98

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Mot-clé
Date

The future of tertiary education in Europe

28-09-2020

This analysis focuses on six challenges facing tertiary education in the EU: the need to maintain relevance to current and future aspirations, the impact of digital and disruptive technologies, the way it collaborates with business, global and intra-EU collaboration, quality assurance, financing and barriers to inclusion. It also looks at trends in two of the largest higher education systems outside the European Higher Education Area, those in the United States and China. This provides the backdrop ...

This analysis focuses on six challenges facing tertiary education in the EU: the need to maintain relevance to current and future aspirations, the impact of digital and disruptive technologies, the way it collaborates with business, global and intra-EU collaboration, quality assurance, financing and barriers to inclusion. It also looks at trends in two of the largest higher education systems outside the European Higher Education Area, those in the United States and China. This provides the backdrop to discuss how the next Multiannual Financial Framework, which is currently under negotiation, will put tools at the EU's disposal to exert some influence on the future trajectory of tertiary education, as well as the European Parliament's role in these negotiations.

Disruption by technology: Impacts on politics, economics and society

21-09-2020

Technological development has long been considered as a disruptive force, provoking change at many levels, from the routine daily activities of individuals to dramatic competition between global superpowers. This analysis examines disruption caused by technologies in a series of key areas of politics, economics and society. It focuses on seven fields: the economic system, the military and defence, democratic debates and the 'infosphere', social norms, values and identities, international relations ...

Technological development has long been considered as a disruptive force, provoking change at many levels, from the routine daily activities of individuals to dramatic competition between global superpowers. This analysis examines disruption caused by technologies in a series of key areas of politics, economics and society. It focuses on seven fields: the economic system, the military and defence, democratic debates and the 'infosphere', social norms, values and identities, international relations, and the legal and regulatory system. It also presents surveillance as an example of how technological disruption across these domains can converge to propel other phenomena. The key disruptive force of 2020 is non-technological, namely coronavirus. The pandemic is used here as an opportunity to examine how technological disruption interacts with other forms of disruption.

Single market and the pandemic: Impacts, EU action and recovery

18-06-2020

The coronavirus crisis caused an asymmetric shock to both supply and demand in the EU, inflicting unprecedented economic harm: the deep recession in 2020 is likely to be followed by a fragile recovery in 2021. The downside risks are high and there is a strong possibility of further deterioration. European economies are highly integrated: about two-thirds of the EU's total trade in goods takes place on the single market, through its tightly knit network of supply chains, financial connections and ...

The coronavirus crisis caused an asymmetric shock to both supply and demand in the EU, inflicting unprecedented economic harm: the deep recession in 2020 is likely to be followed by a fragile recovery in 2021. The downside risks are high and there is a strong possibility of further deterioration. European economies are highly integrated: about two-thirds of the EU's total trade in goods takes place on the single market, through its tightly knit network of supply chains, financial connections and trade relationships. However, the pandemic has severely impacted the free movement of persons, goods and services in the EU, on which the market is based. While the depth of the economic downturn and the strength of recovery vary across EU Member States, many of those that were hardest hit by the pandemic happen to have the least policy space to respond to it. Left unaddressed, an uneven recovery across the EU risks creating divergences, fragmentation and permanent damage to the single market, which will have a negative impact on the EU's recovery as a whole. The EU has acted on many fronts since the onset of the crisis. Initially, it provided first-response measures – such as the suspension of State aid rules and a roadmap for lifting containment measures – designed to address multiple emergencies in the single market and the EU economy. It has also developed a comprehensive longer-term response to enable economic recovery and repair the damage inflicted by the crisis, while at the same time protecting and deepening the single market and rendering it more autonomous. The EU will offer large-scale asymmetric support and financial support, that will be distributed through existing and novel instruments. Some experts warn that the proposed recovery plan, while a step in the right direction, may be financially insufficient and too slow to disburse. The European Parliament has asked for a major recovery package worth €2 trillion.

Digital taxation: State of play and way forward

19-03-2020

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union ...

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union (EU) and other international bodies have been discussing these issues for some time. In March 2018, the EU introduced a 'fair taxation of the digital economy' package. It contained proposals for an interim and long-term digital tax. The European Parliament supported both proposals, widening their scope and coverage and backing integration of digital tax into the proposed Council framework on corporate taxation. However, there was no immediate political agreement in the Council. As finding a global solution at Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) level or a coordinated EU approach was not yet feasible, some Member States started implementing or designing national digital taxes. As an indication of difficulties around this issue, the introduction of these taxes in France heightened trade tensions between the EU and the United States of America, with the latter favouring a 'voluntary' tax system – a position which may prevent a global agreement. Over the last few years, the OECD has nevertheless made progress on developing a global solution and proposed a two-pillar system: while the first pillar (unified approach) would grant new taxation rights and review the current profit allocation and business location-taxation rules, the second (GloBE) aims to mitigate risks stemming from the practices of profit-shifting to jurisdictions where they can be subjected to no, or very low, taxation. The EU is committed to supporting the OECD's work, but if no solution is found by the end of 2020, it will again make a proposal for its own digital tax.

Rapport annuel sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne

04-03-2020

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés ...

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés pour soutenir le pacte vert pour l’Europe.

Is data the new oil? Competition issues in the digital economy

08-01-2020

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being ...

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being indispensable to the development of potential game changers – such as artificial intelligence – data are also a crucial input to many online services, production processes, and logistics – making it a critical element in the value chain of many different industries. Data-dependent markets are also characterised by a high level of concentration and, according to many experts, high entry barriers relating to access to and ownership of data – which make it difficult to challenge the incumbent companies. On the other hand, the large players are generally considered to be very productive and innovative. Some studies, however, show that the diffusion of know-how and innovation between the market leaders and the rest of the economy may be affecting competiveness in general. One possible way to correct these shortcomings is to regulate the sharing of data. While the risks of policy-making in this field are generally well-known and centre around the need to protect privacy – particularly where personal data are involved – and to prevent the collusive aspects of data sharing, there is currently no global model to follow. The European Union has taken multiple initiatives to unlock data markets through modern, user-centred laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the regulation on the reuse of public sector information. The global thinking seems to gradually favour more prudent oversight of the market, considering its economic heft.

La politique industrielle de l’Union européenne à un tournant: État des lieux, défis et voie à suivre

02-12-2019

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché ...

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché et des échanges tout en protégeant l’industrie de la concurrence déloyale, ou de promouvoir une industrie plus verte et plus durable tout en préservant sa compétitivité sur la scène mondiale. Elle suscite également une réorientation du positionnement stratégique de l’Union, traditionnellement défensif, vers une politique offensive. Cette évolution a donné lieu à un vif débat concernant la nécessité d’une nouvelle politique industrielle au niveau de l’Union, qui serait plus affirmée, plus globale et mieux coordonnée. Le présent document réexamine la situation actuelle et les principaux défis auxquels l’Union est confrontée et fournit une analyse des principales options stratégiques pour l’avenir.

Politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne: La clé d’un marché unique équitable

30-10-2019

La politique de concurrence apporte une contribution positive à la croissance économique de l’Union européenne et l’Union dispose de l’un des systèmes de politique de concurrence les plus robustes au monde. La politique de concurrence européenne englobe de nombreux domaines, notamment les mesures en matière d’ententes et d’abus de position dominante, le contrôle des concentrations et les aides d’État. Elle est mise en application par la Commission européenne dont les décisions peuvent être contestées ...

La politique de concurrence apporte une contribution positive à la croissance économique de l’Union européenne et l’Union dispose de l’un des systèmes de politique de concurrence les plus robustes au monde. La politique de concurrence européenne englobe de nombreux domaines, notamment les mesures en matière d’ententes et d’abus de position dominante, le contrôle des concentrations et les aides d’État. Elle est mise en application par la Commission européenne dont les décisions peuvent être contestées par la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne. Les dernières évolutions politiques comprennent le système d’actions en dommages et intérêts pour les infractions aux dispositions du droit de la concurrence et le cadre visant à doter les autorités de concurrence nationales des moyens de mettre en œuvre plus efficacement la politique de concurrence. Le présent document traite, entre autres, des sujets suivants: le rôle de la politique de concurrence à l’ère du numérique, le contrôle des concentrations, des instruments tels que le programme de clémence, les engagements et les transactions, ainsi que l’incidence potentielle des évolutions politique actuelles.

A decade on from the financial crisis: Key data

17-10-2019

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on ...

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on government bonds, particularly in the periphery countries, rose dramatically. Ad hoc rescue devices, such as the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, brought the situation under control, later supported by the pledge of European Central Bank President Mario Draghi to do 'whatever it takes' to save the euro. The acute phase of the crisis ended in 2014, followed by a period of extremely low inflation and weak growth. To boost inflation, facilitate bank lending and stimulate the economy, the Eurosystem relied increasingly on quantitative easing. While 2017 was the EU's best year since the crises, with economic performance returning to pre-crisis levels, recent data suggest that the momentum is weakening, both in and outside the EU.

A decade on from the crisis: Main responses and remaining challenges

17-10-2019

It has been a decade since the financial crisis erupted and changed the world in 2008. Few at the time guessed what would be its magnitude and long-term consequences. The interconnectedness of the economy and the financial sector facilitated the spread of the crisis from the United States to Europe. First, the EU faced the Great Recession in the 2008-2009 period and then, after a short recovery, several Member States succumbed to the sovereign debt crisis. The combined crises had catastrophic consequences ...

It has been a decade since the financial crisis erupted and changed the world in 2008. Few at the time guessed what would be its magnitude and long-term consequences. The interconnectedness of the economy and the financial sector facilitated the spread of the crisis from the United States to Europe. First, the EU faced the Great Recession in the 2008-2009 period and then, after a short recovery, several Member States succumbed to the sovereign debt crisis. The combined crises had catastrophic consequences for economic growth, investment, employment and the fiscal position of many Member States. The EU engaged in short-term 'fire-fighting' measures such as bailouts to save banks and help stressed sovereigns, while at the same time reforming the inadequate framework. While signs of moderate recovery showed in 2014, the risk of falling into deflation or secular stagnation remained high, and it was only in 2017 that the EU economy returned to a state similar to that of before the crisis. The signs in 2019 are not so promising however. Many efforts have been made to improve resilience in the EU and the euro area. These have included improving the stability of the financial sector, strengthening economic governance, creating a safety net for sovereigns in distress and carrying out structural reforms, particularly in the countries most affected. In addition, the European Central Bank (ECB) has taken unconventional policy measures. Nonetheless many argue that the pace of the reforms has slowed down considerably since 2013 when the economic situation began to improve. The legacy of the crisis is still present and many challenges persist. These include the absence of a clear and agreed vision for the future of economic and monetary union (EMU), perennial macroeconomic imbalances and high public deficits in a number of Member States, and the ongoing risk of a doom loop between sovereigns and the banking sector. Post crisis vulnerabilities also include rising inequalities, youth unemployment and high in-work poverty risk levels. See also our infographic, A decade on from the financial crisis: Key data, PE 640.145.

Evénements à venir

14-10-2020
EPRS online policy roundtable: EU Security and Defence
Autre événement -
EPRS
15-10-2020
ECI Hearing on ‘Minority Safepack - one million signatures for diversity in Europe’
Autre événement -
LIBE CULT PETI
27-10-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | Beyond Christendom - The politics of religion in Europe today
Autre événement -
EPRS

Partenaires