51

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Auteur
Date

Consequences of US trade policy on EU-US trade relations and the global trading system

17-10-2018

The Trump Administration’s trade policy is driven by the belief that previous Administrations have let other countries take advantage of the United States for foreign policy reasons, as demonstrated by America’s more open trade regime and its trade deficits. It is determined to end this perceived imbalance by demanding reciprocity instead, and is willing to use tough tactics to achieve this through strict enforcement of its procurement and trade defense law; expansive tax provisions; bringing the ...

The Trump Administration’s trade policy is driven by the belief that previous Administrations have let other countries take advantage of the United States for foreign policy reasons, as demonstrated by America’s more open trade regime and its trade deficits. It is determined to end this perceived imbalance by demanding reciprocity instead, and is willing to use tough tactics to achieve this through strict enforcement of its procurement and trade defense law; expansive tax provisions; bringing the WTO dispute settlement to a halt; withdrawing from and forcing others to renegotiate existing bilateral and multilateral agreements; adopting a novel “national security” argument to justify breaking WTO tariff commitments for steel, aluminum and possibly autos; and enacting punitive tariffs on billions of dollars of imports from China, possibly threatening a trade war. The scenarios for U.S.-EU trade relations as well as the global trading system are anything but rosy. The EU can stand up to the Administration’s “bullying,” or it can take advantage of America’s need for a “re-balancing” to build its own stature by taking simple steps to improve EU-U.S. trade, forging a way forward in the WTO, and providing necessary leadership to address the dangers China’s economic system poses to the global trading order.

Auteur externe

Peter CHASE, Peter SPARDING, Yuki MUKAI

Les relations entre l’Union européenne et la Chine: une nouvelle ère de coopération stratégique plus étendue?

19-07-2018

La Chine est un important partenaire stratégique de l’Union en dépit de divergences fondamentales dans certains domaines, principalement liées à l’intervention étatique et aux droits fondamentaux de la personne. Le partenariat instaure une coopération mutuellement bénéfique et un dialogue dans des domaines allant de l’investissement et des transports jusqu’aux droits de l’homme et à la cybersécurité. La Chine adopte actuellement de nouvelles orientations, inspirées par la «pensée de Xi Jinping sur ...

La Chine est un important partenaire stratégique de l’Union en dépit de divergences fondamentales dans certains domaines, principalement liées à l’intervention étatique et aux droits fondamentaux de la personne. Le partenariat instaure une coopération mutuellement bénéfique et un dialogue dans des domaines allant de l’investissement et des transports jusqu’aux droits de l’homme et à la cybersécurité. La Chine adopte actuellement de nouvelles orientations, inspirées par la «pensée de Xi Jinping sur un socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises pour une nouvelle ère». Bien que le président Xi Jinping ait admis à maintes reprises que «le marché jouera un rôle décisif», la propriété publique reste à la base de l’économie chinoise et des réformes importantes devraient être engagées pour s’attaquer aux causes profondes de la surcapacité dans différents secteurs de l’industrie. L’initiative «Ceinture et route» de Xi Jinping, qui figure désormais aussi dans la Constitution, est le programme phare en matière de connectivité et d’infrastructure internationales, dominé par des entreprises d’État chinoises. Dans l’ensemble, la transition cruciale mais complexe de la Chine vers une croissance plus durable bénéficierait en définitive tant à la Chine qu’au monde dans son ensemble. Cependant, l’interdépendance économique mondiale rend inévitables certaines répercussions du rééquilibrage de la Chine. Le pays joue un rôle pivot dans la gouvernance mondiale et dans l’ordre international fondé sur des règles, ce qui s’accompagne de responsabilités. Pékin a commencé à s’éloigner de la stricte poursuite d’objectifs nationaux pour se tourner vers une politique étrangère et de sécurité plus volontariste ainsi que vers une coopération accrue en matière de finance, d’économie et de sécurité à l’échelle mondiale. La Chine fait également face à des préoccupations intérieures: sortir des millions de personnes de la pauvreté, réduire les inégalités de revenus qui ne cessent de s’accroître, répondre à la détérioration de la situation des droits de l’homme et des libertés, ainsi qu’endiguer la corruption endémique.

Protectionism and international diplomacy

25-06-2018

Just three decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall signifying the end of Cold War aggression and the ascendancy of international liberalism, the world faces even greater uncertainty. In every region of the world, geopolitical shifts are taking place that have brought offensive trade agendas to the fore. The US has withdrawn from underwriting the post-World War Two international economic and foreign policy architecture, instead proposing to build a wall between itself and neighbouring Mexico, imposing ...

Just three decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall signifying the end of Cold War aggression and the ascendancy of international liberalism, the world faces even greater uncertainty. In every region of the world, geopolitical shifts are taking place that have brought offensive trade agendas to the fore. The US has withdrawn from underwriting the post-World War Two international economic and foreign policy architecture, instead proposing to build a wall between itself and neighbouring Mexico, imposing unilateral tariff increases while refusing to negotiate new international agreements. In Europe, the project of ever greater integration has been attacked by Brexit, as well as other populist sentiment against the perceived power of EU institutions and the forces of globalisation. The breakdown of the western coalition advocating global governance has left a power vacuum that other key players such as China are forced to respond to. These current tectonic shifts in power and foreign policy positions impact on every country and every individual in the early 21st century. While many governments strive to maintain international cooperation and further integration, it is an unpredictable era. For trade policy has established itself firmly within the arena of high foreign diplomacy and as a result, traditional assumptions and adherence to international norms can no longer be assumed in such a state of political and economic flux. Yet when trade policy becomes a tool of diplomacy and foreign policy, sound economic reasoning can be lost to political decision making. This report shines a spotlight on the rise of protectionism in the 21st century. It examines the diplomatic dynamics behind economic nationalism and its attack on the established liberal international institutions that were created after the second World War to settle disputes without recourse to war. Before focusing on the US, UK, EU and China, the first chapter centers on the threat to economic integration and cooperation in promoting sustainable development through the multilateral rules-based system established under the World Trade Organization.

Human rights in EU trade policy: Unilateral measures applied by the EU

30-05-2018

Protection of human rights is one of the EU's overarching objectives in its external action, in line with the Treaty on European Union. One of the EU's main tools to promote human rights in third countries is the generalised system of preferences (GSP), granting certain developing countries preferential trade access to the EU market. Covering 90 third countries, the scheme includes explicit human rights conditionality, providing that preferences can be withdrawn in case of massive and systematic ...

Protection of human rights is one of the EU's overarching objectives in its external action, in line with the Treaty on European Union. One of the EU's main tools to promote human rights in third countries is the generalised system of preferences (GSP), granting certain developing countries preferential trade access to the EU market. Covering 90 third countries, the scheme includes explicit human rights conditionality, providing that preferences can be withdrawn in case of massive and systematic violations of core human rights or labour rights norms. A special incentive arrangement under the GSP grants further tariff concessions to countries that ratify and implement a series of international conventions. Based on systematic monitoring by the European Commission, this special scheme is the most comprehensive and detailed human rights mechanism established in the framework of the common commercial policy. While the scheme has been particularly effective in encouraging beneficiary countries to make the necessary legislative and institutional changes, such progress has not been matched at the level of implementation. Suspension of preferences under GSP has been applied in only a few cases and, when it was, did not have an immediate and clear impact on the human rights situation. In practice, the EU has privileged a strategy of incentivising gradual progress through dialogue and monitoring, rather than withdrawing preferences. The EU's unilateral trade measures to protect human rights are not limited to the GSP. The EU has taken steps to prohibit or limit trade in items that could cause human rights violations, such as torture and execution equipment, and dual use goods. New legislation has recently been adopted on conflict minerals, and the European Parliament has called for a proposal for legislation to ban the import of goods produced using child labour. This is an updated edition of a briefing published in January 2017: PE 595.878.

Competition in Air Transport

16-04-2018

Competition in the aviation sector pertains to different sets of rules, competition law on the one hand and, given the cross-border interdependencies of transport markets, international rules on the other hand. The workshop aimed to examine the current situation of competition in air transport using the proposed regulation on Safeguarding competition in air transport, repealing Regulation (EC) No 868/2004 as a practical example and starting point for the discussion. The Committee on Economic and ...

Competition in the aviation sector pertains to different sets of rules, competition law on the one hand and, given the cross-border interdependencies of transport markets, international rules on the other hand. The workshop aimed to examine the current situation of competition in air transport using the proposed regulation on Safeguarding competition in air transport, repealing Regulation (EC) No 868/2004 as a practical example and starting point for the discussion. The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) has prepared a legislative opinion to this dossier. This Workshop was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Auteur externe

Kay MITUSCH, Universit Karlsruhe, Pablo MENDES DE LEON, University Leiden and Internationa Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Les 10 priorités de la Commission Juncker: État des lieux au début de l’année 2018

26-01-2018

Cette publication offre un aperçu et une analyse actualisés de l’état d’avancement de la mise en œuvre par la Commission européenne des différentes initiatives législatives et politiques découlant des dix priorités exposées par son président, Jean-Claude Juncker, lors de son élection par le Parlement européen, en juillet 2014. La présente analyse approfondie s’appuie sur un large éventail de publications du Service de recherche du Parlement européen (EPRS) et constitue une version actualisée du document ...

Cette publication offre un aperçu et une analyse actualisés de l’état d’avancement de la mise en œuvre par la Commission européenne des différentes initiatives législatives et politiques découlant des dix priorités exposées par son président, Jean-Claude Juncker, lors de son élection par le Parlement européen, en juillet 2014. La présente analyse approfondie s’appuie sur un large éventail de publications du Service de recherche du Parlement européen (EPRS) et constitue une version actualisée du document intitulé «La Commission européenne à mi-mandat – État des lieux des dix priorités du président Juncker», publié en juillet 2017. Cette publication a été compilée et révisée par Isabelle Gaudeul-Ehrhart, avec l’aide des analystes du service de recherche pour les députés et de la direction de l’évaluation de l’impact et de la valeur ajoutée européenne de l’EPRS, notamment : Piotr Bakowski, Angelos Delivorias, Gregor Erbach, Roderick Harte, Elena Lazarou, Tambiama Madiega, Nora Milotay, Shara Monteleone, Anita Orav, Christian Scheinert, Andrej Stuchlik, Marcin Szczepanski, Laura Tilindyte et Sofija Voronova. Les graphiques ont été élaborés par Giulio Sabbati et sont tirés de l’outil en ligne «Legislative Train Schedule», récemment lancé par le Parlement pour suivre la progression des propositions législatives de la Commission.

What next after the US withdrawal from the TPP? What are the options for trade relations in the Pacific and what will be the impact on the EU?

27-11-2017

The Trans-Pacific Partnership was a landmark trade agreement signed by 12 Pacific Rim countries including the US on 4 February 2016. TPP had commercial as well as geopolitical significance for the Obama administration and was a key component of the former president´s so-called “pivot” to Asia. On his first full day in office, on 24 January 2017, President Trump pulled the US out of TPP leaving the other 11 signatories to grapple with the consequences. They have since vowed to move forward even without ...

The Trans-Pacific Partnership was a landmark trade agreement signed by 12 Pacific Rim countries including the US on 4 February 2016. TPP had commercial as well as geopolitical significance for the Obama administration and was a key component of the former president´s so-called “pivot” to Asia. On his first full day in office, on 24 January 2017, President Trump pulled the US out of TPP leaving the other 11 signatories to grapple with the consequences. They have since vowed to move forward even without US participation, reviewing the existing clauses and rebranding the regional agreement under the name of Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). Negotiations on the CPTPP will continue in 2018. The European Parliament has requested three experts from the EU, US and Asia to consider the implications of the US withdrawal from the TPP and draw conclusions on how the EU should position itself in this high-growth and geopolitically-strategic area. The findings were presented during a Workshop organised by the Policy Department for the International Trade Committee on 8 November 2017 in Brussels.

Auteur externe

Peter CHASE, Pasha L. HSIEH, Bart KERREMANS

Serbia’s cooperation with China, the European Union, Russia and the United States of America

21-11-2017

Since 2000, Serbia has undergone a halting yet persistent reintegration into the global economy. However, Serbian foreign policy currently faces a dilemma, as (at least) four separate powers are vying for influence within the country. This study examines Serbia’s foreign policies towards the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Russia, and China, in particular examining the influence of each power with regard to foreign aid, trade, investment and security. Our analysis shows that each partner ...

Since 2000, Serbia has undergone a halting yet persistent reintegration into the global economy. However, Serbian foreign policy currently faces a dilemma, as (at least) four separate powers are vying for influence within the country. This study examines Serbia’s foreign policies towards the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Russia, and China, in particular examining the influence of each power with regard to foreign aid, trade, investment and security. Our analysis shows that each partner of Serbia has their own specific interest and comparative advantage in the country, with the EU focusing primarily on rule of law, aid, and increasing investment, the US on security, Russia on energy and foreign policy support, and China on infrastructure and markets. The scale of cooperation is divergent, however, and the EU accession process has pushed the EU to primus inter pares for the Serbian government. The demarcation across activities, however, means that Serbia may be able to keep its non-aligned status in the short-term. Unfortunately, the country is in an unstable equilibrium, as continued progress towards EU accession means that it will eventually have to sacrifice some independence in foreign affairs. The role of the EU in the coming years will be to emphasise the economic and security benefits that come with EU accession, while acknowledging that Serbia has its own cultural and historical links that need tending to.

Auteur externe

Christopher HARTWELL, President, CASE – Center for Social and Economic Research, Poland; Katarzyna SIDLO, Political Economist, CASE

Saudi Arabia in the Western Balkans

17-11-2017

The Gulf States, along with other external players, have raised their profile in the Western Balkans in recent years. While most have set out on an economic quest, Saudi Arabia is considered to have a more ideological approach, seeking a strong role among the region's Muslims. In the 1990s Bosnian war, it provided significant aid for the Muslim cause and has stayed in the region to expand its influence, introducing stricter interpretations of Islam that are gradually taking root there.

The Gulf States, along with other external players, have raised their profile in the Western Balkans in recent years. While most have set out on an economic quest, Saudi Arabia is considered to have a more ideological approach, seeking a strong role among the region's Muslims. In the 1990s Bosnian war, it provided significant aid for the Muslim cause and has stayed in the region to expand its influence, introducing stricter interpretations of Islam that are gradually taking root there.

EU-Russia trade continuing despite sanctions

14-11-2017

Since 2014, trade between the EU and Russia has slumped due to the difficult context (an economic downturn in Russia, EU sanctions over Ukraine and Russian counter-sanctions, and long-standing trade barriers), but remains substantial. Trade started to recover in early 2017. This publication updates an 'At a glance' note of January 2016, PE 573.931.

Since 2014, trade between the EU and Russia has slumped due to the difficult context (an economic downturn in Russia, EU sanctions over Ukraine and Russian counter-sanctions, and long-standing trade barriers), but remains substantial. Trade started to recover in early 2017. This publication updates an 'At a glance' note of January 2016, PE 573.931.

Evénements à venir

20-11-2019
Europe's Future: Where next for EU institutional Reform?
Autre événement -
EPRS

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