34

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Policy area
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Amazon wildfire crisis: Need for an international response

29-11-2019

The Amazon rainforest, which is the largest ecosystem of its kind on Earth and is shared by eight South American countries as well as an EU outermost region, was ravaged by fires coinciding with last summer’s dry season. However, most of these fires are set intentionally and are linked to increased human activities in the area, such as the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming, illegal logging, mining and fuel extraction. Although a recurrent phenomenon that has been going on for decades, some ...

The Amazon rainforest, which is the largest ecosystem of its kind on Earth and is shared by eight South American countries as well as an EU outermost region, was ravaged by fires coinciding with last summer’s dry season. However, most of these fires are set intentionally and are linked to increased human activities in the area, such as the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming, illegal logging, mining and fuel extraction. Although a recurrent phenomenon that has been going on for decades, some governments' recent policies appear to have contributed to the increase in the surface area burnt in 2019, in particular in Brazil and Bolivia. Worldwide media coverage of the fires, and international and domestic protests against these policies have nevertheless finally led to some initiatives to seriously tackle the fires, both at national and international level – such as the Leticia Pact for Amazonia. Finding a viable long-term solution to end deforestation and achieve sustainable development in the region, requires that the underlying causes are addressed and further action is taken at both national and international levels. The EU is making, and can increase, its contribution by cooperating with the affected countries and by leveraging the future EU-Mercosur Association Agreement to help systematic law enforcement action against deforestation. In addition, as the environmental commitments made at the 2015 Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris will have to be renewed in 2020, COP25 in December 2019 could help reach new commitments on forests.

Brazil ahead of the 2018 elections

05-10-2018

On 7 October 2018, about 147 million Brazilians will go to the polls to choose a new president, new governors and new members of the bicameral National Congress and state legislatures. If, as expected, none of the presidential candidates gains over 50 % of votes, a run-off between the two best-performing presidential candidates is scheduled to take place on 28 October 2018. Brazil's severe and protracted political, economic, social and public-security crisis has created a complex and polarised political ...

On 7 October 2018, about 147 million Brazilians will go to the polls to choose a new president, new governors and new members of the bicameral National Congress and state legislatures. If, as expected, none of the presidential candidates gains over 50 % of votes, a run-off between the two best-performing presidential candidates is scheduled to take place on 28 October 2018. Brazil's severe and protracted political, economic, social and public-security crisis has created a complex and polarised political climate that makes the election outcome highly unpredictable. Pollsters show that voters have lost faith in a discredited political elite and that only anti-establishment outsiders not embroiled in large-scale corruption scandals and entrenched clientelism would truly match voters' preferences. However, there is a huge gap between voters' strong demand for a radical political renewal based on new faces, and the dramatic shortage of political newcomers among the candidates. Voters' disillusionment with conventional politics and political institutions has fuelled nostalgic preferences and is likely to prompt part of the electorate to shift away from centrist candidates associated with policy continuity to candidates at the opposite sides of the party spectrum. Many less well-off voters would have welcomed a return to office of former left-wing President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010), who due to a then booming economy, could run social programmes that lifted millions out of extreme poverty and who, barred by Brazil's judiciary from running in 2018, has tried to transfer his high popularity to his much less-known replacement. Another part of the electorate, appalled by growing public-security issues and endemic corruption, but also disappointed with democracy more broadly, appears to be strongly attracted by the simple and unconventional answers to complex challenges posed by far-right populist rhetoric. The latter – worryingly – glorifies Brazil's dictatorship (1964-1985). As candidates with unorthodox political approaches appear to be an emerging norm, Brazilians may opt for a populist turn as well. If so, EU-Brazil relations may become more complex in the future.

The situation of indigenous children with disabilities

18-12-2017

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote ...

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote their human rights. This study seeks to identify these gaps, point to certain patterns and recommend ways of improving data collection and the situation of ICwD in future.

External author

Isabel Inguanzo

Openness of public procurement markets in key third countries

04-07-2017

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making ...

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making both within the EU and in its trading relations with key third countries. This assessment concludes that the lack of comprehensive comparable data on procurement contract awards, particularly at the sub-central level, is not a trivial challenge for policy makers. Nevertheless, it is evident that the liberalisation of procurement markets continues to take place on a strictly reciprocal basis – linked to the offensive interests of governments. Given the slow-down in negotiating mega-regional agreements with comprehensive procurement chapters, the WTO Government Procurement Agreement remains the most efficient and transparent forum for undertaking further liberalisation in public procurement.

External author

Kamala DAWAR, Sussex University, United Kingdom

Brazil: Economic indicators and trade with EU

23-06-2016

Brazil is the biggest economy in Latin America, representing one third of the EU´s total trade with the region. Our infographics, done in close cooperation with GlobalStats, provides a quick and useful overview of its main economic and trade data.

Brazil is the biggest economy in Latin America, representing one third of the EU´s total trade with the region. Our infographics, done in close cooperation with GlobalStats, provides a quick and useful overview of its main economic and trade data.

Brazil's humanitarian policy

17-05-2016

Brazil has been referred to as an emerging player in humanitarian policy, shaping its action largely on the basis of its own domestic social policies, particularly in the area of food and health. Yet the recent economic crisis raises doubts as to its ability to sustain its contributions.

Brazil has been referred to as an emerging player in humanitarian policy, shaping its action largely on the basis of its own domestic social policies, particularly in the area of food and health. Yet the recent economic crisis raises doubts as to its ability to sustain its contributions.

EU–Latin America trade relations: Overview and figures

11-03-2016

Trade relations between the EU and Latin American countries have come back into the spotlight in recent years. Collectively, the countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) represent the fifth largest trading partner of the EU. The EU has concluded agreements with two Latin American (LA) groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group) and with four other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia). The FTAs concluded by the EU with Latin American ...

Trade relations between the EU and Latin American countries have come back into the spotlight in recent years. Collectively, the countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) represent the fifth largest trading partner of the EU. The EU has concluded agreements with two Latin American (LA) groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group) and with four other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia). The FTAs concluded by the EU with Latin American countries differ considerably in terms of coverage and methodology depending on the time at which they were concluded and the context of the negotiations. The EU now aims to modernise the oldest FTAs, concluded with Mexico and Chile, in order to align them to the current standards of EU FTAs. The long-standing negotiations on a comprehensive trade agreement with Mercosur – which would mean the EU then had trade agreements with nearly all of Latin America – are yet to pick up pace, however.

International Agreements - Review and Monitoring Clauses: A Rolling Check-List

11-12-2015

This study provides an implementation monitoring tool which allows for a systematic overview of review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses as well as management and implementation clauses that are included in international agreements concluded between the EU and third countries. As an implementation monitoring tool, this study intends to provide a systematic overview of review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses as well as management and implementation clauses present in international agreements ...

This study provides an implementation monitoring tool which allows for a systematic overview of review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses as well as management and implementation clauses that are included in international agreements concluded between the EU and third countries. As an implementation monitoring tool, this study intends to provide a systematic overview of review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses as well as management and implementation clauses present in international agreements which are concluded between the EU and third countries. While the review and monitoring clauses refer to the process of assessing the implementation of international agreements, the sunset clauses refer to the duration of international agreements. The management and implementation clauses describe the composition of the body in charge of supervising the management of the agreement and eventually define special procedures for the management or implementation of the agreements.

Brazil's ambitions in climate change policy

03-12-2015

Brazil plays an active role in international climate change negotiations. Its success record on deforestation has made it a leader in the reduction of carbon emissions. Ahead of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Brazil made commitments to reduce emissions considerably by 2025.

Brazil plays an active role in international climate change negotiations. Its success record on deforestation has made it a leader in the reduction of carbon emissions. Ahead of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Brazil made commitments to reduce emissions considerably by 2025.

International Climate Negotiations – On the Road to Paris – Issues at Stake in View of COP 21

16-11-2015

This study presents a brief history of the climate negotiations, with a focus on the preparations for a legally binding agreement, to be finalised at the climate change conference in Paris in December 2015. The positions of the main Parties, negotiating groups and other stakeholders are highlighted, as well as the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted during 2015. The study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health ...

This study presents a brief history of the climate negotiations, with a focus on the preparations for a legally binding agreement, to be finalised at the climate change conference in Paris in December 2015. The positions of the main Parties, negotiating groups and other stakeholders are highlighted, as well as the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted during 2015. The study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI).

External author

Lorenz Moosmann, Katja Pazdernik, Andrea Prutsch and Klaus Radunsky

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