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Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges for the Internal Market and Consumer Protection

16-03-2020

Developing appropriate policies and regulations for AI is a priority for the European Union. AI has become a powerful driver of social transformation, reshaping individual lives and interactions as well as economical and political organisations. AI brings huge opportunities for development, sustainability, health and knowledge, as well as significant risks of unemployment, discrimination, exclusion, etc. Multiple areas are affected by AI, such as data protection (lawful and proportionate processing ...

Developing appropriate policies and regulations for AI is a priority for the European Union. AI has become a powerful driver of social transformation, reshaping individual lives and interactions as well as economical and political organisations. AI brings huge opportunities for development, sustainability, health and knowledge, as well as significant risks of unemployment, discrimination, exclusion, etc. Multiple areas are affected by AI, such as data protection (lawful and proportionate processing of personal data, subject to oversight), fair algorithmic treatment (not being subject to unjustified prejudice resulting from automated processing), transparency and explicability (knowing how and why a certain algorithmic response has been given or a decision made), protection from undue influence (not being misled, manipulated, or deceived). This collection of studies presents research resulting from ongoing interest of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in improving functioning of the Digital Single Market and developing European digital and AI related policy based on scientific evidence and expertise.

The ethics of artificial intelligence: Issues and initiatives

11-03-2020

This study deals with the ethical implications and moral questions that arise from the development and implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. It also reviews the guidelines and frameworks that countries and regions around the world have created to address these. It presents a comparison between the current main frameworks and the main ethical issues, and highlights gaps around mechanisms of fair benefit sharing; assigning of responsibility; exploitation of workers; energy demands ...

This study deals with the ethical implications and moral questions that arise from the development and implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. It also reviews the guidelines and frameworks that countries and regions around the world have created to address these. It presents a comparison between the current main frameworks and the main ethical issues, and highlights gaps around mechanisms of fair benefit sharing; assigning of responsibility; exploitation of workers; energy demands in the context of environmental and climate changes; and more complex and less certain implications of AI, such as those regarding human relationships.

Parlamendiväline autor

DG, EPRS This study has been drafted by Eleanor Bird, Jasmin Fox-Skelly, Nicola Jenner, Ruth Larbey, Emma Weitkamp and Alan Winfield from the Science Communication Unit at the University of the West of England, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA), and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

What if we could fight coronavirus with artificial intelligence?

10-03-2020

Αs coronavirus spreads, raising fears of a worldwide pandemic, international organisations and scientists are using artificial intelligence to track the epidemic in real-time, effectively predict where the virus might appear next and develop effective responses. Its multifaceted applications in the frame of this public health emergency raise questions about the legal and ethical soundness of its implementation.

Αs coronavirus spreads, raising fears of a worldwide pandemic, international organisations and scientists are using artificial intelligence to track the epidemic in real-time, effectively predict where the virus might appear next and develop effective responses. Its multifaceted applications in the frame of this public health emergency raise questions about the legal and ethical soundness of its implementation.

Treatment optimisation in drug development

06-03-2020

The current drug development paradigm is too drug-centred and does not sufficiently take into account the patients that will receive the new therapy. This has led to the emergence of a research gap between the pre-approval development of medicines and their post-approval use in real-world conditions. In this study, semi-structured interviews were performed with experts in drug development process. It offer an overview concerning the concept of treatment optimisation and potential policy options.

The current drug development paradigm is too drug-centred and does not sufficiently take into account the patients that will receive the new therapy. This has led to the emergence of a research gap between the pre-approval development of medicines and their post-approval use in real-world conditions. In this study, semi-structured interviews were performed with experts in drug development process. It offer an overview concerning the concept of treatment optimisation and potential policy options.

Parlamendiväline autor

This study has been written by Dr Denis Lacombe of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), Robbe Saesen of the Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven) and EORTC, Stéphane Lejeune of EORTC, and Prof. Dr Isabelle Huys of KU Leuven, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA) within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

What if internet by satellite were to lead to congestion in orbit?

05-02-2020

American Starlink project aims to bring high speed internet access across the globe by 2021. It’s certainly a mission in the sky! But how will Elon Musk’s plans to deploy this mega constellation of satellites impact on European citizens?

American Starlink project aims to bring high speed internet access across the globe by 2021. It’s certainly a mission in the sky! But how will Elon Musk’s plans to deploy this mega constellation of satellites impact on European citizens?

Fact-finding visit to Bulgaria

05-02-2020

The PETI Committee decided to organise a fact-finding visit to Bulgaria as a result of a relatively large number of petitions it has received from Bulgarian citizens on the Bulgarian Code of Civil Procedure (CCP). Petitioners allege breaches of consumer rights, corruption, the role of bailiffs, violation of the right to a fair trial, and breaches of Directive 93/13/EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts. The aim of the visit is to hear the petitioners and to investigate and discuss the subject ...

The PETI Committee decided to organise a fact-finding visit to Bulgaria as a result of a relatively large number of petitions it has received from Bulgarian citizens on the Bulgarian Code of Civil Procedure (CCP). Petitioners allege breaches of consumer rights, corruption, the role of bailiffs, violation of the right to a fair trial, and breaches of Directive 93/13/EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts. The aim of the visit is to hear the petitioners and to investigate and discuss the subject matter of the petitions with the Bulgarian authorities.

Representative actions to protect the collective interests of consumers: A new deal for consumers

20-01-2020

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal for a new directive on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers. Currently, consumer organisations or independent public bodies can bring actions in the name of consumers in courts or before administrative authorities to stop infringements of consumer legislation. According to the proposal, they would be able to demand compensation for consumers as well. The European Parliament adopted its first-reading ...

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal for a new directive on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers. Currently, consumer organisations or independent public bodies can bring actions in the name of consumers in courts or before administrative authorities to stop infringements of consumer legislation. According to the proposal, they would be able to demand compensation for consumers as well. The European Parliament adopted its first-reading position on 26 March 2019. It added safeguards to protect companies against abusive litigation, and deleted a precondition that consumers should wait for a final injunction order establishing the existence of an infringement before being allowed to demand compensation. The Council adopted its general approach on 28 November 2019 and proposed to distinguish between domestic and cross-border representative actions. Member States would decide the criteria for designation of qualified entities for domestic actions by themselves, while the criteria for cross-border actions would be common across the whole of the EU. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Dual quality of products – State of play

25-11-2019

In recent years, the concern that some branded products might be inferior in the Member States that have joined the European Union (EU) since 2004 has become ever more apparent. This concern has come to be known as the 'dual quality of products'. To address the issue, between 2018 and 2019, the European Commission's Joint Research Service (JRC) compared a set of branded food products sold under the same name and in the same or similar packaging across Member States – the first time a harmonised testing ...

In recent years, the concern that some branded products might be inferior in the Member States that have joined the European Union (EU) since 2004 has become ever more apparent. This concern has come to be known as the 'dual quality of products'. To address the issue, between 2018 and 2019, the European Commission's Joint Research Service (JRC) compared a set of branded food products sold under the same name and in the same or similar packaging across Member States – the first time a harmonised testing methodology has been used to compare products from the whole of the European Union. The analysis sought to determine whether, despite the identical or similar packaging, there were differences in product composition and, if so, whether those differences corresponded to any geographical pattern. Results showed that about one third of the branded food products analysed had a composition that differed from one Member State to another. However, the results did not point to any geographical pattern that might explain those differences. In 2017, the Commission had already sought to clarify the relevant legislation with a notice introducing a test that national consumer protection authorities could use to determine on a case by case basis whether the dual quality of food products was misleading. Later, in April 2018, in the framework of the 'new deal for consumers', its proposal for a new directive on modernisation of EU consumer protection rules sought to include the dual quality of products (not just of food products) in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. The European Parliament has long voiced its concerns about the dual quality of products and had called for it to be added to the 'blacklist' of practices that should always be considered as banned. However, the text of the new directive on modernisation of consumer protection rules as adopted by the co-legislators did not include dual quality as a practice that must be considered unfair in all cases, but rather as one that must be proven to be misleading on a case-by-case basis. The European Consumer Organisation (BEUC) has criticised this, while business organisations defend the right of companies to differentiate their products in different markets.

European Court of Justice limits the territorial scope of the 'right to be forgotten'

25-10-2019

Delivering its judgment in Google v Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (CNIL) on 24 September 2019, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) held that Google does not have to remove search engine results worldwide in order to comply with a 'right to be forgotten' request under EU data protection law. The landmark decision limits the territorial scope of the EU right to de-referencing but leaves many open questions.

Delivering its judgment in Google v Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (CNIL) on 24 September 2019, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) held that Google does not have to remove search engine results worldwide in order to comply with a 'right to be forgotten' request under EU data protection law. The landmark decision limits the territorial scope of the EU right to de-referencing but leaves many open questions.

Workshop on “Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles as regards their general safety and protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users”

15-10-2019

In 2017, 25 300 people died in road accidents in Europe, while about a million were injured. Ms Róża THUN (MEP), the Chair of Digital Single Market Working Group of the IMCO Committee and the Rapporteur for the regulation on the “Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users”, chaired this expert workshop in order to explore how technological means, including artificial intelligence, can reduce the number ...

In 2017, 25 300 people died in road accidents in Europe, while about a million were injured. Ms Róża THUN (MEP), the Chair of Digital Single Market Working Group of the IMCO Committee and the Rapporteur for the regulation on the “Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users”, chaired this expert workshop in order to explore how technological means, including artificial intelligence, can reduce the number of victims of road accidents. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Parlamendiväline autor

Maria AUDERA, Pablo DELGADO CUBILLO and Andreea DOBRITA

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