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Közzététel időpontja 03-04-2020

Organ donation and transplantation: Facts, figures and European Union action

03-04-2020

The issue of organ donation and transplantation gained renewed political momentum as one of the initial health priorities of the current Croatian Presidency of the Council of the EU. There are two types of organ donation: deceased donation and living donation. Organ transplantation has become an established worldwide practice, and is seen as one of the greatest medical advances of the 20th century. Demand for organ transplantation is increasing, but a shortage of donors has resulted in high numbers ...

The issue of organ donation and transplantation gained renewed political momentum as one of the initial health priorities of the current Croatian Presidency of the Council of the EU. There are two types of organ donation: deceased donation and living donation. Organ transplantation has become an established worldwide practice, and is seen as one of the greatest medical advances of the 20th century. Demand for organ transplantation is increasing, but a shortage of donors has resulted in high numbers of patients on waiting lists. Medical, legal, religious, cultural, and ethical considerations apply to organ donation and transplantation. In the EU, transplants must be carried out in a manner that shows respect for fundamental rights and for the human body, in conformity with the Council of Europe's binding laws, and compliant with relevant EU rules. World Health Organization principles also apply. Organ donation rates across the EU vary widely. Member States have different systems in place to seek people's consent to donate their organs after death. In the 'opt-in' system, consent has to be given explicitly, while in the 'opt-out' system, silence is tantamount to consent. Some countries have donor and/or non-donor registries. Responsibility for framing health policies and organising and delivering care lies primarily with the EU Member States. The EU has nevertheless addressed organ donation and transplantation through legislation, an action plan and co-funded projects, and the European Parliament has adopted own-initiative resolutions on aspects of organ donation and transplantation. Stakeholders have submitted a joint statement on a shared vision for improving organ donation and transplantation in the EU. An evaluation of the EU's action plan identified the need for a new, improved approach. Innovative products and procedures, such as artificially grown organs and 3D bio-printing, might lend themselves as future possibilities to reduce our reliance on organ donors.

Coronavirus: What should policy-makers do? [What Think Tanks are thinking]

03-04-2020

The coronavirus pandemic continues to spread around the world. Governments have adopted preventive measures of varying degrees of severity. Analysts and commentators continue to call for a more coordinated response to the disease, notably at European Union level, without always agreeing on what the precise response should be. Meanwhile, some are beginning to try to envisage how the world will have changed once the virus is finally contained. This note offers links to recent commentaries and reports ...

The coronavirus pandemic continues to spread around the world. Governments have adopted preventive measures of varying degrees of severity. Analysts and commentators continue to call for a more coordinated response to the disease, notably at European Union level, without always agreeing on what the precise response should be. Meanwhile, some are beginning to try to envisage how the world will have changed once the virus is finally contained. This note offers links to recent commentaries and reports from international think tanks on the coronavirus and related issues. Earlier publications on the topic can be found in the previous edition in this series, published by EPRS on 26 March.

COVID-19's impact on human rights outside the EU

03-04-2020

In their attempt to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries around the world have imposed limitations on freedom of movement and other related freedoms within their territories, thereby severely curtailing certain fundamental rights. In the event of a public emergency, international human rights norms do allow for the imposition of limitations under strict conditions. Moreover, so far no other approach has been as effective in slowing down the outbreak, while also upholding the right of the ...

In their attempt to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries around the world have imposed limitations on freedom of movement and other related freedoms within their territories, thereby severely curtailing certain fundamental rights. In the event of a public emergency, international human rights norms do allow for the imposition of limitations under strict conditions. Moreover, so far no other approach has been as effective in slowing down the outbreak, while also upholding the right of the most vulnerable to health and life. However, some governments may be abusing the situation to suppress human rights and wield undue power.

Future EU-UK trade relationship: Rules of origin

03-04-2020

The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on 1 February 2020, and moved into the agreed transition period, running until 31 December 2020. The EU and UK have launched negotiations towards a free trade agreement (FTA) that will shape their future trade relationship. Both parties expressed a preference for reducing 'trade frictions' to the extent possible, and rules of origin will play a role in that regard. Rules of origin (RoO) are provisions in FTAs that govern the conditions ...

The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on 1 February 2020, and moved into the agreed transition period, running until 31 December 2020. The EU and UK have launched negotiations towards a free trade agreement (FTA) that will shape their future trade relationship. Both parties expressed a preference for reducing 'trade frictions' to the extent possible, and rules of origin will play a role in that regard. Rules of origin (RoO) are provisions in FTAs that govern the conditions under which an imported good is recognised to 'originate' from the FTA partner country and becomes eligible for preferential trade. These conditions are restrictive – implying trade 'frictions' – to various degrees and designed product-by-product, following operation- and/or value creation-based rules. Importantly, the EU's RoO admit the 'cumulation' of preferential origin across other existing FTAs signed by both parties. As RoO thus create incentives for manufacturers to allocate production and sourcing across countries, they are an important trade instrument. The European Commission and European Parliament favour RoO provisions in the EU-UK FTA that are consistent with the EU template and protect the EU's interest; the UK government has declared that it is seeking 'appropriate and modern' RoO, providing for cumulation across common FTA partners. The EU and UK positions therefore converge in favour of unrestrictive RoO. Nevertheless, the geographical distance between the EU and UK is short and the resulting shipping costs low. In this context, should the UK unilaterally lower its production costs after the transition period – through, for instance, lower labour and environmental standards, and State aid – less restrictive RoO will provide manufacturers with incentives to increase the UK share in the production chain, penalising the EU. This explains the call in the Political Declaration for frictionless trade 'and' the alignment of standards. Indeed, protecting EU interests implies that RoO are likely to be restrictive, unless the UK commits to aligning standards.

Workshop summary "Cancer prevention-modifiable risk factors"

16-03-2020

On 18 February 2020, the Health Working Group of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) held a workshop on cancer prevention, focussing on modifiable risk factors. Dolores Montserrat and Sara Cerdas MEPs, the Co-Chairs of the Health Working Group, presided over the meeting. This briefing summarises the presentations that were delivered by the invited experts.

On 18 February 2020, the Health Working Group of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) held a workshop on cancer prevention, focussing on modifiable risk factors. Dolores Montserrat and Sara Cerdas MEPs, the Co-Chairs of the Health Working Group, presided over the meeting. This briefing summarises the presentations that were delivered by the invited experts.

Közzététel időpontja 02-04-2020

EU-27 support for national short-time work schemes

02-04-2020

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic hits all Member States, not all in the same way but the impact can spill over on to those Member States not (yet) so much affected. A common STW for the EU 27 can support/reinsure the existing national STW’s. This scheme would limit severe economic crisis, through its stabilising effect on disposable income. It would strengthen the social dimension of EU 27 and demonstrate European solidarity bringing support directly to the citizens.

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic hits all Member States, not all in the same way but the impact can spill over on to those Member States not (yet) so much affected. A common STW for the EU 27 can support/reinsure the existing national STW’s. This scheme would limit severe economic crisis, through its stabilising effect on disposable income. It would strengthen the social dimension of EU 27 and demonstrate European solidarity bringing support directly to the citizens.

Külső szerző

Müller, Klaus

Protecting the EU agri-food supply chain in the face of COVID-19

02-04-2020

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, EU countries' governments have taken a host of measures, including reintroducing border controls and setting limits to free movement of people within their territory, in an attempt to stem the spread of the disease. These measures have had a pronounced impact on the EU agri-food supply chain. The EU food system is a complex web of inter-related sectors that ensure both the sustenance of EU consumers and the achievement of food security, one of the EU Treaty's ...

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, EU countries' governments have taken a host of measures, including reintroducing border controls and setting limits to free movement of people within their territory, in an attempt to stem the spread of the disease. These measures have had a pronounced impact on the EU agri-food supply chain. The EU food system is a complex web of inter-related sectors that ensure both the sustenance of EU consumers and the achievement of food security, one of the EU Treaty's objectives. This system relies on about 10 million farms, several hundred thousand food and beverage processing companies, thousands of businesses manufacturing agricultural inputs or handling packaging, transport, storage and distribution, as well as wholesalers, markets and other retailers. When the functioning of any one sector of the food chain is hindered, the whole chain can be disrupted. For instance, as highlighted by sectoral stakeholders and then addressed by EU-level measures, recent national restrictions have contributed to problems such as blocked transport routes, long queues at border checks for commodity transport, and shortages of seasonal farm workers who can no longer move freely from one Member State to another. Specific schemes have been set up at EU level as a lifeline to farms and companies from the agri-food sectors that have been the hardest hit and are in greatest need of support. The European Parliament voted the first emergency measures to combat COVID-19 at an extraordinary plenary meeting on 26 March. Members of the Parliament's Agricultural and Rural Development Committee have put forward proposals on further measures. There has also been an overhaul of EU farm policy rules as a first step to address the emergency at EU level. How these rules will evolve further depends on the concerted efforts of all parties concerned: stakeholders, the EU and national policy-makers. Unified action at EU level is also required to complete the legislative process for the adoption of the 2021-2027 long-term EU budget and future EU farm policy, discussion of which has slowed down due to the crisis.

Western Balkans on the European Council agenda: Overview of discussions since the Lisbon Treaty

02-04-2020

The European Council to endorse the 24 March 2020 Council political agreement on the opening of negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia.

The European Council to endorse the 24 March 2020 Council political agreement on the opening of negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia.

Joint debt instruments: A recurrent proposal to strengthen economic and monetary union

02-04-2020

The idea of issuing joint debt instruments, in particular between euro-area countries, is far from new. It has long been linked in various ways to the Union's financial integration process and in particular to the implementation of economic and monetary union. In the first decade of the euro, the rationale for creating joint bonds was to reduce market fragmentation and thus obtain efficiency gains. Following the financial and sovereign debt crises, further reasons included managing the crises and ...

The idea of issuing joint debt instruments, in particular between euro-area countries, is far from new. It has long been linked in various ways to the Union's financial integration process and in particular to the implementation of economic and monetary union. In the first decade of the euro, the rationale for creating joint bonds was to reduce market fragmentation and thus obtain efficiency gains. Following the financial and sovereign debt crises, further reasons included managing the crises and preventing future sovereign debt crises, reinforcing financial stability in the euro area, facilitating transmission of monetary policy, breaking the sovereign-bank nexus and enhancing the international role of the euro. While joint debt instruments present considerable potential advantages, they also present challenges. These include coordination issues and reduced flexibility for Member States in issuing debt, the potential to undermine fiscal discipline by removing incentives for sound budgetary policies, and the fact that adoption of joint debt instruments would eventually entail the difficult political choice of transferring sovereignty from the national to the EU level. In the context of the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, joint debt instruments have once more come to the fore as a potential medium-term solution to help Member States rebuild their economies following the crisis. In Eurogroup and European Council meetings, the solution is not favoured by all Member States and alternative – possibly complementary – approaches have been proposed, such as a credit line through the European Stability Mechanism.

The European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism: Main Features

01-04-2020

This document presents the main features of the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM). The EFSM allows the Commission to provide loans to euro area Member States threatened by severe difficulties and to access financial markets, by issuing bonds or with private placements. The amount that can be borrowed by the Commission on behalf of the European Union is limited.

This document presents the main features of the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM). The EFSM allows the Commission to provide loans to euro area Member States threatened by severe difficulties and to access financial markets, by issuing bonds or with private placements. The amount that can be borrowed by the Commission on behalf of the European Union is limited.

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