on the other hand. The workshop aimed to examine the current situation of competition in air transport using the proposed regulation on Safeguarding competition in air transport, repealing Regulation (EC) No 868/2004 as a practical example and starting point for the discussion. The Committee on Economic and ...

Competition in the aviation sector pertains to different sets of rules, competition law on the one hand and, given the cross-border interdependencies of transport markets, international rules on the other hand. The workshop aimed to examine the current situation of competition in air transport using the proposed regulation on Safeguarding competition in air transport, repealing Regulation (EC) No 868/2004 as a practical example and starting point for the discussion. The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) has prepared a legislative opinion to this dossier. This Workshop was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Externe Autor

Kay MITUSCH, Universit Karlsruhe, Pablo MENDES DE LEON, University Leiden and Internationa Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Protection from dumped and subsidised imports

15-02-2018

On 9 November 2016, the European Commission published a proposal for targeted changes to the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy regulations. The proposal was a response to the expiry of parts of China’s WTO accession protocol in December 2016 and to unfair trade practices from third countries. At the core of the amendments of the anti-dumping regulation was the use for WTO members of prices derived from constructed values in situations where there are ‘substantial market distortions’ in the country ...

On 9 November 2016, the European Commission published a proposal for targeted changes to the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy regulations. The proposal was a response to the expiry of parts of China’s WTO accession protocol in December 2016 and to unfair trade practices from third countries. At the core of the amendments of the anti-dumping regulation was the use for WTO members of prices derived from constructed values in situations where there are ‘substantial market distortions’ in the country of export under investigation. This approach replaces the ‘analogue country methodology’ which was previously applied to non-market economies (NMEs) under EU law and remains in place for non-WTO members. The amendments to the anti-subsidy regulation insert due process and transparency provisions required to capture subsidies identified only in the course of anti-subsidy probes. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Schutz gegen gedumpte und subventionierte Einfuhren

08-11-2017

Das Dumping und die Subventionierung von Einfuhren durch Drittländer sind unlautere Handelspraktiken, die dem einführenden Land schwer schaden können. Gemäß WTO-Recht kann derlei Schäden entgegengewirkt werden, indem besondere Verpflichtungen eingeführt werden, sogenannte handelspolitische Schutzmaßnahmen (TDI). Damit die TDI der EU bei aktuellen Gegebenheiten – vor allem Überkapazität – im internationalen Handelsumfeld greifen können, hat die Kommission vorgeschlagen, die Antidumping-Verordnung ...

Das Dumping und die Subventionierung von Einfuhren durch Drittländer sind unlautere Handelspraktiken, die dem einführenden Land schwer schaden können. Gemäß WTO-Recht kann derlei Schäden entgegengewirkt werden, indem besondere Verpflichtungen eingeführt werden, sogenannte handelspolitische Schutzmaßnahmen (TDI). Damit die TDI der EU bei aktuellen Gegebenheiten – vor allem Überkapazität – im internationalen Handelsumfeld greifen können, hat die Kommission vorgeschlagen, die Antidumping-Verordnung und die Antisubventionsverordnung zu ändern. Das Europäische Parlament soll bei seiner Plenartagung im November über die im Trilog erzielte vorläufige Einigung abstimmen.

Revision of the calculation methodology of dumping

28-02-2017

The IA appears to provide a well-researched explanation of the evidence base for the legislative proposal; it clearly explains the scale of the problem, illustrated by facts and figures giving a clear view of the international situation. However, a better, more coherent organisation of the data related to the problem definition, and a broader range of options, would have strengthened the IA. Option 3 is the only viable one to address all the objectives, although – as also indicated by stakeholders ...

The IA appears to provide a well-researched explanation of the evidence base for the legislative proposal; it clearly explains the scale of the problem, illustrated by facts and figures giving a clear view of the international situation. However, a better, more coherent organisation of the data related to the problem definition, and a broader range of options, would have strengthened the IA. Option 3 is the only viable one to address all the objectives, although – as also indicated by stakeholders – its elements are only vaguely presented. The IA would have been more persuasive had it been clearer about the modification of the standard methodology. In particular, it would have benefited from a better explanation as to how it would work in practice, in order to allow the EU to continue to disregard domestic costs and prices of China and other NME countries, as this appears to be the most crucial element of the preferred option. The IA does not look at the impact on the economic performance of the EU sectors concerned, and remains unclear as to how EU SMEs would be affected. The stakeholder consultation covered a broad range of stakeholders and the collected views are presented systematically throughout the IA. However, it seems that stakeholders were not given the opportunity to comment in detail on the preferred option 3. The consultation seems to have happened at an early stage in the drafting process of the IA, which could explain the vague questions asked and the shortened period of consultation of 10 weeks instead of 12.

Berechnung von Dumpingspannen: Regeln und Praktiken in der EU und den USA vor dem Hintergrund der Debatte um den Marktwirtschaftsstatus fur China

31-05-2016

Die Berechnung der Dumpingspannen ist in Anti-dumpinguntersuchungen aus zwei Gründen von grund-legender Bedeutung: Erstens ist sie die Grundvoraus-setzung für die Einführung einer Antidumpingmaßnah-me; das Vorliegen von Dumping gilt dann als nachge-wiesen, wenn die Dumpingspanne über der Gering-fügigkeitsschwelle (d. h. über 2 %) liegt. Zweitens wird durch sie die Obergrenze für einen Antidumping-Zollsatz definiert, sofern es zu dessen Anwendung kommt. Die Methode zur Berechnung von Dumping-spannen ...

Die Berechnung der Dumpingspannen ist in Anti-dumpinguntersuchungen aus zwei Gründen von grund-legender Bedeutung: Erstens ist sie die Grundvoraus-setzung für die Einführung einer Antidumpingmaßnah-me; das Vorliegen von Dumping gilt dann als nachge-wiesen, wenn die Dumpingspanne über der Gering-fügigkeitsschwelle (d. h. über 2 %) liegt. Zweitens wird durch sie die Obergrenze für einen Antidumping-Zollsatz definiert, sofern es zu dessen Anwendung kommt. Die Methode zur Berechnung von Dumping-spannen unterscheidet sich je nachdem, ob das ausführende Land als Land mit Marktwirtschaft oder Nichtmarktwirtschaftsland gewertet wird. In dieser Ar-beit werden die Unterschiede betrachtet, die bei der Berechnung der Dumpingspannen und insbesondere der Normalwerte in Untersuchungen gegen Ausführer in einem Land mit Marktwirtschaft und gegen Ausfüh-rer in Nichtmarktwirtschaftsländern bestehen. Weiter-hin werden Unterschiede bei der Vorgehensweise gegenüber Nichtmarktwirtschaftsländern seitens der Europäischen Union und der Vereinigten Staaten be-trachtet und anhand empirischer Analysen wird unter-sucht, wie unterschiedliche Methoden in Untersuchun-gen gegen China angewendet werden. Abschließend werden die politischen Optionen betrachtet, die im Rahmen der für 2016 geplanten Änderung des Abschnitts 15 des Protokolls über den Beitritt Chinas zur Welthandelsorganisation vorgesehen sind.

Assessment of Trade Defence Policy decisions for 2014

10-06-2015

This paper assesses two vital issues concerning the EU’s trade defence activities. The first aspect concerns a transparency issue and the second pertains to the practical application of the trade defence instruments. On the first aspect, the paper concludes that the Annual Report issued by the European Commission to the European Parliament on trade defence activities needs a fundamental revision in terms of structure, content and timing of its issuance. In its current format the Annual Report fails ...

This paper assesses two vital issues concerning the EU’s trade defence activities. The first aspect concerns a transparency issue and the second pertains to the practical application of the trade defence instruments. On the first aspect, the paper concludes that the Annual Report issued by the European Commission to the European Parliament on trade defence activities needs a fundamental revision in terms of structure, content and timing of its issuance. In its current format the Annual Report fails to serve the purpose for which it was conceived in the first place. As regards the practical application of the trade defence instruments, the paper demonstrates that certain recent changes in the European Commission’s practice are target-oriented. Moreover, apart from the fact that the legality of certain practices is not assured, some of the new practices could backfire against EU exporting producers if third countries, which tend to emulate the EU’s practice, were to adopt them.

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Modernisation of the EU's Trade Defence Instruments (TDI)"

04-04-2014

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Modernisation of the EU's Trade defence instruments", held on 7 November 2013, in Brussels.

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Modernisation of the EU's Trade defence instruments", held on 7 November 2013, in Brussels.

Externe Autor

Edwin VERMULST (World Trade Institute, Bern and IELPO, Barcelona, Spain) and Olivier PROST (international trade expert, Brussels, Belgium)

Administrative Procedures in EU External Trade Law

15-03-2011

This study provides an analysis of the current state of play as regards EU administrative law in the field of trade policy. This is an established area of EU policy, in which a range of administrative-type measures are adopted at central EU level. The study first attempts to define the scope of the EU’s administrative law in trade matters. It subsequently explores whether there are any best practices in this field, which may be relevant to other areas of EU administrative law, or which may inspire ...

This study provides an analysis of the current state of play as regards EU administrative law in the field of trade policy. This is an established area of EU policy, in which a range of administrative-type measures are adopted at central EU level. The study first attempts to define the scope of the EU’s administrative law in trade matters. It subsequently explores whether there are any best practices in this field, which may be relevant to other areas of EU administrative law, or which may inspire horizontal, codifying legislation.

Externe Autor

Piet Eeckhout (Centre of European Law, King’s College London)

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