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The European Union and Holocaust remembrance

23-01-2020

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary ...

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary executions ('Holocaust by Bullets') and extermination in death camps. The perpetrators were prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials in 1945-1946; however, the tribunal preferred to indict them on charges of crimes against humanity rather than genocide. It was not until 2005, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz that a United Nations resolution designated 27 January the day for international commemoration of the Holocaust, to be known as 'International Holocaust Remembrance Day'. In the European Union, numerous programmes seek to preserve the memory of these tragic events in the history of the continent. Since 1995, the European Parliament has adopted resolutions drawing attention to the obligation to remember not only through commemorations but also through education. In November 2018, the EU became a permanent international partner of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA). This is a further updated version of a briefing from January 2018.

Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, December 2019

20-12-2019

The December plenary session highlights included the election of the European Ombudsman; commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights becoming legally binding; and the award of the 2019 Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought. Parliament adopted positions on the rule of law in Malta, following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia, and on public discrimination and hate speech against LGBTI people, including LGBTI-free zones. It also debated statements ...

The December plenary session highlights included the election of the European Ombudsman; commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights becoming legally binding; and the award of the 2019 Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought. Parliament adopted positions on the rule of law in Malta, following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia, and on public discrimination and hate speech against LGBTI people, including LGBTI-free zones. It also debated statements by the Vice-President of the European Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) on the humanitarian situation of the Uyghur in China and in Venezuela and Nicaragua, on the migration and refugee crisis, and on the violent crackdown on recent protests in Iran. Debates took place, inter alia, on Commission and Council statements on: the 30th anniversary of the Romanian revolution of December 1989; the post-2020 EU disability strategy; the COP25 outcome; animal welfare conditions during transport to third countries; and the US Trade Representative's announcement on France's digital service tax. Parliament also voted on appointments to the Executive Board of the European Central Bank.

Plenary round-up – Brussels, November I 2019

15-11-2019

The November I plenary session highlights included statements and debates on the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall and on the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Parliament also debated statements made by the Vice-President of the European Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) on Turkish drilling activities in European Union waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, and on the situation in ...

The November I plenary session highlights included statements and debates on the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall and on the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Parliament also debated statements made by the Vice-President of the European Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) on Turkish drilling activities in European Union waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, and on the situation in Bolivia and in Chile. Debates took place, inter alia, on Commission and Council statements on the international day to end impunity for crimes against journalists, on the resurgence of Ebola in East Africa, as well as on the situation of migrants in Bosnia and Herzegovina and on the hotspots in Greek islands.

UN Convention on children's rights: 30 years on

11-11-2019

This month marks the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the first international treaty to recognise children as human beings with innate rights. Since 1989, conditions for children have improved, but millions remain unprotected. This is an updated and expanded version of an 'at a glance' note from 2014.

This month marks the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the first international treaty to recognise children as human beings with innate rights. Since 1989, conditions for children have improved, but millions remain unprotected. This is an updated and expanded version of an 'at a glance' note from 2014.

European Parliament and the path to German reunification

05-11-2019

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. The accession of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Republic) completed the reunification process on 3 October 1990. Moreover, with the accession of the former GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR integrated into the European Economic Community (EEC) of the time via a special ...

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. The accession of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Republic) completed the reunification process on 3 October 1990. Moreover, with the accession of the former GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR integrated into the European Economic Community (EEC) of the time via a special procedure. As the GDR's status as a subject of international law ended with its accession to the Federal Republic, a normal EEC Treaty accession procedure was not possible. The European Parliament followed the chain of profound political developments triggered by the fall of the Berlin Wall closely.

International Migrants Day – 18 December

15-12-2017

Each year, 18 December is observed as International Migrants Day. Nominated by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2000 in response to increasing migration in the world, the day aims to draw attention to the human rights of migrants, and highlight their contribution to our societies.

Each year, 18 December is observed as International Migrants Day. Nominated by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2000 in response to increasing migration in the world, the day aims to draw attention to the human rights of migrants, and highlight their contribution to our societies.

The European Union at 60 [What Think Tanks are Thinking]

07-04-2017

Heads of State or Government of the EU-27 marked the 60th anniversary of the European Union's founding Treaty of Rome on 25 March 2017, with pledges to seek closer unity, improve internal and external security, boost economic growth and employment, reduce social inequalities and bolster the bloc's global role. Their Rome Declaration outlines principles to help re-launch the Union after its recent economic and migration crises, last year's Brexit vote, and the shock effect of Donald Trump's election ...

Heads of State or Government of the EU-27 marked the 60th anniversary of the European Union's founding Treaty of Rome on 25 March 2017, with pledges to seek closer unity, improve internal and external security, boost economic growth and employment, reduce social inequalities and bolster the bloc's global role. Their Rome Declaration outlines principles to help re-launch the Union after its recent economic and migration crises, last year's Brexit vote, and the shock effect of Donald Trump's election as US President. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on the state of the EU and possible reforms.

European Historical Memory: Policies, Challenges and Perspectives

15-04-2015

This note seeks to provide some reflections on the challenges, current policies and possible future prospects of 'historical memory' in a European context. Based on acknowledging the complex nature of collective memories in general and shared European historical remembrance in particular, including their susceptibility to political instrumentalisation, it is argued that a critical 'culture of remembering' needs to be developed. Such a culture requires increased efforts for nation states to come to ...

This note seeks to provide some reflections on the challenges, current policies and possible future prospects of 'historical memory' in a European context. Based on acknowledging the complex nature of collective memories in general and shared European historical remembrance in particular, including their susceptibility to political instrumentalisation, it is argued that a critical 'culture of remembering' needs to be developed. Such a culture requires increased efforts for nation states to come to terms with their own respective pasts in an unbiased way, yet at the same time embracing common European principles and values. In this context, the vital role of education as a tool to create an informed historical consciousness is emphasised, which provides the basis for dealing confidently not only with Europe’s past, but also present and future.

100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide: Building bridges in Turkish-Armenian relations

10-04-2015

A day of remembrance is held every year on 24 April, to mark the Armenian genocide. The relocation of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915, now a century ago, remains one of the most significant and controversial issues in Turkish-Armenian relations. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were relocated under extremely harsh conditions. The numbers of casualties among them were high, and the underlying causes make it the object of considerable controversy still today. How can the two countries establish effective ...

A day of remembrance is held every year on 24 April, to mark the Armenian genocide. The relocation of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915, now a century ago, remains one of the most significant and controversial issues in Turkish-Armenian relations. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were relocated under extremely harsh conditions. The numbers of casualties among them were high, and the underlying causes make it the object of considerable controversy still today. How can the two countries establish effective communication, cooperation and mutual confidence, 100 years on?

Altiero Spinelli - European Federalist

15-10-2007

The papers presented here were submitted for a symposium organised by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs in September 2007. They were reprinted at the occasion of a commemoration of Spinelli's 100th anniversary which took place in the European Parliament on 5 March 2009, in cooperation with the Lazio region.

The papers presented here were submitted for a symposium organised by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs in September 2007. They were reprinted at the occasion of a commemoration of Spinelli's 100th anniversary which took place in the European Parliament on 5 March 2009, in cooperation with the Lazio region.

Išorės autorius

Lucio Levi, Richard Corbett, Ortensio Zecchino, Roland Bieber, John Pinder, Paolo Ponzano, Jean-Louis Quermonne, Philippe de Schoutheete

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