95

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Mot-clé
Date

Digital taxation: State of play and way forward

19-03-2020

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union ...

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union (EU) and other international bodies have been discussing these issues for some time. In March 2018, the EU introduced a 'fair taxation of the digital economy' package. It contained proposals for an interim and long-term digital tax. The European Parliament supported both proposals, widening their scope and coverage and backing integration of digital tax into the proposed Council framework on corporate taxation. However, there was no immediate political agreement in the Council. As finding a global solution at Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) level or a coordinated EU approach was not yet feasible, some Member States started implementing or designing national digital taxes. As an indication of difficulties around this issue, the introduction of these taxes in France heightened trade tensions between the EU and the United States of America, with the latter favouring a 'voluntary' tax system – a position which may prevent a global agreement. Over the last few years, the OECD has nevertheless made progress on developing a global solution and proposed a two-pillar system: while the first pillar (unified approach) would grant new taxation rights and review the current profit allocation and business location-taxation rules, the second (GloBE) aims to mitigate risks stemming from the practices of profit-shifting to jurisdictions where they can be subjected to no, or very low, taxation. The EU is committed to supporting the OECD's work, but if no solution is found by the end of 2020, it will again make a proposal for its own digital tax.

Rapport annuel sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne

04-03-2020

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés ...

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés pour soutenir le pacte vert pour l’Europe.

Is data the new oil? Competition issues in the digital economy

08-01-2020

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being ...

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being indispensable to the development of potential game changers – such as artificial intelligence – data are also a crucial input to many online services, production processes, and logistics – making it a critical element in the value chain of many different industries. Data-dependent markets are also characterised by a high level of concentration and, according to many experts, high entry barriers relating to access to and ownership of data – which make it difficult to challenge the incumbent companies. On the other hand, the large players are generally considered to be very productive and innovative. Some studies, however, show that the diffusion of know-how and innovation between the market leaders and the rest of the economy may be affecting competiveness in general. One possible way to correct these shortcomings is to regulate the sharing of data. While the risks of policy-making in this field are generally well-known and centre around the need to protect privacy – particularly where personal data are involved – and to prevent the collusive aspects of data sharing, there is currently no global model to follow. The European Union has taken multiple initiatives to unlock data markets through modern, user-centred laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the regulation on the reuse of public sector information. The global thinking seems to gradually favour more prudent oversight of the market, considering its economic heft.

La politique industrielle de l’Union européenne à un tournant: État des lieux, défis et voie à suivre

02-12-2019

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché ...

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché et des échanges tout en protégeant l’industrie de la concurrence déloyale, ou de promouvoir une industrie plus verte et plus durable tout en préservant sa compétitivité sur la scène mondiale. Elle suscite également une réorientation du positionnement stratégique de l’Union, traditionnellement défensif, vers une politique offensive. Cette évolution a donné lieu à un vif débat concernant la nécessité d’une nouvelle politique industrielle au niveau de l’Union, qui serait plus affirmée, plus globale et mieux coordonnée. Le présent document réexamine la situation actuelle et les principaux défis auxquels l’Union est confrontée et fournit une analyse des principales options stratégiques pour l’avenir.

EU competition policy: Key to a fair single market

30-10-2019

Competition policy has been found to make a positive contribution to the EU's economic growth and the EU has one of the most robust competition policy systems in the world. European competition policy encompasses many fields, not least antitrust measures, merger control and State aid. It is enforced by the European Commission, whose decisions can be contested in the Court of Justice of the European Union. Recent policy developments include the antitrust damages system and the framework empowering ...

Competition policy has been found to make a positive contribution to the EU's economic growth and the EU has one of the most robust competition policy systems in the world. European competition policy encompasses many fields, not least antitrust measures, merger control and State aid. It is enforced by the European Commission, whose decisions can be contested in the Court of Justice of the European Union. Recent policy developments include the antitrust damages system and the framework empowering national competition authorities. Topics discussed in this paper include the role of competition policy in the digital era, merger control, instruments such as the leniency programme, commitments and settlements, and the potential impact of current political developments.

A decade on from the financial crisis: Key data

17-10-2019

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on ...

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on government bonds, particularly in the periphery countries, rose dramatically. Ad hoc rescue devices, such as the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, brought the situation under control, later supported by the pledge of European Central Bank President Mario Draghi to do 'whatever it takes' to save the euro. The acute phase of the crisis ended in 2014, followed by a period of extremely low inflation and weak growth. To boost inflation, facilitate bank lending and stimulate the economy, the Eurosystem relied increasingly on quantitative easing. While 2017 was the EU's best year since the crises, with economic performance returning to pre-crisis levels, recent data suggest that the momentum is weakening, both in and outside the EU.

A decade on from the crisis: Main responses and remaining challenges

17-10-2019

It has been a decade since the financial crisis erupted and changed the world in 2008. Few at the time guessed what would be its magnitude and long-term consequences. The interconnectedness of the economy and the financial sector facilitated the spread of the crisis from the United States to Europe. First, the EU faced the Great Recession in the 2008-2009 period and then, after a short recovery, several Member States succumbed to the sovereign debt crisis. The combined crises had catastrophic consequences ...

It has been a decade since the financial crisis erupted and changed the world in 2008. Few at the time guessed what would be its magnitude and long-term consequences. The interconnectedness of the economy and the financial sector facilitated the spread of the crisis from the United States to Europe. First, the EU faced the Great Recession in the 2008-2009 period and then, after a short recovery, several Member States succumbed to the sovereign debt crisis. The combined crises had catastrophic consequences for economic growth, investment, employment and the fiscal position of many Member States. The EU engaged in short-term 'fire-fighting' measures such as bailouts to save banks and help stressed sovereigns, while at the same time reforming the inadequate framework. While signs of moderate recovery showed in 2014, the risk of falling into deflation or secular stagnation remained high, and it was only in 2017 that the EU economy returned to a state similar to that of before the crisis. The signs in 2019 are not so promising however. Many efforts have been made to improve resilience in the EU and the euro area. These have included improving the stability of the financial sector, strengthening economic governance, creating a safety net for sovereigns in distress and carrying out structural reforms, particularly in the countries most affected. In addition, the European Central Bank (ECB) has taken unconventional policy measures. Nonetheless many argue that the pace of the reforms has slowed down considerably since 2013 when the economic situation began to improve. The legacy of the crisis is still present and many challenges persist. These include the absence of a clear and agreed vision for the future of economic and monetary union (EMU), perennial macroeconomic imbalances and high public deficits in a number of Member States, and the ongoing risk of a doom loop between sovereigns and the banking sector. Post crisis vulnerabilities also include rising inequalities, youth unemployment and high in-work poverty risk levels. See also our infographic, A decade on from the financial crisis: Key data, PE 640.145.

Hearings of the Commissioners-designate: Margrethe Vestager – Vice-President: A Europe fit for the digital age

26-09-2019

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication ...

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication skills'. At the end of the hearings process, Parliament votes on the proposed Commission as a bloc, and under the Treaties may only reject the entire College of Commissioners, rather than individual candidates. The Briefing provides an overview of key issues in the portfolio areas, as well as Parliament's activity in the last term in that field. It also includes a brief introduction to the candidate.

Economic impacts of artificial intelligence (AI)

01-07-2019

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in our lives and economy and is already having an impact on our world in many different ways. Worldwide competition to reap its benefits is fierce, and global leaders – the US and Asia – have emerged on the scene. AI is seen by many as an engine of productivity and economic growth. It can increase the efficiency with which things are done and vastly improve the decision-making process by analysing large amounts of data. It can also spawn ...

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in our lives and economy and is already having an impact on our world in many different ways. Worldwide competition to reap its benefits is fierce, and global leaders – the US and Asia – have emerged on the scene. AI is seen by many as an engine of productivity and economic growth. It can increase the efficiency with which things are done and vastly improve the decision-making process by analysing large amounts of data. It can also spawn the creation of new products and services, markets and industries, thereby boosting consumer demand and generating new revenue streams. However, AI may also have a highly disruptive effect on the economy and society. Some warn that it could lead to the creation of super firms – hubs of wealth and knowledge – that could have detrimental effects on the wider economy. It may also widen the gap between developed and developing countries, and boost the need for workers with certain skills while rendering others redundant; this latter trend could have far-reaching consequences for the labour market. Experts also warn of its potential to increase inequality, push down wages and shrink the tax base. While these concerns remain valid, there is no consensus on whether and to what extent the related risks will materialise. They are not a given, and carefully designed policy would be able to foster the development of AI while keeping the negative effects in check. The EU has a potential to improve its standing in global competition and direct AI onto a path that benefits its economy and citizens. In order to achieve this, it first needs to agree a common strategy that would utilise its strengths and enable the pooling of Member States' resources in the most effective way.

Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: Politique industrielle

28-06-2019

Depuis 1992, l’Union européenne n’a de cesse de chercher à créer les conditions propices à l’amélioration de la croissance et de la compétitivité de l’industrie à travers sa politique industrielle. L’industrie européenne reste un pilier de l’économie. Elle génère un emploi sur cinq et est responsable de l’essentiel des exportations et des investissements de l’Union dans la recherche et l’innovation. Aujourd’hui, l’objectif de la politique de l’Union est de permettre une transition réussie vers une ...

Depuis 1992, l’Union européenne n’a de cesse de chercher à créer les conditions propices à l’amélioration de la croissance et de la compétitivité de l’industrie à travers sa politique industrielle. L’industrie européenne reste un pilier de l’économie. Elle génère un emploi sur cinq et est responsable de l’essentiel des exportations et des investissements de l’Union dans la recherche et l’innovation. Aujourd’hui, l’objectif de la politique de l’Union est de permettre une transition réussie vers une industrie numérique, fondée sur la connaissance, décarbonée et plus circulaire en Europe. Pour atteindre cet objectif, l’Union européenne soutient, coordonne et complète les politiques et les actions des États membres, principalement dans les domaines de la recherche et de l’innovation, des PME et des technologies numériques. Dans une enquête Eurobaromètre effectuée à la demande du Parlement européen, plus de la moitié des citoyens de l’Union interrogés ont indiqué être en faveur d’un renforcement de l’action de l’Union dans le cadre de la politique industrielle. En dépit de cela, la politique industrielle demeure, parmi les domaines d’action couverts par l’enquête, celui qui est le moins bien compris. Depuis 2014, des efforts ont été déployés dans plusieurs domaines, notamment l’investissement (principalement via le Fonds européen pour les investissements stratégiques qui soutient la modernisation de l’industrie), la numérisation (par exemple, la mise en place de plusieurs partenariats de recherche ou d’un réseau de pôles d’innovation numérique appelés à s’élargir), le financement (faciliter l’accès de l’industrie et des PME aux marchés publics et leur permettre d’attirer des fonds de capital-risque), l’écologisation de l’industrie (par exemple, au moyen des objectifs révisés d’émissions pour 2030 ou des mesures relatives à la mobilité propre), la normalisation (réunir les acteurs concernés pour établir et mettre à jour conjointement les normes européennes) et les compétences (mobiliser les principales parties intéressées pour combler le déficit de compétences et fournir une main-d’œuvre adaptée à l’industrie moderne). Le Parlement européen a demandé que soient mises en place des politiques ambitieuses dans plusieurs de ces domaines. Les futures dépenses de l’Union dans des secteurs clés pour la politique industrielle devraient augmenter modérément. La Commission européenne propose également d’accroître, quoique dans une moindre mesure que les exigences fixées par le Parlement, la part des dépenses de l’Union consacrées à la recherche, aux PME et aux infrastructures clés. Dans les années à venir, les politiques de l’Union devraient être axées sur une concurrence mondiale plus équitable, la stimulation de l’innovation, le renforcement des capacités numériques et l’amélioration du développement durable de l’industrie européenne. Le présent document est une mise à jour d’une note plus ancienne, publiée avant les élections européennes de 2019.

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