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Postitatud 21-10-2020

Decarbonising maritime transport: The EU perspective

21-10-2020

International maritime transport is the backbone of the global economy. However, vessels release emissions that pollute the air and contribute significantly to global warming. As shipping is forecast to grow, reducing these emissions is urgent, in order not to undermine emissions-reducing efforts in other areas, to keep humans healthy, preserve the environment and limit climate change. Although international shipping was not explicitly mentioned in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, efforts to make ...

International maritime transport is the backbone of the global economy. However, vessels release emissions that pollute the air and contribute significantly to global warming. As shipping is forecast to grow, reducing these emissions is urgent, in order not to undermine emissions-reducing efforts in other areas, to keep humans healthy, preserve the environment and limit climate change. Although international shipping was not explicitly mentioned in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, efforts to make shipping cleaner and greener have since progressed. International rules to reduce air-polluting emissions from ships have been agreed in the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Their impact, in particular the application of stricter limits for sulphur content in marine fuels since 1 January 2020, is yet to be evaluated. Parallel efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from maritime shipping have resulted in the setting of rules on collecting data on fuel oil consumption and the first collected data becoming available. In 2018, the IMO adopted an initial strategy for reducing GHG emissions, aimed at cutting shipping GHG emissions by at least 50 % by 2050, compared to 2008 levels. While concrete steps are yet to be agreed, achieving this goal will require both short-term emission-reducing measures and longer-term measures to make shipping switch to alternative fuels. Short-term guidance from the IMO is expected in 2020. On the EU front, the European Commission announced in the European Green Deal that GHG from EU transport should be cut by 90 % by 2050 and outlined how this would involve shipping. Initial measures are to be proposed by the end of 2020. This briefing reviews the existing international and EU rules on shipping emissions and their application, looks into the short-term measures under discussion and maps the landscape of marine fuels and technologies that could help decarbonise shipping in the long term.

Sustainable consumption: Helping consumers make eco-friendly choices

21-10-2020

Household consumption in the EU has major environmental impacts, which in a number of cases exceed planetary boundaries. Two thirds of consumers in the EU realise that their consumption habits have negative effects on the environment, and the solution that they mention most often is to change consumption habits and production patterns. However, a number of studies have shown a gap between consumers' good intentions and their actual behaviour. This happens because sustainability is not the only thing ...

Household consumption in the EU has major environmental impacts, which in a number of cases exceed planetary boundaries. Two thirds of consumers in the EU realise that their consumption habits have negative effects on the environment, and the solution that they mention most often is to change consumption habits and production patterns. However, a number of studies have shown a gap between consumers' good intentions and their actual behaviour. This happens because sustainability is not the only thing consumers consider when choosing what to buy; they are also influenced by price, availability and convenience, habits, values, social norms and peer pressure, emotional appeal, and the feeling of making a difference. Consumers also use their consumption patterns to communicate who they are to themselves and to others. Studies on the impacts of consumption show that these are influenced mainly by people's income. The European Union has a number of policies that are relevant for consumers' sustainable choices. These include environmental product requirements, information and labelling requirements, rules on product guarantees, climate legislation that attempts to build the price of CO2 emissions into production expenses, and waste legislation that makes it easier to recycle. The European Commission now plans to add a legislative initiative to empower consumers for the green transition. The European Parliament has long been a supporter of making consumption in the EU more sustainable, and has recently called for measures to ensure that consumers are provided with transparent, comparable and harmonised product information, especially when it comes to the durability and reparability of products and their environmental footprint.

How can international trade contribute to sustainable forestry and the preservation of the world’s forests through the Green Deal?

19-10-2020

High deforestation rates, particularly in tropical areas, remain a pressing concern for the international community, given their impacts on the global climate and the loss of biodiversity. The EU has committed to promoting sustainable forest management both domestically and internationally. However, efforts so far have concentrated on promoting the legality of trade in timber and timber products, via policy instruments such as FLEGT and the EU Timber Regulation. EU trade policy could be employed ...

High deforestation rates, particularly in tropical areas, remain a pressing concern for the international community, given their impacts on the global climate and the loss of biodiversity. The EU has committed to promoting sustainable forest management both domestically and internationally. However, efforts so far have concentrated on promoting the legality of trade in timber and timber products, via policy instruments such as FLEGT and the EU Timber Regulation. EU trade policy could be employed more systematically to promote sustainable forestry and deforestation-free value chains. The report proposes eleven measures to this end, both at the unilateral, bilateral and multilateral level, that inter alia combine market access incentives on the part of consumer markets such as the EU with obligations to promote principles of sustainable production on the part of producer countries.

Parlamendiväline autor

Werner RAZA, Bernhard TRÖSTER, Bernhard WOLFSLEHNER, Markus KRAJEWSKI.

The role of Points of Single Contact and other information services in the Single Market

21-10-2020

This study analyses the role and development of Points of Single Contact and other information services. It reviews recent policy documents, and identifies a range of weaknesses for the provision of contact points. The main recommendations are to improve monitoring (using the indicators and the Single Market Scoreboard) and make use of infringement proceedings in case of non-compliance. The actions could build on the instruments available under the recent Single Digital Gateway Regulation. This ...

This study analyses the role and development of Points of Single Contact and other information services. It reviews recent policy documents, and identifies a range of weaknesses for the provision of contact points. The main recommendations are to improve monitoring (using the indicators and the Single Market Scoreboard) and make use of infringement proceedings in case of non-compliance. The actions could build on the instruments available under the recent Single Digital Gateway Regulation. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Parlamendiväline autor

Pau SALSAS-FORN et al.

Postitatud 20-10-2020

Barriers to Competition through Joint Ownership by Institutional Investors

15-10-2020

In recent years, the phenomenon of common ownership by institutional investors has sparked considerable debate about its impact on competition and companies’ corporate governance. The original full study analyses some specific features of common ownership by institutional investors in the European banking sector, at the intersection between competition policy, financial sector regulation and corporate governance rules. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and ...

In recent years, the phenomenon of common ownership by institutional investors has sparked considerable debate about its impact on competition and companies’ corporate governance. The original full study analyses some specific features of common ownership by institutional investors in the European banking sector, at the intersection between competition policy, financial sector regulation and corporate governance rules. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Parlamendiväline autor

S. FRAZZANI, K. NOTI, M. P. SCHINKEL, J. SELDESLACHTS, A. BANAL ESTAÑOL, N. BOOT, C. ANGELICI

Corporate due diligence and corporate accountability

20-10-2020

This study analyses the potential European Added Value of a measure requiring companies to carry out due diligence on social, environmental and governance risks in their own operations and supply chain. There is evidence of human rights violations and environmental negative impacts related to business activities. This measure could increase firm compliance to international principles of responsible business conduct, increase access to remedy for victims, improve legal certainty and create a level ...

This study analyses the potential European Added Value of a measure requiring companies to carry out due diligence on social, environmental and governance risks in their own operations and supply chain. There is evidence of human rights violations and environmental negative impacts related to business activities. This measure could increase firm compliance to international principles of responsible business conduct, increase access to remedy for victims, improve legal certainty and create a level playing field for businesses. This study reviews possible sources of costs and benefits for companies and, based on original analysis, suggests that stronger environmental and social accountability practices could contribute to improving EU firms' performance. From a qualitative analysis, it suggests a potential significant impact in addressing risks of environmental damages and human rights violations in global value chains, thus supporting EU commitment to human rights and environmental protection.

RESEARCH FOR PECH COMMITTEE: Impact of the use of offshore wind and other marine renewables on European fisheries

20-10-2020

The study provides an overview of general impacts of the development of offshore wind farms and other marine renewables on the European fishing sector. It further highlights pathways for possible co-existence solutions of both sectors, a description of best practice examples and lessons learnt, the identification of research gaps and last but not least the presentation of policy recommendations.

The study provides an overview of general impacts of the development of offshore wind farms and other marine renewables on the European fishing sector. It further highlights pathways for possible co-existence solutions of both sectors, a description of best practice examples and lessons learnt, the identification of research gaps and last but not least the presentation of policy recommendations.

Parlamendiväline autor

Vanessa STELZENMÜLLER, Antje GIMPEL, Jonas LETSCHERT, Casper KRAAN, Ralf DÖRING

Postitatud 19-10-2020

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Schweiz

19-10-2020

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung in der Bundesverfassung sowie in mehreren Spezialgesetzen, die sich ihrerseits auf bestimmte Diskriminierungsgründe und Rechtsbereiche beschränken. Diese werden hier dargestellt, bevor in einem dritten Teil die reichhaltige Rechtsprechung des Schweizer Bundesgerichts wiedergegeben wird. Abschliessend wird der Rechtsrahmen kritisch analysiert, es wird auf bestehende Lücken sowie auf derzeitige und künftige Reformen hingewiesen.

Parlamendiväline autor

Dr. Nula FREI, Universität Freiburg

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024

16-10-2020

This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates ...

This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Outcome of the European Council meeting of 15-16 October 2020

19-10-2020

Without reaching any new decisions, the European Council meeting of 15-16 October 2020 addressed a series of important issues, including the coronavirus pandemic, EU-United Kingdom relations and climate change. It also discussed numerous external relations issues, notably relations with Africa, the EU's southern neighbourhood, Belarus and Turkey. In the context of rising Covid-19 infections across all Member States, the European Council expressed its very serious concern about the developing pandemic ...

Without reaching any new decisions, the European Council meeting of 15-16 October 2020 addressed a series of important issues, including the coronavirus pandemic, EU-United Kingdom relations and climate change. It also discussed numerous external relations issues, notably relations with Africa, the EU's southern neighbourhood, Belarus and Turkey. In the context of rising Covid-19 infections across all Member States, the European Council expressed its very serious concern about the developing pandemic situation and agreed to intensify overall coordination at EU level and between Member States. Regarding the negotiations on future EU-UK relations, EU leaders expressed their concern about the lack of progress and called on the UK to make the necessary moves. They stressed that the Withdrawal Agreement and its Protocols needed to be implemented in a full and timely manner.

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