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Ratifying the EU-UK withdrawal deal: State of play and possible scenarios

08-04-2019

On 14 November 2018, the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) negotiators announced their approval of the legal agreement on the UK's withdrawal from the EU. At a special European Council meeting on 25 November 2018, EU leaders endorsed the draft withdrawal agreement, as well as the text of a non-binding political declaration setting out the framework for the future EU-UK relationship. While the process of approving the withdrawal deal (the agreement and the political declaration) began ...

On 14 November 2018, the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) negotiators announced their approval of the legal agreement on the UK's withdrawal from the EU. At a special European Council meeting on 25 November 2018, EU leaders endorsed the draft withdrawal agreement, as well as the text of a non-binding political declaration setting out the framework for the future EU-UK relationship. While the process of approving the withdrawal deal (the agreement and the political declaration) began rapidly in both the UK and the EU, it immediately met with significant difficulties in the UK. In particular, the House of Commons' rejection of the withdrawal deal in the 'meaningful vote' of 15 January 2019, led to renewed UK attempts at renegotiation. Although the EU and the UK eventually agreed additional guarantees with respect to the Ireland/Northern Ireland backstop, the withdrawal deal was again voted down on 12 March 2019. Faced with the prospect of a 'no deal exit' on 29 March 2019, the initial Brexit date, the UK government, as instructed by the House of Commons, eventually requested an extension to the Article 50 negotiating period. On 22 March, the European Council extended the UK's EU Membership until 22 May 2019, on the condition that the UK parliament approved the withdrawal agreement by 29 March. As the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement for a third time, the new Brexit date was instead set, under that European Council decision, at 12 April 2019. With a 'no deal' Brexit becoming a highly likely scenario, both sides stepped up their contingency planning. However, other outcomes remain possible, in particular a further Article 50 extension, given the UK Prime Minister's request of 5 April. The EU-27 are set to decide on this within the European Council on 10 April 2019, most likely on the basis of conditions set for the UK. While a parallel process for establishing a majority for an alternative solution to the negotiated deal is under way in Westminster, its outcome remains uncertain. Finally, although rejected by the government, the UK still has the option to unilaterally revoke its notification to withdraw from the EU, or to organise another referendum on the issue (the latter dependent on an extension). Please see also the parallel Briefing, Brexit: Understanding the withdrawal agreement and political declaration, of March 2019 (PE 635.595). And visit the European Parliament homepage on Brexit negotiations.

Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, October I 2018

05-10-2018

The highlight of the October I plenary session was the debate on the preparation of the European Council meeting on 18 and 19 October 2018. The series of debates on the Future of Europe continued, this time with the Prime Minister of Estonia, Jüri Ratas. Montenegro's President, Milo Đukanović, also addressed Parliament in a formal sitting. Parliament adopted, inter alia, legislative proposals on: audiovisual media services; VAT rules; strengthening the EU Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation ( ...

The highlight of the October I plenary session was the debate on the preparation of the European Council meeting on 18 and 19 October 2018. The series of debates on the Future of Europe continued, this time with the Prime Minister of Estonia, Jüri Ratas. Montenegro's President, Milo Đukanović, also addressed Parliament in a formal sitting. Parliament adopted, inter alia, legislative proposals on: audiovisual media services; VAT rules; strengthening the EU Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation (Eurojust); mutual recognition of freezing and confiscation of criminal assets; the free flow of non-personal data within the EU; health technology assessment; and emission performance standards for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Parliament also voted its public procurement package, as well as a report on an amending budget regarding changes to pre-accession aid to Turkey.

Brexit and Ireland – Legal, political and economic considerations

22-11-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts of Ireland, and trade in agricultural products.

Research for AGRI Committee - Implications of ‘Brexit’ for the EU agri-food sector and the CAP: budgetary, trade and institutional issues

15-11-2017

This is the reference document of the Workshop on ‘The Implications of ‘Brexit’ for the EU agricultural sector and the CAP’ of 9th November 2017, organised by COMAGRI and the Policy Department B. The purpose of this Workshop was to examine and debate the main budgetary, trade and institutional issues related to the Brexit process at the current state of negotiations. This document is structured in three parts: 1. Possible impact of Brexit on the EU budget and, in particular, CAP funding. 2. EU ...

This is the reference document of the Workshop on ‘The Implications of ‘Brexit’ for the EU agricultural sector and the CAP’ of 9th November 2017, organised by COMAGRI and the Policy Department B. The purpose of this Workshop was to examine and debate the main budgetary, trade and institutional issues related to the Brexit process at the current state of negotiations. This document is structured in three parts: 1. Possible impact of Brexit on the EU budget and, in particular, CAP funding. 2. EU - UK agricultural trade: state of play and possible impacts of Brexit. 3. Possible transitional arrangements related to agriculture in the light of the future EU - UK relationship: institutional issues.

Išorės autorius

Jörg Haas, Eulalia Rubio, Alan MATTHEWS, Cecilia BELLORA, Charlotte EMLINGER, Jean FOURÉ, Houssein GUIMBARD

Research for AGRI Committee - Possible transitional arrangements related to agriculture in the light of the future EU - UK relationship: institutional issues

16-10-2017

There is the potential for severe disruption of agri-food trade between the UK and the EU27 as the UK prepares to leave the EU. This study reviews the additional trade costs that might arise and how they might be avoided under alternative future trade arrangements. The role of a transitional period in order to avoid a ‘cliff-edge’ for trade is examined. Options under the Common Agricultural Policy to address the negative consequences of Brexit for agricultural markets are discussed.

There is the potential for severe disruption of agri-food trade between the UK and the EU27 as the UK prepares to leave the EU. This study reviews the additional trade costs that might arise and how they might be avoided under alternative future trade arrangements. The role of a transitional period in order to avoid a ‘cliff-edge’ for trade is examined. Options under the Common Agricultural Policy to address the negative consequences of Brexit for agricultural markets are discussed.

Išorės autorius

Alan Matthews

Iraqi Kurdistan's independence referendum

11-10-2017

On 25 September 2017, the government of the autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq, under its president, Masoud Barzani, organised a referendum on independence, disregarding calls by the Iraqi central government and the international community to postpone it. The referendum was held in the Kurdistan Region's constituencies and also in the neighbouring 'disputed' territories, in particular the oil-rich area of Kirkuk, which have de facto if not legally been governed by the Kurdish authorities since ...

On 25 September 2017, the government of the autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq, under its president, Masoud Barzani, organised a referendum on independence, disregarding calls by the Iraqi central government and the international community to postpone it. The referendum was held in the Kurdistan Region's constituencies and also in the neighbouring 'disputed' territories, in particular the oil-rich area of Kirkuk, which have de facto if not legally been governed by the Kurdish authorities since the moment they were recaptured from ISIL/Da'esh. Even though the 'yes' side has won, it is by no means certain that a Kurdish state will emerge in the near future. Such a state would be weakened by internal divisions and poor economic conditions. In addition, Syria, Turkey and Iran strongly condemned the referendum and have taken retaliatory action. Among other considerations, they are worried that an independent Kurdish state would encourage their own Kurdish populations to seek greater autonomy. However, the prospect of a Greater Kurdistan is remote, since the regional Kurdish landscape is dominated by the PKK (Kurdistan Workers' Party) and its affiliate parties, which do not share the Iraqi Kurdish leaders' ideology or strategic alliances. Concerned by the fragmentation of the Middle East, the EU, the USA, Russia, and most of the region's powers other than Israel, disapproved of the referendum, which took place in the context of the ongoing fight against ISIL/Da'esh, and called for negotiations within the existing Iraqi borders. This briefing updates Regional implications of Iraqi Kurdistan's quest for independence, EPRS, December 2016.

The Role and Powers of the European Parliament in the Brexit Process

15-06-2017

This document explores the role and powers of the European Parliament in the Brexit process. It describes the challenges and relevant steps and stages of the process and higlights the significance of agreement(s) to be concluded between the EU and the UK. On that basis, the Parliament’s mandate and powers in substantial terms as well as its involvement in the procedure are outlined. Some options are highlighted to enable the Parliament to adequately fulfil its mandate and play its role in the process ...

This document explores the role and powers of the European Parliament in the Brexit process. It describes the challenges and relevant steps and stages of the process and higlights the significance of agreement(s) to be concluded between the EU and the UK. On that basis, the Parliament’s mandate and powers in substantial terms as well as its involvement in the procedure are outlined. Some options are highlighted to enable the Parliament to adequately fulfil its mandate and play its role in the process. The document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament ́s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Išorės autorius

Prof. Dr Peter-Tobias STOLL, Institute for International Law and European Law, Faculty of Law, University of Göttingen

Proceedings of the Workshop on the consequences of Brexit

15-06-2017

The workshop organised for the IMCO Committee by the Policy Department A in cooperation with the European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance (EURO-CEFG) of the Universities of Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam aimed at discussing the consequences of Brexit on the EU in general and on the policy fields covered by the IMCO Committee in particular. It allowed for a first exchange of opinion on the consequences of Brexit and for questions by EU decision-makers in preparation of the upcoming ...

The workshop organised for the IMCO Committee by the Policy Department A in cooperation with the European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance (EURO-CEFG) of the Universities of Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam aimed at discussing the consequences of Brexit on the EU in general and on the policy fields covered by the IMCO Committee in particular. It allowed for a first exchange of opinion on the consequences of Brexit and for questions by EU decision-makers in preparation of the upcoming negotiations.

Išorės autorius

Anna CITARELLA, European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance ; Menelaos MARKAKIS, European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance

Brexit Literature Update 3/2017

03-03-2017

Following a relevant request by the Committee for Constitutional Affairs, the Policy Department on Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has been compiling, on a regular basis, a number of academic and scholarly materials related to the process of, and the negotiations on, the withdrawal of the UK from the EU. Since the June 2016 referendum in the UK, Brexit-related literature has grown significantly and it is probably going to expand further in the future. Thus, this compilation is far from ...

Following a relevant request by the Committee for Constitutional Affairs, the Policy Department on Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has been compiling, on a regular basis, a number of academic and scholarly materials related to the process of, and the negotiations on, the withdrawal of the UK from the EU. Since the June 2016 referendum in the UK, Brexit-related literature has grown significantly and it is probably going to expand further in the future. Thus, this compilation is far from exhaustive; rather, it identifies some of the more useful articles, taking into account, in particular, the following elements: • Scholarly rather than a journalistic publication • Originality and interest • Recent publication • Be of interest for the EU • Constitutional or institutional relevance.

Possible adjustments to the EU institutional set-up

10-02-2017

The last comprehensive EU treaty reform ended with the 2007 Lisbon Treaty. With the EU facing multiple challenges since then, the European Parliament's own-initiative report, due to be discussed in February, on possible evolutions of and adjustments to the EU institutional set-up invites a broad reflection on the future of the Union. It suggests a range of reforms, including in the areas of economic governance, foreign policy, fundamental rights, transparency, accountability and others.

The last comprehensive EU treaty reform ended with the 2007 Lisbon Treaty. With the EU facing multiple challenges since then, the European Parliament's own-initiative report, due to be discussed in February, on possible evolutions of and adjustments to the EU institutional set-up invites a broad reflection on the future of the Union. It suggests a range of reforms, including in the areas of economic governance, foreign policy, fundamental rights, transparency, accountability and others.

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