11

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Mot-clé
Date

SMEs and Better Regulation

07-02-2020

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the European economy. However, numerous internal and external constraints, such as red tape and stringent business regulations, can make running a small business very difficult for entrepreneurs. Creating a business-friendly regulatory environment is a long-standing EU objective. The European Commission's cross-cutting policy on better regulation spearheads improvements, and its 'SME Test' scrutinises the impact of EU proposals on SMEs ...

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the European economy. However, numerous internal and external constraints, such as red tape and stringent business regulations, can make running a small business very difficult for entrepreneurs. Creating a business-friendly regulatory environment is a long-standing EU objective. The European Commission's cross-cutting policy on better regulation spearheads improvements, and its 'SME Test' scrutinises the impact of EU proposals on SMEs. The Commission is due to make a statement during the February plenary session on SMEs and better regulation.

Public economic support in the EU: State aid and special economic zones

06-02-2020

State aid can be defined as an advantage given by a government that may provide a company with an unfair competitive edge over its commercial rivals. State aid can take several forms, such as public subsidies, tax relief, or the purchasing of goods and services on preferential terms. While the European Union (EU) competition rules consider State aid to be incompatible with the internal market, they allow such aid when it promotes general economic development, for example, when tackling the challenges ...

State aid can be defined as an advantage given by a government that may provide a company with an unfair competitive edge over its commercial rivals. State aid can take several forms, such as public subsidies, tax relief, or the purchasing of goods and services on preferential terms. While the European Union (EU) competition rules consider State aid to be incompatible with the internal market, they allow such aid when it promotes general economic development, for example, when tackling the challenges of global competition, the ongoing financial crisis, the digital revolution, and demographic change. To this end, all EU Member States provide some public economic support, for instance, to the coal mining sector, banks, or the digital economy. To contribute to regional development and to increase competitiveness, some Member States have created special economic zones (SEZs), which offer an attractive combination of tax-and-tariff incentives, streamlined customs procedures, less laws, provision of infrastructure, and creation of business clusters. The European Commission is currently evaluating the State aid modernisation (SAM) package and some of its related laws, as these will expire by the end of 2020. The European Parliament takes a two fold stance towards public economic support in the EU. On the one hand, Parliament stresses that State aid should support ecological transformation and foster the development of services, knowledge, and infrastructure rather than providing support to specific companies. On the other hand, it calls on the Commission to ensure that State aid is reduced in the long term, given its distortive effects on the internal market. While the temporary State aid offered to the financial sector to stabilise the EU financial system might have been necessary, Parliament calls on the Commission to scrutinise and eventually remove this aid. Parliament, inter alia, also calls on the Member States to abandon unfair competition practices based on unjustified tax incentives and to adopt appropriate rules in the Council.

La politique industrielle de l’Union européenne à un tournant: État des lieux, défis et voie à suivre

02-12-2019

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché ...

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché et des échanges tout en protégeant l’industrie de la concurrence déloyale, ou de promouvoir une industrie plus verte et plus durable tout en préservant sa compétitivité sur la scène mondiale. Elle suscite également une réorientation du positionnement stratégique de l’Union, traditionnellement défensif, vers une politique offensive. Cette évolution a donné lieu à un vif débat concernant la nécessité d’une nouvelle politique industrielle au niveau de l’Union, qui serait plus affirmée, plus globale et mieux coordonnée. Le présent document réexamine la situation actuelle et les principaux défis auxquels l’Union est confrontée et fournit une analyse des principales options stratégiques pour l’avenir.

Mise en œuvre de l’AECG: Gros plan sur les PME et les régions

18-11-2019

La majeure partie des dispositions de l’accord économique et commercial global (AECG) entre l’Union européenne et le Canada sont appliquées à titre provisoire depuis le 21 septembre 2017, dans l’attente de la ratification complète de l’accord. La présente analyse de l’EPRS a pour but de présenter un état des lieux des procédures de ratification de l’AECG, ses objectifs principaux, les controverses qui subsistent et les premiers résultats de deux années d’application à titre provisoire, en mettant ...

La majeure partie des dispositions de l’accord économique et commercial global (AECG) entre l’Union européenne et le Canada sont appliquées à titre provisoire depuis le 21 septembre 2017, dans l’attente de la ratification complète de l’accord. La présente analyse de l’EPRS a pour but de présenter un état des lieux des procédures de ratification de l’AECG, ses objectifs principaux, les controverses qui subsistent et les premiers résultats de deux années d’application à titre provisoire, en mettant l’accent sur les régions et sur les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME). Il est important de noter qu’il est trop tôt pour évaluer les effets économiques et sociaux de l’AECG. Cette tâche relèvera de l’évaluation ex post normalement effectuée par la Commission européenne cinq ans après le début de l’application provisoire. En donnant un aperçu des premiers résultats de la mise en œuvre de l’AECG après deux ans, la présente analyse vise à éclairer les futures délibérations concernant l’AECG, mais aussi les autres accords de libre-échange entre l’Union européenne et divers pays partenaires.

Multinational enterprises, value creation and taxation: Key issues and policy developments

03-07-2019

The substantial reduction in trade costs and the rapid technological advances characterising the global economy over the past three decades have allowed multinational enterprises (MNEs) to increasingly break up their supply chains and spread them across different countries. The principal implication of this change relates to the concept of value added and the way it is created and captured across MNE-controlled global value chains (GVCs). The dynamic nature of transfers within MNEs, the increasing ...

The substantial reduction in trade costs and the rapid technological advances characterising the global economy over the past three decades have allowed multinational enterprises (MNEs) to increasingly break up their supply chains and spread them across different countries. The principal implication of this change relates to the concept of value added and the way it is created and captured across MNE-controlled global value chains (GVCs). The dynamic nature of transfers within MNEs, the increasing role of services and intangible assets in manufacturing, and most critically the unfolding digital revolution have all intensified the mobility of value-generating factors within GVCs, and highlighted the difficulty of defining the exact location where value is generated. These developments have significant policy implications. One critical area is that of tax policy, where the challenges posed by the new economic landscape are numerous and multifaceted. On the one hand, governments seek to encourage trade and investment by MNEs by removing tax and regulatory barriers they face. Some governments go even further by resorting to harmful tax competition that drives corporate income taxes to the bottom. At the same time, many MNEs continue to employ enhanced tax arbitrage to minimise their tax obligations across jurisdictions; furthermore, business models are increasingly becoming borderless and highly mobile, and therefore difficult to tax. In view of these challenges, consensus is gradually emerging that tax systems need improved alignment to ensure that profits are taxed where the economic activities generating them are performed and where value is created. Yet, allocating jurisdiction to tax business profits in the context of MNE-controlled GVCs remains a highly complex process.

Enabling SMEs' access to capital markets

09-04-2019

Making it easier for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to access financing through public markets lies at the heart of the capital markets union – the plan to mobilise capital in Europe. Among the various reasons for going ahead with this union is the fact that existing requirements and listing costs in both regulated and multilateral trading venues continue to be disproportionate to the size and level of sophistication of SMEs. To further respond to this situation, the Commission has proposed ...

Making it easier for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to access financing through public markets lies at the heart of the capital markets union – the plan to mobilise capital in Europe. Among the various reasons for going ahead with this union is the fact that existing requirements and listing costs in both regulated and multilateral trading venues continue to be disproportionate to the size and level of sophistication of SMEs. To further respond to this situation, the Commission has proposed adopting a regulation to address the administrative burden placed on SMEs when listing or issuing equity and bonds, with the aim to increase liquidity on SME growth markets. The latter are a new category of multilateral trading facilities, which was established under the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II. To this end, the proposal provides for targeted amendments to two key pieces of financial services legislation, namely the Market Abuse Regulation (MAR) and the Prospectus Regulation. Following interinstitutional negotiations the co-legislators reached a provisional agreement on the proposal on 6 March 2019, and this is due to be voted in Parliament during the April II plenary session.

The InvestEU programme: Continuing EFSI in the next MFF

09-04-2019

Since its launch in November 2014, the Investment Plan for Europe (IPE) has had considerable success in mobilising private investment across Europe. Despite its success, investment levels in Europe remain below pre-crisis levels. There is therefore a need to provide for an extended EU investment programme under the new multiannual financial framework (MFF), which caters for multiple objectives in terms of simplification, flexibility, synergies and coherence across relevant EU policies. The InvestEU ...

Since its launch in November 2014, the Investment Plan for Europe (IPE) has had considerable success in mobilising private investment across Europe. Despite its success, investment levels in Europe remain below pre-crisis levels. There is therefore a need to provide for an extended EU investment programme under the new multiannual financial framework (MFF), which caters for multiple objectives in terms of simplification, flexibility, synergies and coherence across relevant EU policies. The InvestEU programme, expected to run from 2021 onwards, has been designed to address this challenge. It will bring diverse EU financial instruments within a single structure, making EU funding for investment projects in Europe simpler and more efficient and flexible. It will build on the success achieved by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) and consist of the InvestEU Fund, the InvestEU Advisory Hub and the InvestEU Portal. Negotiators for Parliament and Council have reached a partial agreement on the text of the proposal, excluding budgetary figures and other elements which will not be finalised until overall agreement on the new MFF. Parliament is due to vote on that agreement in April 2019.

Standards and the digitalisation of EU industry: Economic implications and policy developments

27-03-2019

Industrial production, both globally and in the EU, is undergoing a radical digital transformation. New advanced manufacturing techniques rely primarily on innovative digital technologies, which cannot work in isolation, but are based on connected ecosystems delivering collective technological breakthroughs. All of these new technologies essentially rest on an interconnected 'smart world', where objects, machines, people and the environment are increasingly closely interlinked. The timely and harmonised ...

Industrial production, both globally and in the EU, is undergoing a radical digital transformation. New advanced manufacturing techniques rely primarily on innovative digital technologies, which cannot work in isolation, but are based on connected ecosystems delivering collective technological breakthroughs. All of these new technologies essentially rest on an interconnected 'smart world', where objects, machines, people and the environment are increasingly closely interlinked. The timely and harmonised adoption of technical standards is likely to play a pivotal role in this context. Standards can facilitate the ongoing digitalisation of industry by promoting compatibility and interoperability between products and processes; they can also transfer information between economic agents or machines, while guaranteeing minimum levels of quality and safety. Crucially, standards can also become accelerators of change, by promoting innovation and the uptake of new digital technologies. The EU has long recognised this key role of standards in the overall efforts to remove barriers and unlock the growth potential of the economy. Yet, progress in new technologies around the world is accelerating exponentially, and the development of new standards in the field is increasingly taking place outside Europe. This trend could undermine the EU's future comparative advantage and weaken the competitiveness of European industry in the long term. It therefore calls for a coordinated effort to develop European technology standards that are not only more responsive to policy needs but are also agile, open, more strongly linked to research and innovation, and importantly, better joined up.

Global and regional value chains: Opportunities for European SMEs' internationalisation and growth

14-02-2019

International value chains have emerged as the new paradigm for the organisation of production globally. Today, most production processes across the world are vertically fragmented as a result of the increased unbundling of tasks and functions and their sourcing from different geographical locations. The extent to which this expansion in supply-chain trade is global in character (which some describe as the 'Factory World' phenomenon), or is rather based on more intra-regional ties clustered around ...

International value chains have emerged as the new paradigm for the organisation of production globally. Today, most production processes across the world are vertically fragmented as a result of the increased unbundling of tasks and functions and their sourcing from different geographical locations. The extent to which this expansion in supply-chain trade is global in character (which some describe as the 'Factory World' phenomenon), or is rather based on more intra-regional ties clustered around Europe, Asia and the Americas, is still being debated in the literature. Notwithstanding their geographical characteristics, international value chains offer increased opportunities for enterprises, by fostering their growth and internationalisation irrespective of their scale and size. To SMEs, they offer a broader range of channels through which they can participate more actively in global markets. By linking with international supply chains, SMEs can take a first step up the ladder, which – through spill-overs and knowledge transfers – can often give them access to assignments of higher added value. With greater interconnectedness, however, comes greater complexity. Not all SMEs are able to take advantage of the opportunities and link with international value chains in an effective way. More importantly, however, for those that do manage to integrate into international production chains, the magnitude and nature of the benefits will critically depend on the SMEs' entry point and position in global production networks and the links they can develop within those networks.

Perspectives économiques et budgétaires de l’Union européenne pour 2019

30-01-2019

La présente étude, la deuxième d’une série annuelle, fournit une vue d’ensemble de la situation économique et budgétaire dans l’Union européenne et au-delà. Les principaux indicateurs économiques de l’Union et de la zone euro y sont résumés, ainsi que leurs tendances sur deux ans. Les chiffres montrent que la croissance a été modérée en 2018, à 2,1 %, et devrait légèrement ralentir dans les mois à venir, au vu de la perspective mondiale plus morose que l’année dernière. Cela étant, le chômage se ...

La présente étude, la deuxième d’une série annuelle, fournit une vue d’ensemble de la situation économique et budgétaire dans l’Union européenne et au-delà. Les principaux indicateurs économiques de l’Union et de la zone euro y sont résumés, ainsi que leurs tendances sur deux ans. Les chiffres montrent que la croissance a été modérée en 2018, à 2,1 %, et devrait légèrement ralentir dans les mois à venir, au vu de la perspective mondiale plus morose que l’année dernière. Cela étant, le chômage se situe actuellement à son point le plus bas depuis la crise et la situation devrait continuer à s’améliorer compte tenu des conditions favorables du marché du travail. L’étude présente le budget annuel de l’Union, en donnant un aperçu de ses rubriques pour 2019, qui s’élèvent à un total de 165,8 milliards d’euros (soit environ 1 % du RNB de l’Union). Parmi les priorités du budget 2019 figurent la relance des investissements, de la croissance et de la recherche, la création de nouveaux emplois, surtout pour les jeunes, et les questions liées à la migration et à la sécurité. Le cadre budgétaire plus large, le cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP), est également examiné dans cette étude au travers des principales décisions relatives aux dépenses pour la période 2021-2027 qui devraient être prises en 2019. Dans l’édition de cette année, le point spécial sur l’économie offre une vision d’ensemble des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) et de la politique des PME en Europe, et présente diverses initiatives récentes de l’Union européenne dans ce domaine. Le budget de l’Union accorde une attention particulière aux PME, compte tenu de leur rôle central dans l’économie européenne et dans la création d’emplois. L’Union doit poursuivre ses efforts en vue d’améliorer l’accès des PME au financement, car ces entreprises, malgré de récentes améliorations, ont encore trop tendance à dépendre du financement par emprunt, ce qui les expose à une situation de risque en période de ralentissement économique.

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