141

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Auteur
Mot-clé
Date

The global compact on refugees: Strengthening international cooperation to ease the plight of refugees in the world

11-01-2019

Recent large-scale flows of refugees and migrants have brought to the world's attention more forcefully than ever the plight of persons who are forced to flee their homes because of war, insecurity or persecution. They have also exposed how ill-prepared the international community has been to deal with this challenge and how uneven the distribution of the burden of caring for such people has been among countries. In 2016, to enhance preparedness for refugee crises, improve the situation of refugees ...

Recent large-scale flows of refugees and migrants have brought to the world's attention more forcefully than ever the plight of persons who are forced to flee their homes because of war, insecurity or persecution. They have also exposed how ill-prepared the international community has been to deal with this challenge and how uneven the distribution of the burden of caring for such people has been among countries. In 2016, to enhance preparedness for refugee crises, improve the situation of refugees and relieve the burden on host societies, the United Nations (UN) member states convened in New York and adopted a declaration paving the way for a non-binding international compact on refugees. They annexed to this declaration a comprehensive refugee response framework that spelled out a series of short- and longer-term measures to address refugee crises. The framework has been applied in several pilot countries and the lessons learnt fed into a global compact on refugees. The compact was drafted by the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) following broad consultations with various stakeholders, and its definitive version was adopted by the UN General Assembly with a large majority on 17 December 2018. The global compact focuses on international-, regional- and national-level mechanisms for achieving a fairer distribution of the responsibilities related to refugees, and on areas where action can be improved. It has been criticised, among other things, for its non-binding character and for excluding victims of natural disasters from its scope. This is an updated edition of a Briefing published in June 2018.

Uzbekistan comes in from the cold: A new era of reforms

17-12-2018

Until recently, Uzbekistan was one of the most repressive countries in the world. Under its long-time leader Islam Karimov, human rights abuses included torture, child and forced adult labour, as well as severe restrictions on religious freedom, the media and civil society. Following Karimov's death in 2016, his successor Shavkat Mirziyoyev has launched an ambitious reform programme. Some of the worst human rights abuses (such as torture and forced labour) have been phased out, or at least diminished ...

Until recently, Uzbekistan was one of the most repressive countries in the world. Under its long-time leader Islam Karimov, human rights abuses included torture, child and forced adult labour, as well as severe restrictions on religious freedom, the media and civil society. Following Karimov's death in 2016, his successor Shavkat Mirziyoyev has launched an ambitious reform programme. Some of the worst human rights abuses (such as torture and forced labour) have been phased out, or at least diminished. Judges have become more independent, and the parliament has gained new powers. Steps have been taken to make the country's civil service more accountable to citizens. Media and civil society now have slightly more freedom to operate. Political reforms have been flanked by economic liberalisation. Barriers to trade and investment are being lifted, including by floating the som, the Uzbek currency, and by cutting red tape for businesses. On foreign policy, Uzbekistan has repaired ties with all its main international partners, from the US and EU to Russia and China. The most dramatic change has been the shift from Karimov-era confrontation with neighbours, such as Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, to regional cooperation. These are highly positive changes, but Uzbekistan still has a long way to go. The economy remains largely state-controlled and uncompetitive, and liberalising reforms need to continue. On the political front, the system remains fundamentally authoritarian, and transition to genuine multiparty democracy seems unlikely.

Towards a binding international treaty on business and human rights

08-11-2018

With its extended value chains, economic globalisation has brought numerous opportunities while also creating specific challenges, including in the area of human rights protection. The recent history of transnational corporations contains numerous examples of human rights abuses occurring as a result of their operations. Such corporations are known to have taken advantage of loose regulatory frameworks in developing countries, corruption, and a lack of accountability resulting from legal rules shielding ...

With its extended value chains, economic globalisation has brought numerous opportunities while also creating specific challenges, including in the area of human rights protection. The recent history of transnational corporations contains numerous examples of human rights abuses occurring as a result of their operations. Such corporations are known to have taken advantage of loose regulatory frameworks in developing countries, corruption, and a lack of accountability resulting from legal rules shielding corporate interests. This situation has created a pressing need to establish international norms regulating business operations in relation to human rights. So far, the preferred approach has been 'soft', consisting of the adoption of voluntary guidelines for businesses. Several sets of such norms exist at international level, the most notable being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Nevertheless, while such voluntary commitments are clearly useful, they cannot entirely stop gross human rights violations (such as child labour, labour rights violations and land grabbing) committed by transnational corporations, their subsidiaries or suppliers. To address the shortcomings of the soft approach, an intergovernmental working group was established within the United Nations framework in June 2014, with the task of drafting a binding treaty on human rights and business. After being reluctant at the outset, the EU has become involved in the negotiations, but has insisted that the future treaty's scope should include all businesses, not only transnational ones. The 'Zero Draft' published in July does not reflect the EU's position on this point. It has been welcomed by experts for its more precise focus on prevention, on effective remedies and access to justice for victims, and on companies' liability for their subsidiaries and suppliers in third countries. The European Parliament is a staunch supporter of this initiative and has encouraged the EU to take a positive and constructive approach. This is a further updated edition of a Briefing published in April 2018, PE 620.229.

Le soutien de l’Union aux défenseurs des droits de l’homme dans le monde

08-11-2018

Vingt ans après l’adoption par l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies de sa déclaration sur les défenseurs des droits de l’homme, destinée à renforcer la reconnaissance de leur rôle et d’encourager les États à créer un environnement plus protecteur, de nombreux défenseurs des droits de l’homme font encore face à d’importantes menaces et la situation de ceux qui travaillent dans certains domaines s’est même détériorée. Le soutien des défenseurs des droits de l’homme fait depuis longtemps partie intégrante ...

Vingt ans après l’adoption par l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies de sa déclaration sur les défenseurs des droits de l’homme, destinée à renforcer la reconnaissance de leur rôle et d’encourager les États à créer un environnement plus protecteur, de nombreux défenseurs des droits de l’homme font encore face à d’importantes menaces et la situation de ceux qui travaillent dans certains domaines s’est même détériorée. Le soutien des défenseurs des droits de l’homme fait depuis longtemps partie intégrante de la politique extérieure de l’Union européenne en matière de droits de l’homme et constitue l’une de ses grandes priorités. Les orientations concernant les défenseurs des droits de l’homme adoptées en 2004 par l’Union définissent des mesures concrètes pour leur protection lorsqu’ils sont menacés, dont une aide d’urgence, et encouragent les diplomates de l’Union à adopter une démarche plus volontariste à leur égard. La Commission européenne gère un instrument financier visant à soutenir les activités des défenseurs des droits de l’homme dans le monde qui travaillent dans les situations les plus dangereuses. Le Parlement européen plaide depuis longtemps en faveur de l’adoption, par l’Union, d’une politique globale concernant les défenseurs des droits de l’homme et a activement contribué à son élaboration. Ses résolutions d’urgence sur les violations des droits de l’homme commises de par le monde, dont plusieurs concernaient des défenseurs des droits de l’homme spécifiques et les menaces particulières auxquelles ils sont confrontés, ont attiré l’attention sur les difficultés qu'ils rencontrent dans de nombreux pays. Le Parlement a également organisé des auditions avec des défenseurs des droits de l’homme, a publié des déclarations relatives à des cas de défenseurs des droits de l’homme en danger et a mis en évidence, à l’occasion de missions effectuées par ses délégations dans les pays concernés, les difficultés rencontrées par les défenseurs des droits de l’homme. Le prix Sakharov du Parlement est l’action de l’Union la plus visible en faveur des défenseurs des droits de l’homme. Ses conséquences pour les lauréats sont considérables: il leur apporte reconnaissance et, souvent, une protection indirecte. La présente note d’information est une mise à jour de celle de décembre 2017: PE 614.626.

The Trade Pillar in the EU-Central America Association Agreement: European Implementation Assessment

24-10-2018

The EU-Central America Association Agreement was signed in June 2012 and its trade pillar has been provisionally in force since December 2013. This evaluation assesses specifically the implementation of the trade and sustainable development (TSD) chapter of the trade pillar of this agreement during the five years of its operation. After briefly outlining the trade interests of this agreement, this study situates sustainable development by explaining its legal foundations in the Association Agreement ...

The EU-Central America Association Agreement was signed in June 2012 and its trade pillar has been provisionally in force since December 2013. This evaluation assesses specifically the implementation of the trade and sustainable development (TSD) chapter of the trade pillar of this agreement during the five years of its operation. After briefly outlining the trade interests of this agreement, this study situates sustainable development by explaining its legal foundations in the Association Agreement and reviewing the ex-ante impact assessment conclusions on the issue. It then focuses on the monitoring mechanisms of the Association Agreement, including the European Commission annual reports, Parliament's oversight work, the civil society dialogue, and the results of the meetings of the specialised committee and annual Association Committee and Association Council meetings. Through this review it identifies strengths and shortcomings in the implementation of the TSD chapter and ends by suggesting a number of ways to enhance efforts to support sustainable development in Central America.

Zimbabwe's post-electoral challenges

13-09-2018

As international isolation is no longer economically bearable, Zimbabwe has been searching for legitimacy on the global stage. The post-Mugabe transition government, from a ruling party fraction, committed itself to free and fair elections and invited international observers for first time in 16 years. But much-awaited change in Zimbabwe needs much more than a newly elected president and legislature. The country suffers from institutional dysfunction driven by years of a de facto one-party, military-backed ...

As international isolation is no longer economically bearable, Zimbabwe has been searching for legitimacy on the global stage. The post-Mugabe transition government, from a ruling party fraction, committed itself to free and fair elections and invited international observers for first time in 16 years. But much-awaited change in Zimbabwe needs much more than a newly elected president and legislature. The country suffers from institutional dysfunction driven by years of a de facto one-party, military-backed regime, characterised by rampant corruption and systematic patronage, securing the capture of key economic areas and political institutions by party elites. The victory of the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), in both the legislative and presidential elections, and the deadly crackdown on the opposition that followed, seriously undermine the prospects for genuine Zimbabwean democracy. Although international observers assessed the electoral process as relatively free and competitive, it took place on an uneven playing field due to years of ZANU-PF domination. EU observers, in particular, expressed strong concern regarding the intimidation of voters, the pro-state bias of the media, and the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission's (ZEC) lack of transparency. Some observers have indeed warned that the ousting of Robert Mugabe, which had raised so many hopes, was just part of a power reshuffle inside Zimbabwe's authoritarian regime, meant to protect the interests of the governing elites. Indeed, powerful forces obstruct change in Zimbabwe, seeking the sole preservation of their economic interests in the renewed political context. It is likely that the newly-elected President, Emmerson Mnangagwa, will pursue some economic reform, especially to attract foreign investors, while maintaining political control from above. In this situation, the EU, having declared its readiness to fully re-engage with Zimbabwe, has to use every lever to induce structural changes and to support civil society in this deeply corrupt and dysfunctional state.

Backlash in Gender Equality and Women’s and Girls’ Rights

15-06-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, is designed to identify in which fields and by which means the backlash in gender equality and women’s and girls’ rights in six countries (Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) is occurring. The backlash, which has been happening over the last several years, has decreased the level of protection of women and girls and reduced ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, is designed to identify in which fields and by which means the backlash in gender equality and women’s and girls’ rights in six countries (Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) is occurring. The backlash, which has been happening over the last several years, has decreased the level of protection of women and girls and reduced access to their rights.

Auteur externe

Borbála JUHÁSZ, indipendent expert to EIGE dr. Enikő PAP, legal expert on gender issues, NANE Women's Rights Association National experts: Christiane Ugbor, Sophie Hansal (Austria), Dr. Gabriella Ilonszki (Hungary), Siusi Casaccia (Italy), Zuzana Maďarová (Slovakia), Laura Albu (Romania), Małgorzata Tarasiewicz (Poland)

Human rights in Belarus: The EU’s role since 2016

05-06-2018

This study provides an overview of the European Union’s contribution to promoting and protecting human rights in Belarus since 2016. This analysis presents the main human rights trends in Belarus, examining legislation, policy commitments and violations of human rights. While the Belarusian government has made nominal concessions towards the EU, no systemic progress in terms of human rights has been made in the post-2016 period. The study also describes and assesses the EU’s human rights promotion ...

This study provides an overview of the European Union’s contribution to promoting and protecting human rights in Belarus since 2016. This analysis presents the main human rights trends in Belarus, examining legislation, policy commitments and violations of human rights. While the Belarusian government has made nominal concessions towards the EU, no systemic progress in terms of human rights has been made in the post-2016 period. The study also describes and assesses the EU’s human rights promotion activities in bilateral EU-Belarus relations, within the context of the Eastern Partnership multilateral dimension and in regard to financial assistance. Although the EU has expanded the range of its political dialogue with Belarus since 2016, it has had very little influence over the human rights situation in the country. The EU’s impact has been limited not just because of the very nature of the Belarusian regime. EU institutions and member states have increasingly prioritised geopolitical interests as well as the stability and resilience of Belarus over human rights concerns. The EU should increase efforts to mainstream human rights in all aspects of its relations with Belarus and find a better balance between ‘normalisation’ and ‘conditionality’ based policy approaches vis-à-vis the country.

Auteur externe

Gisele BOSSE, Alena VIEIRA

Paix et sécurité en 2018: Panorama de l'action de l'Union européenne et perspectives pour le futur

14-05-2018

Cette publication est le premier panorama sur la paix et la sécurité produit par le Service de recherche du Parlement européen (EPRS). Cette série est destinée à analyser et à expliquer la contribution de l’Union européenne à la promotion de la paix et de la sécurité dans le monde grâce aux différentes dimensions de sa politique extérieure. L’étude fournit une vue d’ensemble de la situation actuelle. Elle introduit tout d’abord le concept de paix et décrit la nature changeante de l’environnement ...

Cette publication est le premier panorama sur la paix et la sécurité produit par le Service de recherche du Parlement européen (EPRS). Cette série est destinée à analyser et à expliquer la contribution de l’Union européenne à la promotion de la paix et de la sécurité dans le monde grâce aux différentes dimensions de sa politique extérieure. L’étude fournit une vue d’ensemble de la situation actuelle. Elle introduit tout d’abord le concept de paix et décrit la nature changeante de l’environnement géopolitique. Elle aborde ensuite le rôle central de la promotion de la paix et de la sécurité dans l’action extérieure de l’Union et procède à une analyse de la recherche en pratique de ces principes dans trois domaines principaux de la politique de l’Union européenne : le développement, le soutien à la démocratie et la sécurité et la défense. Elle conclut par une analyse des perspectives pour l’avenir. Une étude parallèle, publiée séparément, est consacrée plus spécifiquement aux efforts de paix de l'Union européenne dans les Balkans. Les deux études ont été rédigées en vue de leur présentation au Forum mondial Normandie pour la paix, en juin 2018.

Media pluralism and media freedom in the EU

25-04-2018

Media freedom and pluralism are among the rights and principles enshrined in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and in the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as part of the Copenhagen criteria for membership of the EU, related to democracy and human rights. Despite that, there are currently concerns regarding threats to media freedom and pluralism in the EU. The own-initiative report on Media Pluralism and Media Freedom in the EU, due to be voted in plenary in May, aims at contributing ...

Media freedom and pluralism are among the rights and principles enshrined in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and in the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as part of the Copenhagen criteria for membership of the EU, related to democracy and human rights. Despite that, there are currently concerns regarding threats to media freedom and pluralism in the EU. The own-initiative report on Media Pluralism and Media Freedom in the EU, due to be voted in plenary in May, aims at contributing towards free and pluralistic media systems across the EU that play a key role in any democratic society.

Evénements à venir

10-12-2019
EU institutional dynamics: Ten years after the Lisbon Treaty
Autre événement -
EPRS
11-12-2019
Take-aways from 2019 and outlook for 2020: What Think Tanks are Thinking
Autre événement -
EPRS

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