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Demographic outlook for the European Union 2019

03-06-2019

This paper is the second in a series that EPRS is producing on the demographic outlook for the European Union (EU). Demography matters. The economy, labour market, healthcare, pensions, the environment, intergenerational fairness and election results – they are all driven by demography. The EU has seen its population grow substantially – by around a quarter since 1960 – and currently stands at over 500 million people. However, it is now beginning to stagnate, before its expected decline from around ...

This paper is the second in a series that EPRS is producing on the demographic outlook for the European Union (EU). Demography matters. The economy, labour market, healthcare, pensions, the environment, intergenerational fairness and election results – they are all driven by demography. The EU has seen its population grow substantially – by around a quarter since 1960 – and currently stands at over 500 million people. However, it is now beginning to stagnate, before its expected decline from around the middle of the century. With the world population having risen still more substantially and growth continuing, the EU represents a shrinking proportion of this population. The EU population is also ageing dramatically, as life expectancy increases and fertility rates fall below their levels in the past. This has serious implications across a range of areas including the economy, healthcare and pensions. Free movement within the EU and migration from third countries also play an important role in shaping demography in individual Member States and regions. The 'in-focus' section of this year's edition looks at pensions. It highlights that, whilst national reforms have largely successfully addressed issues around the sustainability of pension systems, concerns about the adequacy of pensions, particularly in the future, still remain.

Legal migration to the EU

07-03-2019

Entering the EU as a non-European is not too difficult for people from stable countries. Those planning to visit one or more EU Member States can get in as a tourist, with or without a visa. If the intention is to live and work for a longer period, they can use the many possibilities offered by labour migration. Regular mobility schemes also include provisions for other categories such as students, researchers, au pairs and voluntary workers. People wishing to join a family member who is already ...

Entering the EU as a non-European is not too difficult for people from stable countries. Those planning to visit one or more EU Member States can get in as a tourist, with or without a visa. If the intention is to live and work for a longer period, they can use the many possibilities offered by labour migration. Regular mobility schemes also include provisions for other categories such as students, researchers, au pairs and voluntary workers. People wishing to join a family member who is already residing legally in the EU might even be eligible for family reunification. However, for people coming from countries at war or where democracy is in serious peril, or who happen to live in a non-EU country after fleeing their own country, or who are simply looking for a better life, the options are more limited. Moreover, even when options exist, gaining access to them is not always possible for people who find themselves in precarious, dangerous or even life-threatening situations. In 2015, a record number of people tried to reach Europe by all means, often risking their lives along their journeys. Although the number of irregular arrivals in the EU is back to pre-crisis levels, immigration remains one of the key concerns of European citizens and is expected to remain a challenge for years to come. In order to address this challenge, the EU has embarked on a process of reform aimed at rebuilding its common asylum policies on fairer and more solid ground, strengthening its external borders by reinforcing the links between border controls and security, and renewing cooperation with third countries on migration issues. A forward-looking and comprehensive European immigration policy, based on solidarity and respect for European values, requires a balanced approach to dealing with both irregular and legal migration. The EU is committed to help create more, safe and controlled channels to migration both to help people in need of protection and to address labour market needs and skills shortages adequately.

Demographic trends in EU regions

29-01-2019

The European Union has seen its population grow substantially – by around a quarter in the five and a half decades since 1960 – to a current level of over 500 million people. However, this population is now growing too slowly, and is even expected to decline in the longer term. Issues of demography are likely to have a considerable impact on EU society. Most models used for analysing population trends suggest that, in the coming years, the EU's population will continue to age as a result of consistently ...

The European Union has seen its population grow substantially – by around a quarter in the five and a half decades since 1960 – to a current level of over 500 million people. However, this population is now growing too slowly, and is even expected to decline in the longer term. Issues of demography are likely to have a considerable impact on EU society. Most models used for analysing population trends suggest that, in the coming years, the EU's population will continue to age as a result of consistently low levels of fertility and extended longevity. Although migration may play an important role in the population dynamics within many of the EU Member States, it is unlikely that it can reverse the ongoing trend of population ageing. Demographic developments have various implications for European regions. Some of them, especially rural and remote ones, are experiencing a considerable decline in population numbers. This situation may further exacerbate the economic decline regions are already facing, and thereby widen the gap between wealthy and poor ones. Therefore, demography also severely affects the social, economic and territorial cohesion of the EU. On the other hand, the heavy concentration of population in urban centres also creates certain negative consequences, such as pollution and lack of affordable housing. Recent migration trends have improved the demographic balance in various EU regions; that said, migration affects EU regions in an uneven manner. The European structural and investment funds are mainly used for boosting economic growth in European regions, but they may also serve, in combination with other EU funds, to address issues stemming from demographic challenges. The EU also uses a number of instruments to address migration-related issues in its territories most affected by the issue.

Social and Employment Policies in Austria

04-07-2018

This paper describing and analysing recent developments in employment and social policies in Austria was compiled in response to the request by the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL) in view of its delegation visit to Austria in early May 2018.

This paper describing and analysing recent developments in employment and social policies in Austria was compiled in response to the request by the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL) in view of its delegation visit to Austria in early May 2018.

Parlamendiväline autor

Michael FUCHS, Eszter ZOLYOMI,Sonila DANAJ, Anette SCOPPETTA

Recent migration flows to the EU

16-05-2018

This infographic aims to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2017. It covers the detection of illegal crossings on the EU's external borders, numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings, the number of asylum applications in EU Member States and their decisions on those applications. Previous editions of this Infographic were issued in September 2015 (PE 565.905), April 2016 (PE 580.893), February 2017 (PE 595.918) and December 2017 (PE 614.604).

This infographic aims to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2017. It covers the detection of illegal crossings on the EU's external borders, numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings, the number of asylum applications in EU Member States and their decisions on those applications. Previous editions of this Infographic were issued in September 2015 (PE 565.905), April 2016 (PE 580.893), February 2017 (PE 595.918) and December 2017 (PE 614.604).

EU funds for migration, asylum and integration policies

15-05-2018

The European Union significantly increased its funding for migration, asylum and integration policies in the wake of the increased inflow of asylum seekers in 2015. This study provides an overview, an analysis and an evaluation of the use of these funds, based on publicly available information, insights from interviews with various stakeholders and a survey of non-governmental organisations. We also offer recommendations on how to improve the use of funds and allocation keys to Member States. We ...

The European Union significantly increased its funding for migration, asylum and integration policies in the wake of the increased inflow of asylum seekers in 2015. This study provides an overview, an analysis and an evaluation of the use of these funds, based on publicly available information, insights from interviews with various stakeholders and a survey of non-governmental organisations. We also offer recommendations on how to improve the use of funds and allocation keys to Member States. We argue for an increase in funding in support of member states as well as for EU agencies such as Frontex and EASO and for a more strategic coordination of various migration related initiatives.

Parlamendiväline autor

Dr Zsolt DARVAS, Bruegel Dr Guntram WOLFF, Bruegel Mr Francesco CHIACCHIO, Bruegel Mr Konstantinos EFSTATHIOU, Bruegel Ms Inês GONÇALVES RAPOSO, Bruegel

The employment and social situation in Canada

15-03-2018

Commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the EMPL Committee, this paper provides an overview of Canada's economy, labour market and social policies, as well as the functioning of related institutions, and takes a closer look at the impact of digitalisation on Canada's world of work.

Commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the EMPL Committee, this paper provides an overview of Canada's economy, labour market and social policies, as well as the functioning of related institutions, and takes a closer look at the impact of digitalisation on Canada's world of work.

Parlamendiväline autor

Lynn Gambin, Terence Hogarth, Liga Baltina

The Western Balkans and the EU [What Think Tanks are thinking]

17-03-2017

European Union heads of state and government reiterated support for the European perspective of the Western Balkans at their meeting on 9 March, and underlined that the situation in the region was fragile due to internal and external challenges. Despite relatively good economic growth prospects, the Western Balkans' reform progress has been slow, rule of law weak, and corruption persistent. Many Western and local politicians are also concerned about the increasingly prominent role of external players ...

European Union heads of state and government reiterated support for the European perspective of the Western Balkans at their meeting on 9 March, and underlined that the situation in the region was fragile due to internal and external challenges. Despite relatively good economic growth prospects, the Western Balkans' reform progress has been slow, rule of law weak, and corruption persistent. Many Western and local politicians are also concerned about the increasingly prominent role of external players in the region, mainly Russia, but also China, Turkey and the Gulf states. From the Western Balkans, only Croatia has so far joined the EU, in 2013. Accession talks continue with Montenegro and Serbia. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albania are official candidates, with Albania hoping to formally open negotiations soon. Bosnia and Herzegovina formally applied for EU membership in 2016, but along with Kosovo, it has a potential candidate status at present. This note offers links to a series of recent studies from major international think tanks and research institutes on problems faced by the Western Balkans.

Donald Trump's executive order on immigration

07-02-2017

On 27 January 2017, newly installed US President, Donald Trump, signed an executive order, which, amongst other things, suspended nearly all travellers from seven Muslim-majority states from entry to the United States. The executive order has led to protests in the country and has been challenged in court, while several international leaders have spoken out against it.

On 27 January 2017, newly installed US President, Donald Trump, signed an executive order, which, amongst other things, suspended nearly all travellers from seven Muslim-majority states from entry to the United States. The executive order has led to protests in the country and has been challenged in court, while several international leaders have spoken out against it.

Refugee and asylum policy in Australia: Between resettlement and deterrence

10-11-2016

Australia has established a refugee policy which has proved highly effective in deterring irregular migrants, but has attracted much criticism from human rights organisations. Its main drivers have been mandatory detention and offshore processing of irregular asylum-seekers arriving by boat. Since it was enacted, drownings at sea no longer occur and irregular migration by boat to its shores has completely stopped. However, the conditions in the offshore centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea, where ...

Australia has established a refugee policy which has proved highly effective in deterring irregular migrants, but has attracted much criticism from human rights organisations. Its main drivers have been mandatory detention and offshore processing of irregular asylum-seekers arriving by boat. Since it was enacted, drownings at sea no longer occur and irregular migration by boat to its shores has completely stopped. However, the conditions in the offshore centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea, where people arriving by boat have been sent, have been criticised as inappropriate by civil society organisations, and these people's indefinite detention there was deemed to constitute arbitrary detention under international law. Further to such criticism, recently, the two countries have decided to allow asylum-seekers to move freely and, if determined to be refugees, to settle in the community. However, the situation of the refugees in the two countries remains extremely precarious and no lasting solution is yet in sight, despite Australia's efforts to secure resettlement agreements with other third countries. At the same time, Australia has remained open to asylum-seekers and refugees who enter through official channels, and is one of the countries admitting most refugees resettled through the UNHCR. This briefing is an extended and updated version of an earlier publication, from October 2015.

Eelseisvad üritused

03-03-2020
Demographic Outlook for the EU in 2020: Understanding population trends in the EU
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05-03-2020
Has the EU become a regulatory superpower? How it's rules are shaping global markets
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