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States of emergency in response to the coronavirus crisis: Situation in certain Member States IV

07-07-2020

With the virulence of the coronavirus pandemic gradually diminishing, and in the light of the restrictive measures adopted by Member States, attention remains on the way chosen by the various states to respond to the crisis. With states at various stages of relaxing emergency constraints, the effects of the coronavirus pandemic are likely to last in terms of health, economic, social, psychological and possibly even political impact. Although public attention is now turned towards the widely differing ...

With the virulence of the coronavirus pandemic gradually diminishing, and in the light of the restrictive measures adopted by Member States, attention remains on the way chosen by the various states to respond to the crisis. With states at various stages of relaxing emergency constraints, the effects of the coronavirus pandemic are likely to last in terms of health, economic, social, psychological and possibly even political impact. Although public attention is now turned towards the widely differing measures that states are taking in order to live with the virus, new challenges are emerging as international and domestic traffic, trade and free movement of people are re-established, having been all but frozen. In this context, it is still necessary to complete the overview of Member States' constitutional frameworks in response to the coronavirus pandemic with the hope that this might offer some guidance or insight, should a comparable crisis arise in the future. This is the last in a series of four briefings and completes the comparative overview of Member States' institutional responses to the coronavirus crisis by analysing the legislation of Cyprus, Czechia, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania and Slovakia. The first in the series gave an overview of the responses in Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Spain, the second covered Austria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Malta, Romania and Slovenia, while the third covered Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden.

The impact of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) on artificial intelligence

25-06-2020

This study addresses the relation between the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and artificial intelligence (AI). It considers challenges and opportunities for individuals and society, and the ways in which risks can be countered and opportunities enabled through law and technology. The study discusses the tensions and proximities between AI and data protection principles, such as in particular purpose limitation and data minimisation. It makes a thorough analysis of automated decision-making ...

This study addresses the relation between the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and artificial intelligence (AI). It considers challenges and opportunities for individuals and society, and the ways in which risks can be countered and opportunities enabled through law and technology. The study discusses the tensions and proximities between AI and data protection principles, such as in particular purpose limitation and data minimisation. It makes a thorough analysis of automated decision-making, considering the extent to which it is admissible, the safeguard measures to be adopted, and whether data subjects have a right to individual explanations. The study then considers the extent to which the GDPR provides for a preventive risk-based approach, focused on data protection by design and by default.

Auteur externe

DG, EPRS_The study was led by Professor Giovanni Sartor, European University Institute of Florence, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. It was co-authored by Professor Sartor and Dr Francesca Lagioia, European University Institute of Florence, working under his supervision.

Europeanising European Public Spheres

15-06-2020

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides a brief overview of the academic debates on Europeanisation as well as contestation and politicisation of the EU and European integration. Against this background, it focuses on the European public sphere(s), in particular those based on the media and parliaments. The study further discusses current reform proposals aiming to Europeanise ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides a brief overview of the academic debates on Europeanisation as well as contestation and politicisation of the EU and European integration. Against this background, it focuses on the European public sphere(s), in particular those based on the media and parliaments. The study further discusses current reform proposals aiming to Europeanise the European elections and concludes with recommendations on increasing the legitimacy of the European Union.

Auteur externe

Katrin AUEL, Guido TIEMANN

Conférence sur l’avenir de l’Europe

11-06-2020

Annoncée par Ursula von der Leyen et soutenue par le Parlement, la conférence sur l’avenir de l’Europe devait être l’occasion d’une réflexion approfondie sur l’orientation de l’Union et sur sa structure institutionnelle. Cependant, la pandémie de COVID-19 en a interrompu les préparatifs, de sorte que les trois institutions ne sont pas encore convenues du format, de la composition et de la structure de la conférence. Le Parlement est néanmoins déterminé à reprendre ces travaux dès que possible dans ...

Annoncée par Ursula von der Leyen et soutenue par le Parlement, la conférence sur l’avenir de l’Europe devait être l’occasion d’une réflexion approfondie sur l’orientation de l’Union et sur sa structure institutionnelle. Cependant, la pandémie de COVID-19 en a interrompu les préparatifs, de sorte que les trois institutions ne sont pas encore convenues du format, de la composition et de la structure de la conférence. Le Parlement est néanmoins déterminé à reprendre ces travaux dès que possible dans le contexte de l’après-coronavirus et débattra de la question avec le Conseil et la Commission lors de la période de session de juin.

Perspectives pour une meilleure intégration politique en Europe: un pacte politique pour une Union plus démocratique et plus efficace?

03-06-2020

Commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement à la demande de la commission AFCO, cette étude analyse les pistes possibles pour une meilleure intégration politique de l’Union après le Brexit. Elle recense les nombreuses crises traversées ces dix dernières années, dont la récente pandémie de COVID-19 en expliquant comment elles sont servi de révélateur aux faiblesses institutionnelles et matérielles du système de gouvernance actuel ...

Commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement à la demande de la commission AFCO, cette étude analyse les pistes possibles pour une meilleure intégration politique de l’Union après le Brexit. Elle recense les nombreuses crises traversées ces dix dernières années, dont la récente pandémie de COVID-19 en expliquant comment elles sont servi de révélateur aux faiblesses institutionnelles et matérielles du système de gouvernance actuel de l’Union. Elle examine le potentiel que recèle la Conférence sur l’avenir de l’Europe pour de revitaliser l’Union en explorant les pistes de réforme des traités et ce qui pourrait s’y opposer. Elle se penche également sur la façon dont les résultats de cette conférence pourraient servir à l’élaboration d’un nouveau pacte politique et à des règles de ratification nouvelles non soumises au principe d’unanimité.

Auteur externe

FABBRINI Federico

Unlocking the potential of the EU Treaties: An article-by-article analysis of the scope for action

28-05-2020

The latest Eurobarometer surveys indicate that there is consistent support for more EU action in various policy areas, including preventing climate change, tackling irregular migration, designing a common foreign and security policy and preventing terrorism. Assuming that the Treaty of Lisbon will be the framework for EU action for the foreseeable future, this paper explores possibilities for broadening the scope of EU action in order to respond to these repeated calls from EU citizens. With a view ...

The latest Eurobarometer surveys indicate that there is consistent support for more EU action in various policy areas, including preventing climate change, tackling irregular migration, designing a common foreign and security policy and preventing terrorism. Assuming that the Treaty of Lisbon will be the framework for EU action for the foreseeable future, this paper explores possibilities for broadening the scope of EU action in order to respond to these repeated calls from EU citizens. With a view to reappraising the legal framework of the EU, it aims at identifying those legal bases in the Treaties that remain either under-used (in terms of the purposes they could be used to achieve) or completely unused. It analyses possible ways of delivering on EU policies, including in the development of common rules, providing enhanced executive capacity, better implementation of existing measures, targeted financing and increased efficiency. An overview table sets out possible initiatives, which are then explored in greater detail in 50 fiches, organised according to broad policy clusters reflecting the priorities of the von der Leyen Commission. Possible measures are mentioned in each fiche, along with the legal bases in the current Treaties on which action could potentially be based. It is a revised and expanded version of a paper published in January 2019, ahead of the European elections.

The ECB’s Mandate and Legal Constraints

15-05-2020

This paper considers how the ECB can implement its mandate in the current crisis conditions and the legal constraints that exist on its actions. The current position of the euro area economy means the threat to meeting the ECB’s primary objective of price stability stems from the possibility of a long period of below-target inflation. This means the ECB should consider a wide range of stimulative policies that would help it meet both its primary and secondary objectives. The ECB, however, will be ...

This paper considers how the ECB can implement its mandate in the current crisis conditions and the legal constraints that exist on its actions. The current position of the euro area economy means the threat to meeting the ECB’s primary objective of price stability stems from the possibility of a long period of below-target inflation. This means the ECB should consider a wide range of stimulative policies that would help it meet both its primary and secondary objectives. The ECB, however, will be constrained by the ECJ’s interpretation of the monetary financing clause and its ability to meet its primary objective (and its independence) could be threatened by the recent German constitutional court judgement which is flawed in both its legal and economic analysis. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Auteur externe

Karl WHELAN

The Dimensions of Responsibility: Perspectives on the ECB’s Monetary Policy Mandate

15-05-2020

A strong theoretical and empirical case exists for a dual monetary policy mandate. Central banks should aim to stabilise both prices (or inflation) and output (or employment). Other objectives, such as financial stability, reversing climate change, and reducing inequality are at best secondary objectives for which better policy tools are available. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic ...

A strong theoretical and empirical case exists for a dual monetary policy mandate. Central banks should aim to stabilise both prices (or inflation) and output (or employment). Other objectives, such as financial stability, reversing climate change, and reducing inequality are at best secondary objectives for which better policy tools are available. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Auteur externe

Joseph E. GAGNON, Jacob F. KIRKEGAARD, David W. WILCOX, Christopher G. COLLINS

The ECB in the COVID-19 Crisis: Whatever it Takes, Within its Mandate

15-05-2020

To keep the euro-area economy afloat, the European Central Bank (ECB) has announced a large number of measures since the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis. This response has triggered fears of a future increase in inflation. We discuss the risks that the ECB is unable to fulfil its price-stability mandate, and also whether these new measures respect legal limits set by the EU Treaties. We conclude that the measures introduced by the ECB during the crisis and the resulting increase in the size of its ...

To keep the euro-area economy afloat, the European Central Bank (ECB) has announced a large number of measures since the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis. This response has triggered fears of a future increase in inflation. We discuss the risks that the ECB is unable to fulfil its price-stability mandate, and also whether these new measures respect legal limits set by the EU Treaties. We conclude that the measures introduced by the ECB during the crisis and the resulting increase in the size of its balance sheet, even if it were to be permanent, should not restrict its ability to achieve its price-stability mandate in the future, within its legal obligations. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Auteur externe

Grégory CLAEYS

Setting New Priorities for the ECB’s Mandate

15-05-2020

Beyond price stability, the EU Treaties assign to the ECB a range of secondary objectives. We investigate the linkages between price stability and these objectives to assess whether they are independent, complementary or substitutable, which is important to refine the definition of the mandate. Keeping the current mandate would not provide leeway for the ECB to reach other objectives. We propose to broaden the mandate to include employment and financial stability. Enhanced coordination should contribute ...

Beyond price stability, the EU Treaties assign to the ECB a range of secondary objectives. We investigate the linkages between price stability and these objectives to assess whether they are independent, complementary or substitutable, which is important to refine the definition of the mandate. Keeping the current mandate would not provide leeway for the ECB to reach other objectives. We propose to broaden the mandate to include employment and financial stability. Enhanced coordination should contribute to fulfilling the objectives. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Auteur externe

Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL, Emmanuelle FAURE and Paul HUBERT

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