14

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Cross-border nuclear safety, liability and cooperation in the European Union

11-02-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, aims at gaining deeper insights into the legal aspects of cross border nuclear safety and cooperation in the European Union. It analyses the legal framework of nuclear safety as well as the liability and insurance schemes for nuclear accidents. The study examines the current liability and insurance framework and formulates possibilities for ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, aims at gaining deeper insights into the legal aspects of cross border nuclear safety and cooperation in the European Union. It analyses the legal framework of nuclear safety as well as the liability and insurance schemes for nuclear accidents. The study examines the current liability and insurance framework and formulates possibilities for a further involvement of the EU in the liability regime. Specific attention is paid to citizen and NGO involvement in decision-making concerning nuclear power plants. The study analyses the case law in that respect and formulates various recommendations to improve the regime concerning cross-border nuclear safety, liability and corporation in the EU.

Autor externo

Prof.Dr. Michael G. FAURE, Dr. Kévine KINDJI

Brexit and Energy Policy - Workshop Proceedings

15-06-2018

This document summarises the presentations and discussions of the workshop on “Brexit and Energy Policy”, which was held on 16 May 2018. The impact of Brexit on the EU27 energy systems and the future EU electricity and gas partnership with the UK were assessed. The effects of Brexit on Ireland and the potential impact of the UK's withdrawal from Euratom were also discussed. This document was prepared at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE).

This document summarises the presentations and discussions of the workshop on “Brexit and Energy Policy”, which was held on 16 May 2018. The impact of Brexit on the EU27 energy systems and the future EU electricity and gas partnership with the UK were assessed. The effects of Brexit on Ireland and the potential impact of the UK's withdrawal from Euratom were also discussed. This document was prepared at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE).

Autor externo

Gustav FREDRIKSSON, Bruegel Alexander ROTH, Bruegel Simone TAGLIAPIETRA, Bruegel Georg ZACHMANN, Bruegel

US decertification of the Iran nuclear deal

20-10-2017

On 13 October, US President Donald Trump announced his decision not to certify Iran's compliance with the international nuclear agreement of 2015. This will likely result in a vote on the deal in Congress. The EU and the rest of the international community intend to keep to the agreement.

On 13 October, US President Donald Trump announced his decision not to certify Iran's compliance with the international nuclear agreement of 2015. This will likely result in a vote on the deal in Congress. The EU and the rest of the international community intend to keep to the agreement.

Republic of Korea: Impact of the Leadership Crisis and Security Threats on the Economy

25-11-2016

After decades of authoritarian military rule, South Korea — an East Asian nation on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula — has opened up politically. The current president, Park Guen-hye, faces a range of domestic problems. Recently, a corruption scandal triggered widespread protests and caused her approval ratings to plummet. The US continues to be an important ally in both economic and political terms, particularly in light of deteriorating relations with North Korea, whose nuclear programme ...

After decades of authoritarian military rule, South Korea — an East Asian nation on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula — has opened up politically. The current president, Park Guen-hye, faces a range of domestic problems. Recently, a corruption scandal triggered widespread protests and caused her approval ratings to plummet. The US continues to be an important ally in both economic and political terms, particularly in light of deteriorating relations with North Korea, whose nuclear programme has accelerated in 2016. Economically, South Korea, one of the world’s most rapidly aging societies, faces major challenges despite its strong growth and export record. Measures are needed to tackle low employment among women and young people and to support the elderly as well as to promote social inclusion. The large proportion of irregular workers on the labour market accounts for the big wage gap and high relative poverty rate. Economic restructuring in China, South Korea’s biggest trading partner, also has a spill-over effect. In July 2016, trade between the EU and South Korea was fully liberalised, apart from certain agricultural products, under the ambitious ‘second generation’ free trade agreement (FTA) signed in 2011. The FTA has benefited both sides. It does not contain an investment chapter and could be revised to incorporate one. However, public concerns in both South Korea and the EU would first have to be addressed.

An EU Strategy for Relations with Iran after the Nuclear Deal

23-06-2016

This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are ...

This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are a number of areas where both actors can benefit from cooperation; trade, environmental and sustainability issues, education, and combatting drug trade. Even when pursuing more contentious issues such as human rights, having a strategic and fully-fledged multilevel relationship will be helpful. There are also a number of political crisis in the region (ISIS, migration) where reaching a solution without Iranian involvement will either be unnecessarily costly or near impossible.

Autor externo

Rouzbeh PARSI (European Iran Research Group, Lund University, Sweden)

North Korea: Seventh Party Congress Enshrines Nuclear Ambitions but Says Little about Economic Reform

02-06-2016

The Korean Workers’ Party (KWP) held its Seventh Congress, the first since 1980, from 6 to 9 May 2016. In theory, the Congress is the highest deliberative body of the only governing party of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The Congress yielded relatively modest results, with no real breakthrough, apart from establishing the 'defensive' nuclear deterrence concept. Kim Jong-un’s position as North Korea's supreme leader was fully formalised and now seems to be stronger than ever. ...

The Korean Workers’ Party (KWP) held its Seventh Congress, the first since 1980, from 6 to 9 May 2016. In theory, the Congress is the highest deliberative body of the only governing party of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The Congress yielded relatively modest results, with no real breakthrough, apart from establishing the 'defensive' nuclear deterrence concept. Kim Jong-un’s position as North Korea's supreme leader was fully formalised and now seems to be stronger than ever. The Party is likely to gain further power at the expense of the military. Nuclear deterrence is now firmly enshrined in the Party's statutes as well as the country’s constitution. Pyongyang has made clear that no nuclear deal is possible unless the US and its allies accept North Korea as a 'nuclear state'. Despite its propaganda announcements, North Korea is not ready to modernise its sclerotic economy. While some cautious developments cannot be ruled out, the regime's open criticism of the Chinese economic model suggest that any reforms would be limited and very probably inconclusive.

Iran after the nuclear deal: Implications for the region and the EU

15-02-2016

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action signed in July 2015 between Iran and France, China, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union provides an opportunity for the normalisation of Iran's relationship with the rest of the international community. The main purpose of the agreement is to ensure the entirely peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear programme. In exchange, upon the implementation of the commitments included in the deal and verification by the International ...

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action signed in July 2015 between Iran and France, China, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union provides an opportunity for the normalisation of Iran's relationship with the rest of the international community. The main purpose of the agreement is to ensure the entirely peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear programme. In exchange, upon the implementation of the commitments included in the deal and verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the sanctions against Iran will gradually be lifted. It is not surprising therefore that after years of tense relations; both the international community and sections of Iranian society have high hopes for the results of this agreement. Even though other international political issues were purposefully excluded from the negotiations, there is an expectation that Iran will become a more responsible member of the international community and will facilitate the finding of solutions to conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. In that sense, Iran's relations with its neighbours in the Persian Gulf, and other regional powers – Egypt and Turkey in particular – will be an important part of that equation. At the same time, Iranian society is hoping that implementation of the agreement and the lifting of sanctions will significantly contribute to improving their living standards, in particular by reducing the unemployment rate. See also our briefing outlining the nuclear agreement with Iran, PE 572.820.

Russia's domestic energy policy

01-02-2016

Russia's domestic energy mix is essentially fossil fuels with some nuclear power, a situation which is unlikely to change in the foreseeable future. Except for large-scale hydroelectricity, renewable energies are still in their infancy. Energy efficiency is very poor and only slowly improving.

Russia's domestic energy mix is essentially fossil fuels with some nuclear power, a situation which is unlikely to change in the foreseeable future. Except for large-scale hydroelectricity, renewable energies are still in their infancy. Energy efficiency is very poor and only slowly improving.

The nuclear agreement with Iran

19-01-2016

The International Atomic Energy Agency referred the issue of Iran's nuclear programme to the UN Security Council (UNSC) in 2006. The UN gradually adopted restrictive measures against Iran, including an embargo on states exporting materials that could be used for Iran's nuclear programme and placing financial and travel restrictions on certain individuals. Following several years of rather chilly relations between Iran and the E3/EU+3 (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the EU High Representative ...

The International Atomic Energy Agency referred the issue of Iran's nuclear programme to the UN Security Council (UNSC) in 2006. The UN gradually adopted restrictive measures against Iran, including an embargo on states exporting materials that could be used for Iran's nuclear programme and placing financial and travel restrictions on certain individuals. Following several years of rather chilly relations between Iran and the E3/EU+3 (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the EU High Representative, China, Russia, and the United States) the discussions about Iran's nuclear programme gained new impetus with the election of Hassan Rouhani as president in June 2013. Building on a series of contacts between Iran and the E3/EU+3, the Joint Plan of Action was adopted on 24 November 2013. In April 2015, negotiators announced agreement on a set of parameters which provided the framework for the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and annexes agreed on 14 July 2015.

Nuclear deal with Iran

04-09-2015

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed on 14 July 2015 concludes the long process of negotiations concerning Iran's nuclear programme. A political understanding by the parties concerned, it aims to ensure that Iran's nuclear programme will be exclusively peaceful, in exchange for termination of restrictive measures against Iran. The deal received a generally positive reaction in Europe and Asia but mixed reception in the US and the region.

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed on 14 July 2015 concludes the long process of negotiations concerning Iran's nuclear programme. A political understanding by the parties concerned, it aims to ensure that Iran's nuclear programme will be exclusively peaceful, in exchange for termination of restrictive measures against Iran. The deal received a generally positive reaction in Europe and Asia but mixed reception in the US and the region.

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