18

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Vrsta publikacije
Područje politike
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Ključna riječ
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Cross-border euro transfers and currency conversions: A step forward in favour of the single market

29-04-2019

Cross-border payments are crucial for the integration of the EU economy, and play an important role in ensuring that citizens and enterprises from all EU Member States enjoy the same rights offered by the single market. Since the introduction of the euro, the EU has launched various initiatives to reduce the cost of cross-border transactions, among them a set of single euro payments area (SEPA) standards, regulations on cross-border payments, and the Payment Services Directives. Nevertheless, cross-border ...

Cross-border payments are crucial for the integration of the EU economy, and play an important role in ensuring that citizens and enterprises from all EU Member States enjoy the same rights offered by the single market. Since the introduction of the euro, the EU has launched various initiatives to reduce the cost of cross-border transactions, among them a set of single euro payments area (SEPA) standards, regulations on cross-border payments, and the Payment Services Directives. Nevertheless, cross-border euro payments made in non-euro-area Member States are still subject to high fees. Furthermore, when paying with a card or making an ATM withdrawal in a country using a currency other than the euro, it is almost impossible to know exactly how much it is going to cost. On 28 March 2018, the European Commission presented a proposal for a regulation amending Regulation (EC) No 924/2009 on cross-border payments. Working through the legislative process, Parliament and Council reached agreement on an amended text, published in the Official Journal on 19 March 2019. The new regulation will make cross-border payments in euros cheaper across the entire EU, while also bringing more transparency to currency-conversion practices. Second edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Levelling off European cross-border payments in euros

09-07-2018

While the overall argument in favour of cheaper cross-border payments across the euro and non-euro Member States appears sensible, this impact assessment could have been stronger in terms of discussing the specifics of the financial infrastructure in non-euro Member States and the shortcomings of the cross-border payments market related to these specifics. A more detailed comparison of options including the economic impacts (particularly as related to SMEs) would have been helpful, as would be a ...

While the overall argument in favour of cheaper cross-border payments across the euro and non-euro Member States appears sensible, this impact assessment could have been stronger in terms of discussing the specifics of the financial infrastructure in non-euro Member States and the shortcomings of the cross-border payments market related to these specifics. A more detailed comparison of options including the economic impacts (particularly as related to SMEs) would have been helpful, as would be a more substantiated analysis of the feasibility of the envisaged monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

PSD2/Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) on Strong Customer Authentication and Secure Communication, and IFR/RTS on separation of payment card schemes and processing entities

22-11-2017

The monthly scrutiny slot at the ECON meeting of 21 November 2017 focued on the Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) specifying the requirements on strong customer authentication and common and secure communication under PSD2 which the Commission is about to adopt. These RTS have been previously discussed in ECON scrutiny slots and are the most sensitive PSD2 level-2 measure on which the industry has voiced concerns. The end of the session was dedicated to the RTS on separation of payment card schemes ...

The monthly scrutiny slot at the ECON meeting of 21 November 2017 focued on the Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) specifying the requirements on strong customer authentication and common and secure communication under PSD2 which the Commission is about to adopt. These RTS have been previously discussed in ECON scrutiny slots and are the most sensitive PSD2 level-2 measure on which the industry has voiced concerns. The end of the session was dedicated to the RTS on separation of payment card schemes and processing entities under Article 7(6) of the Interchange Fees Regulation (IFR) which has recently been adopted - also with changes in regard to the draft of the EBA. Representatives from the Commission, EBA and ECB have been invited to the meeting.

TARGET imbalances at record levels: Should we worry?

15-11-2017

TARGET is the payments system for making settlements between euro area economies and five other EU economies. Cross-border transactions generate claims/surpluses and liabilities/deficits among national central banks which “net out” for the system as a whole. These imbalances are manageable in relative terms, but look large in absolute terms. None are larger than one third of their corresponding public debt ratios; and despite a big build up in the 2010-13 period, the imbalances now appear to be on ...

TARGET is the payments system for making settlements between euro area economies and five other EU economies. Cross-border transactions generate claims/surpluses and liabilities/deficits among national central banks which “net out” for the system as a whole. These imbalances are manageable in relative terms, but look large in absolute terms. None are larger than one third of their corresponding public debt ratios; and despite a big build up in the 2010-13 period, the imbalances now appear to be on a non-expanding cyclical path. The implications for the EU economies and their policymakers are less easy. The main drivers, beyond the need to fund persistent current account deficits or surpluses, are the use of different funding sources (some outside the euro area), internal and external portfolio re-balancing, loose monetary policy and exchange rate risks. TARGET imbalances support quantitative easing, but are not driven by it. The main threats are the divergence that interrupts further economic integration; and the increasing liabilities taken on by the ECB since 2015. That said, self-correcting mechanisms are weak which makes symmetric adjustments by both creditor and debtor countries essential (because of the adding up constraint); and the difficulty that the imbalances cannot always be eliminated simply by balancing current accounts around the system.

Vanjski autor

Andrew HUGHES HALLETT

TARGET (im)balances at record level: Should we worry?

15-11-2017

LAccording to the ECB, the recent rise in TARGET 2 balances could be seen as the result of the decentralised implementation of the extended asset purchase programme (APP). The programme entails cross-border payments by the purchasing NCBs, with around 50% of involved counterparties resident outside the euro area, including the UK. These counterparties access the TARGET system via a limited number of financial centres, particularly Germany and, to a lesser extent, the Netherlands. According to the ...

LAccording to the ECB, the recent rise in TARGET 2 balances could be seen as the result of the decentralised implementation of the extended asset purchase programme (APP). The programme entails cross-border payments by the purchasing NCBs, with around 50% of involved counterparties resident outside the euro area, including the UK. These counterparties access the TARGET system via a limited number of financial centres, particularly Germany and, to a lesser extent, the Netherlands. According to the ECB, the increase in TARGET balances stemming from the concentration of cross border flows due to APP transactions would reflect technical features of the euro-area financial structure rather than evidence of financial stress. However, these imbalances recently may be well indicative of a persistent fragmentation within the euro area’s financial markets as well as uneven liquidity allocation; the risks of which may be understated. Against this background, the paper discusses what the underlying factors behind the recent rise of TARGET2 (im)balances are, and the risks associated to rising Target (im)balances for the ECB’s monetary policy.

Vanjski autor

Paul DE GRAUWE, Yuemei JI, Corrado MACCHIARELLI

Should we be concerned about TARGET balances?

15-11-2017

This document was provided to Policy Department A at the request of the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee. The paper describes how the Eurosystem’s processing of cross-border banking transactions via its TARGET2 payments system produces a set of assets and liability items on the balance sheets of national central banks. The factors determining the evolution of TARGET-related balances are discussed and the risks associated with these balances are addressed.

This document was provided to Policy Department A at the request of the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee. The paper describes how the Eurosystem’s processing of cross-border banking transactions via its TARGET2 payments system produces a set of assets and liability items on the balance sheets of national central banks. The factors determining the evolution of TARGET-related balances are discussed and the risks associated with these balances are addressed.

Vanjski autor

Karl WHELAN, University College Dublin

TARGET imbalances at record levels: Should we worry?

15-11-2017

The imbalances within the Eurosystem’s Target 2 payment system are an indication that financial markets are not fully integrated. However, the increase in these imbalances in the wake of the large asset purchases (often called QE, for quantitative easing) that started in early 2015, should not be a particular cause for concern. The imbalances had declined until the start of QE, accompanied by a reduction in risk premia. QE was associated with a further reduction in financial stress. There is thus ...

The imbalances within the Eurosystem’s Target 2 payment system are an indication that financial markets are not fully integrated. However, the increase in these imbalances in the wake of the large asset purchases (often called QE, for quantitative easing) that started in early 2015, should not be a particular cause for concern. The imbalances had declined until the start of QE, accompanied by a reduction in risk premia. QE was associated with a further reduction in financial stress. There is thus little reason to believe that the increase since 2015 reflects renewed fears about a euro break-up. The ‘technical’ nature of the increasing imbalances in the wake of QE is illustrated by the fact that the European Central Bank (the central institution of the Eurosystem) has also run up a negative Target balance of over €200 billion. No one would argue that this is motivated by a fear of a break-up of the euro area. There are reasons to believe that the recent run-up in the negative balances of Italy and Spain is due to similarly technical reasons.

Vanjski autor

Daniel GROS, CEPS

TARGET (im-)balances at record level: Should we worry?

15-11-2017

Target2 balances have re-increased since late 2014 in parallel with extraordinary monetary policy measures. At first glance, the ECB’s asset purchasing programme seems to contribute just mechanically to a widening of Target2 positions. However, excessive liquidity provision reduces the role of cross-border interbank markets, which could otherwise reduce Target2 imbalances. Also, other factors like hetero-geneous country risk may also continue to play a role, but are concealed in the current monetary ...

Target2 balances have re-increased since late 2014 in parallel with extraordinary monetary policy measures. At first glance, the ECB’s asset purchasing programme seems to contribute just mechanically to a widening of Target2 positions. However, excessive liquidity provision reduces the role of cross-border interbank markets, which could otherwise reduce Target2 imbalances. Also, other factors like hetero-geneous country risk may also continue to play a role, but are concealed in the current monetary policy environment. After categorising the root causes of Tar-get2 imbalances (current account financing, capital flight, or deposit flight) and the associated risks, we discuss possible reforms that would prevent the build-up of large Target2 imbalances.

Vanjski autor

Salomon Fiedler, Stefan Kooths, Ulrich Stolzenburg (Kiel Institute for the World Economy)

Cross-border payments in the European Union

06-10-2017

The European single market for payments is based on the idea of providing safer and more innovative payment services across the EU. To this end, the European institutions are working on establishing rules and tools to make payment services easier and to foster competition. The aim is to guarantee common standards in all Member States, efficient, faster and diversified types of payment, and consumer protection. The EU has already put several legislative tools in place, has established common criteria ...

The European single market for payments is based on the idea of providing safer and more innovative payment services across the EU. To this end, the European institutions are working on establishing rules and tools to make payment services easier and to foster competition. The aim is to guarantee common standards in all Member States, efficient, faster and diversified types of payment, and consumer protection. The EU has already put several legislative tools in place, has established common criteria and requirements, and provided alternatives (such as e-money) to 'traditional' payment channels. 'Payment services' mean those defined by the EU legislation in the field, and cover common tools and standards for cross-border payments (SEPA), and also e-money services. This Implementation Appraisal deals with cross-border payments and, more specifically, with Regulation (EC) No 924/2009 in the context of the planned European Commission review. Eight years after its entry into force, the Commission has announced its intention to extend its scope to non-euro currencies.