16

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Domaine politique
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Perspectives démographiques pour l’Union européenne 2019

03-06-2019

Le présent document est le deuxième d’une série produite par l’EPRS sur les perspectives démographiques de l’Union européenne. La démographie est un sujet crucial. L’économie, le marché du travail, les soins de santé, les pensions, l’environnement, l’équité entre les générations et les résultats des élections sont tous liés à la démographie. L’Union européenne a vu sa population augmenter de manière substantielle, à savoir d’environ 25 % depuis 1960, et elle compte actuellement plus de 500 millions ...

Le présent document est le deuxième d’une série produite par l’EPRS sur les perspectives démographiques de l’Union européenne. La démographie est un sujet crucial. L’économie, le marché du travail, les soins de santé, les pensions, l’environnement, l’équité entre les générations et les résultats des élections sont tous liés à la démographie. L’Union européenne a vu sa population augmenter de manière substantielle, à savoir d’environ 25 % depuis 1960, et elle compte actuellement plus de 500 millions d'habitants. Toutefois, elle commence à présent à stagner, avant sa diminution prévue à partir du milieu du siècle. Alors que la population mondiale a encore augmenté considérablement et qu’elle continue de croître, l’Union européenne représente un pourcentage de moins en moins important de cette population. La population de l’Union vieillit également de manière spectaculaire, étant donné que l’espérance de vie augmente et que les taux de fécondité sont plus faibles que par le passé. Cela a des conséquences graves sur toute une série de domaines, y compris l’économie, les soins de santé et les retraites. La libre circulation au sein de l’Union européenne et l’immigration en provenance de pays tiers jouent également un rôle important dans la composition de la population des différents États membres et régions. La section centrale de la présente édition se penche sur les retraites. Elle met en lumière le fait que, si les réformes nationales ont été efficaces pour parer aux problèmes de pérennité des régimes de retraite, le maintien du caractère adéquat des pensions à l’avenir suscite quant à lui des inquiétudes.

Pan-European pension product

21-03-2018

This European added value assessment, prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), analyses the added value of a pan-European pension product, in particular from the taxation viewpoint. It presents the issues that led to the PEPP proposal being made and provides a short overview of key stakeholders' opinions and existing studies. Moreover it considers the question of PEPP taxation and the impact of costs on final pensions. The analysis concludes by identifying ...

This European added value assessment, prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), analyses the added value of a pan-European pension product, in particular from the taxation viewpoint. It presents the issues that led to the PEPP proposal being made and provides a short overview of key stakeholders' opinions and existing studies. Moreover it considers the question of PEPP taxation and the impact of costs on final pensions. The analysis concludes by identifying the potential European added value that could be achieved by means of the PEPP proposal.

Perspectives démographiques pour l’Union européenne

21-12-2017

Le présent document est le premier d’une série annuelle produite par l’EPRS sur les perspectives démographiques de l’Union européenne. La démographie est un sujet crucial. L’économie, le marché du travail, les soins de santé, les pensions, l’environnement, l’équité entre les générations et les résultats des élections sont tous liés à la démographie. L’Union européenne a vu sa population augmenter de manière substantielle, à savoir d’environ 25 % en cinq décennies et demie depuis 1960, et elle compte ...

Le présent document est le premier d’une série annuelle produite par l’EPRS sur les perspectives démographiques de l’Union européenne. La démographie est un sujet crucial. L’économie, le marché du travail, les soins de santé, les pensions, l’environnement, l’équité entre les générations et les résultats des élections sont tous liés à la démographie. L’Union européenne a vu sa population augmenter de manière substantielle, à savoir d’environ 25 % en cinq décennies et demie depuis 1960, et elle compte actuellement plus de 500 millions de personnes. Toutefois, elle commence à présent à stagner, avant sa diminution prévue à partir du milieu du siècle. Alors que la population mondiale a encore augmenté considérablement et qu’elle continue de croître, l’Union européenne représente un pourcentage de moins en moins important de la population mondiale. La population de l’Union vieillit également de manière spectaculaire, étant donné que l’espérance de vie augmente et que les taux de fécondité sont plus faibles que par le passé. Cela a des conséquences graves sur toute une série de domaines, y compris l’économie, les soins de santé et les retraites. La libre circulation au sein de l’Union européenne et l’immigration en provenance de pays tiers jouent également un rôle important dans la composition de la population des différents États membres et régions. La section centrale de la présente analyse se penche sur la santé, et observe que les données, même si elles ne sont pas uniformes, indiquent que les personnes ne vivent pas nécessairement les années supplémentaires sans limitations de leurs activités habituelles.

Occupational pensions: Revision of the Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive (IORP II)

23-01-2017

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity. Stakeholders generally welcomed ...

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity. Stakeholders generally welcomed the focus of the proposal and the lack of new prudential rules, but felt the revision was overly detailed and prescriptive and did not respect national competences, nor reflect the variety of IORPs and their position as social (not just financial) entities. Following trilogue discussions, the compromise text was adopted at first reading in the European Parliament’s plenary on 24 November, an then adopted by the Council on 8 December. It came into effect on 12 January 2017 and Member States have two years from then to transpose it into national law. This briefing updates an earlier edition, from September 2016: PE 589.800.

Recast occupational pensions directive (IORP II)

15-11-2016

The Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive, from 2003, covers certain occupational pension savings. IORPs hold assets worth €2.5 trillion on behalf of around 75 million Europeans and are found mainly in the United Kingdom (55.9 % of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7 %). Around a further 10 % of IORP assets are in Germany (4.5 %), Italy (2.8 %) and Ireland (2.4 %). The proposed revision (known as IORP II), to be debated during the Parliament's November plenary session ...

The Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive, from 2003, covers certain occupational pension savings. IORPs hold assets worth €2.5 trillion on behalf of around 75 million Europeans and are found mainly in the United Kingdom (55.9 % of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7 %). Around a further 10 % of IORP assets are in Germany (4.5 %), Italy (2.8 %) and Ireland (2.4 %). The proposed revision (known as IORP II), to be debated during the Parliament's November plenary session, aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity.

Occupational pensions: Revision of the Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive (IORP II)

27-09-2016

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity, strengthening the single market ...

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity, strengthening the single market. The proposal did not include new prudential rules (i.e. capital requirements) for IORPs following a long and controversial debate. Stakeholders generally welcomed the focus of the proposal and the lack of new prudential rules, but felt the revision was overly detailed and prescriptive and did not respect national competences, nor reflect the variety of IORPs and their position as social (not just financial) entities. Trilogue discussions have now concluded and a first-reading plenary vote is expected to take place in November. This briefing updates an earlier version, from March 2016: PE 579.101. A more recent edition of this document is available. Find it by searching by the document title at this address: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html

Elderly people and poverty: Current levels and changes since the crisis

06-07-2016

Measuring poverty is complex and a number of indicators are now used to try to give a comprehensive picture. A composite measure – 'at risk of poverty or social exclusion' (AROPE) – is used today to measure progress on the Europe 2020 anti-poverty target. In general, poverty for those aged 65 or older (65+) in the European Union significantly reduced between 2007 and 2014, in contrast to increases in poverty for people aged under 65. Those aged 65+ now have a significantly lower rate of being AROPE ...

Measuring poverty is complex and a number of indicators are now used to try to give a comprehensive picture. A composite measure – 'at risk of poverty or social exclusion' (AROPE) – is used today to measure progress on the Europe 2020 anti-poverty target. In general, poverty for those aged 65 or older (65+) in the European Union significantly reduced between 2007 and 2014, in contrast to increases in poverty for people aged under 65. Those aged 65+ now have a significantly lower rate of being AROPE than younger people (17.8% vs. 25.9% for the EU-28 in 2014). The same applies when looking only at rates of 'severe material deprivation' (a component of the AROPE measure, but one not affected by changes to incomes of people under 65). This shows improvements for those aged 65+ and worsening for under-65 year olds. Those aged 65+ are less at risk of severe material deprivation than younger people (6.2% vs 9.5%, EU-28, 2014). These broad results mask differences between individual Member States, with varying age 65+ poverty levels and improvements seen. Some saw age 65+ poverty increase according to at least one indicator, but increases were generally small, from a low base and not associated with countries particularly hard hit by the crisis. Women aged 65+ have consistently higher AROPE rates (and other poverty indicators) then men across the Member States, though the gap has narrowed somewhat. Women's 65+ AROPE rates reflect their: lower pay and shorter and more interrupted working lives leading to lower pensions (38% lower on average in the European Union according to the Commission's 2015 Pension Adequacy Report); longer lives (and retirements); and increased likelihood of being in a single-person household. People aged 75+ also have higher AROPE rates than those aged 65-74, though the gap has narrowed since 2007.

Public expectations and EU policies - Health and social security

30-06-2016

Almost two thirds of EU citizens would like to see more EU engagement in the areas of health and social security. The EU's main role in these policies is to support and complement the activities of Member States, and it can encourage cooperation and best practice. EU health policy aims to foster good health, protect citizens from health threats and support dynamic health systems. Social policy promotes social cohesion equality as well as solidarity through adequate, accessible and financially sustainable ...

Almost two thirds of EU citizens would like to see more EU engagement in the areas of health and social security. The EU's main role in these policies is to support and complement the activities of Member States, and it can encourage cooperation and best practice. EU health policy aims to foster good health, protect citizens from health threats and support dynamic health systems. Social policy promotes social cohesion equality as well as solidarity through adequate, accessible and financially sustainable social protection systems and social inclusion policies. The EU encourages national pension reforms to ensure they are both adequate and sustainable. In the EU budget, the Health Programme 2014-2020 is the only programme specifically created for this policy area, but other programmes contribute in part to health objectives. EU spending on social security is tied to labour market measures.

Occupational pensions: Revision of the Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive (IORP II)

17-03-2016

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity, strengthening the single market ...

In 2014, the European Commission proposed a revision (‘IORP II’) of the existing Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive of 2003, which covers certain occupational pension savings. These are overwhelmingly in the United Kingdom (55.9% of IORP assets) and the Netherlands (30.7%). The proposed revision aims to improve the governance, risk management, transparency and information provision of IORPs and help increase cross-border IORP activity, strengthening the single market. The proposal did not include new prudential rules (i.e. capital requirements) for IORPs following a long and controversial debate. Stakeholders have in general welcomed the focus of the proposal and the lack of new prudential rules, but feel the revision is overly detailed and prescriptive and does not respect national competences, nor reflect the variety of IORPs and their position as social (not just financial) entities. Following the vote on a mandate in Parliament's ECON Committee trilogue discussion are now under way with the Council. This briefing updates an earlier version, from December 2015: PE 573.885. A more recent edition of this document is available. Find it by searching by the document title at this address: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html

Le "nouvel arrangement" pour le Royaume-Uni dans l'Union européenne: De la renégociation au référendum

25-02-2016

Après la composition d'un gouvernement conservateur issu des élections législatives britanniques de mai 2015, le Premier ministre David Cameron a entamé des négociations avec les autres États membres et les institutions de l'Union européenne afin de fixer un "nouvel arrangement" entre son pays et l'Union. Cette renégociation, conduite ces derniers mois, est arrivée à son terme. S'appuyant sur les propositions formulées par le président du Conseil européen, Donald Tusk, les États membres sont parvenus ...

Après la composition d'un gouvernement conservateur issu des élections législatives britanniques de mai 2015, le Premier ministre David Cameron a entamé des négociations avec les autres États membres et les institutions de l'Union européenne afin de fixer un "nouvel arrangement" entre son pays et l'Union. Cette renégociation, conduite ces derniers mois, est arrivée à son terme. S'appuyant sur les propositions formulées par le président du Conseil européen, Donald Tusk, les États membres sont parvenus à un accord lors de la réunion du Conseil européen des 18 et 19 février. L'accord comprend une décision des chefs d'État ou de gouvernement – constituant un accord entre les États membres en vertu du droit international et non une décision du Conseil européen – ainsi qu'un projet de décision du Conseil sur l'union bancaire et plusieurs déclarations de la Commission européenne par lesquelles elle s'engage à présenter des propositions de modification d'actes législatifs existants de l'Union dans les domaines de la libre circulation et de l'accès aux prestations sociales pour les travailleurs de l'Union. L'accord n'entrerait en vigueur qu'après la notification par le Royaume-Uni au Conseil de sa décision de rester membre de l'Union européenne, à la suite du référendum sur son appartenance à l'Union, prévu le 23 juin 2016.

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