15

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Ámbito político
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Detecting and protecting victims of trafficking in hotspots

15-07-2019

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

Victims of trafficking in hotspots

21-02-2019

This briefing looks at the risks of exploitation faced by people leaving their countries in search of safety or better lives and arriving in Europe by sea. It gives an overview of the processes related to early identification of victims of trafficking in first reception facilities (hotspots) and the related challenges.

This briefing looks at the risks of exploitation faced by people leaving their countries in search of safety or better lives and arriving in Europe by sea. It gives an overview of the processes related to early identification of victims of trafficking in first reception facilities (hotspots) and the related challenges.

Citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) schemes in the EU

17-10-2018

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

Union Customs Code

26-09-2018

The study examines whether the Union Customs Code is being properly implemented for the benefit of the European consumers, businesses and EU budget. It covers the complex legislative and administrative framework of the UCC and its governance structure. It assesses the impact of the transitional measures attached to the UCC. It moreover addresses the specific challenges raised in the area of E-Commerce.

The study examines whether the Union Customs Code is being properly implemented for the benefit of the European consumers, businesses and EU budget. It covers the complex legislative and administrative framework of the UCC and its governance structure. It assesses the impact of the transitional measures attached to the UCC. It moreover addresses the specific challenges raised in the area of E-Commerce.

Revision of the immigration liaison officers network: Implementation Appraisal

16-05-2018

Preventing irregular migration to the EU is a central component of the EU approach to migration. The posting of immigration liaison officers (ILOs) in third countries by Member States to facilitate contacts with the authorities there is part of a multi-layered framework that combines external and internal policies. Although ILOs are a bilateral instrument used by the Member States, the ambition to create a stronger European dimension to their work led to the adoption, in 2004, of a regulation establishing ...

Preventing irregular migration to the EU is a central component of the EU approach to migration. The posting of immigration liaison officers (ILOs) in third countries by Member States to facilitate contacts with the authorities there is part of a multi-layered framework that combines external and internal policies. Although ILOs are a bilateral instrument used by the Member States, the ambition to create a stronger European dimension to their work led to the adoption, in 2004, of a regulation establishing an EU network of ILOs. The increasing pressure on Member States' immigration systems in recent years has led to new EU policies that impact the work and priorities of ILOs. In particular, the return of irregular migrants is a field in which operational support has been increasingly expected from ILOs. This priority has been accompanied by the creation of new EU actors in the field of return and re-admission, such as Frontex Liaison Officers, European Return Liaison Officers and European Migration Liaison Officers. Parallel to these changes in the area of EU immigration policies, evaluation of the ILOs Network Regulation has showed very mixed results as regards its relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency and EU added value. A European Commission proposal to address these issues was tabled on 16 May 2018.

The return of foreign fighters to EU soil: Ex-post evaluation

15-05-2018

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to ...

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to the prevention of radicalisation; to information exchange at EU level; to criminal justice responses to returnees; to disengagement/deradicalisation inside and outside prisons. This study aims at outlining the EU response to the issue of returning foreign fighters and their families. It furthermore examines how six Member States have responded to this phenomenon so far (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK). These Member States are confronted with significant challenges in dealing with foreign fighters that combine legal, ethical and practical questions regarding their obligations and capabilities as regards the handling of the foreign fighters still abroad and the returnees already on EU soil. Meanwhile, Member States' existing programmes aiming at tackling radicalisation are difficult to evaluate, leading to uncertainties as regards the efficiency of current practices.

Autor externo

The external study was written by Dr Francesco Ragazzi (Assistant Professor at Leiden University, the Netherlands) and Josh Walmsley (Independent Researcher) at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Law enforcement access to financial data

11-04-2018

Access to financial data by law enforcement authorities is seen as critical for preventing crime. This briefing looks at the specific provisions contained in EU instruments that have facilitated this access, and examines the exchange of financial data at EU level but also with non-EU countries. It shows that such access has significantly broadened in the last decades. The private sector, which collects most of these data, has been increasingly regulated; as a result, the sources of information available ...

Access to financial data by law enforcement authorities is seen as critical for preventing crime. This briefing looks at the specific provisions contained in EU instruments that have facilitated this access, and examines the exchange of financial data at EU level but also with non-EU countries. It shows that such access has significantly broadened in the last decades. The private sector, which collects most of these data, has been increasingly regulated; as a result, the sources of information available to the competent authorities have multiplied. The exchange of these data at EU level has been furthermore considerably simplified. However, law enforcement authorities still see significant challenges to accessing and exchanging financial information. The Commission plans to address these challenges through a number of initiatives that it announced in its 2018 work programme. On the other hand, such broadened access does not occur without debates and controversies, in particular in relation to efficiency at the operational level, adequate scrutiny and fundamental rights compliance.

Revision of the visa code

06-03-2018

The EU common visa code (the Visa Code) was adopted in 2009 by means of Regulation 810/2009. It establishes the procedures and conditions for issuing short-stay visas for entry into and transit through the Schengen area. This type of visa is valid for up to three months, whereas long-term visas (or residence permits) remain subject to national procedures. Regulation 767/2008 on the Visa Information System (VIS) defines the purpose and functionalities of the VIS, the computerised system aimed at facilitating ...

The EU common visa code (the Visa Code) was adopted in 2009 by means of Regulation 810/2009. It establishes the procedures and conditions for issuing short-stay visas for entry into and transit through the Schengen area. This type of visa is valid for up to three months, whereas long-term visas (or residence permits) remain subject to national procedures. Regulation 767/2008 on the Visa Information System (VIS) defines the purpose and functionalities of the VIS, the computerised system aimed at facilitating the exchange of data between EU Member States and associated countries applying the common visa policy. Since its adoption, EU policy as regards short-term visas has faced a significant challenge: the delicate equilibrium between the need to promote economic growth via mobility and tourism, on the one hand, and the need to ensure the security of the Schengen area, on the other. Assessments of the implementation of the Visa Code and the VIS have shown that the requirements for obtaining a Schengen visa have had a negative impact on tourism and as a result, on EU economic growth. That said, the extent to which the provisions of the Visa Code have contributed to preserving the security of the external borders is difficult to evaluate, since the full deployment of the VIS (both at consular posts worldwide and at Schengen border crossing points) was completed relatively recently (2016). In its work programme for 2018, the European Commission announced that proposals will be tabled to revise the Visa Code and upgrade the VIS. The revision of the Visa Code, in particular, will aim at overcoming divisions triggered by the visa package submitted by the Commission in 2014. Thus far, the co-legislators have not reached an agreement on this set of measures. On the other hand, efforts to upgrade the VIS will be aimed at enhancing visa processing further, among other things through improving law enforcement authorities' access to the VIS, including new categories of data in the system, and ensuring the interoperability of the VIS with the other existing large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice.

Directiva sobre los derechos de las víctimas

14-12-2017

El presente estudio evalúa la aplicación de la Directiva 2012/29/UE por la que se establecen normas mínimas sobre los derechos, el apoyo y la protección de las víctimas de delitos en los Estados miembros de la Unión. Evalúa su coherencia, pertinencia, eficacia, eficiencia y valor añadido. Para ello, abarca varios aspectos de la aplicación de la Directiva: las medidas de transposición a nivel de los Estados miembros, la aplicación práctica sobre el terreno, los beneficios para las víctimas, así como ...

El presente estudio evalúa la aplicación de la Directiva 2012/29/UE por la que se establecen normas mínimas sobre los derechos, el apoyo y la protección de las víctimas de delitos en los Estados miembros de la Unión. Evalúa su coherencia, pertinencia, eficacia, eficiencia y valor añadido. Para ello, abarca varios aspectos de la aplicación de la Directiva: las medidas de transposición a nivel de los Estados miembros, la aplicación práctica sobre el terreno, los beneficios para las víctimas, así como los obstáculos encontrados. Por último, el estudio ofrece una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones para continuar promoviendo la aplicación de la Directiva en el futuro.

Autor externo

The opening analysis of the study (Part I) has been prepared by Amandine Scherrer and Ivana Kiendl Krišto (EPRS, EVAL Unit) . Part II of the study was prepared by the Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services LLP (CSES).

Orden europea de protección Directiva 2011/99/UE: Evaluación europea de la aplicación

28-09-2017

La presente evaluación europea de la aplicación examina la aplicación de la Directiva 2011/99/UE sobre la orden europea de protección (OEP), un mecanismo para el reconocimiento mutuo de las medidas de protección para las víctimas de delitos, que debía ser transpuesta a la legislación nacional de los Estados miembros a más tardar el 11 de enero de 2015. La evaluación analiza las prácticas de los Estados miembros, identifica una serie de cuestiones que ayudan a explicar por qué se ha hecho un uso muy ...

La presente evaluación europea de la aplicación examina la aplicación de la Directiva 2011/99/UE sobre la orden europea de protección (OEP), un mecanismo para el reconocimiento mutuo de las medidas de protección para las víctimas de delitos, que debía ser transpuesta a la legislación nacional de los Estados miembros a más tardar el 11 de enero de 2015. La evaluación analiza las prácticas de los Estados miembros, identifica una serie de cuestiones que ayudan a explicar por qué se ha hecho un uso muy limitado de la orden europea de protección hasta la fecha y ofrece recomendaciones sobre cómo podría mejorarse la aplicación de la Directiva sobre la orden europea de protección.

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