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Publicēšanas datums 03-06-2020

Education in isolation in the pandemic, following the path of Isaac Newton

03-06-2020

While schools have remained closed due to the coronavirus pandemic, students' education cannot be suspended indefinitely without severe consequences. Alternative methods, mostly dependent on digital technology, have been adopted very rapidly. Organisations such as Unesco have been quick to monitor the situation, and the European Union too has followed developments in the Member States through its agencies and networks. Video-conferences between education ministers have been pivotal for them to discuss ...

While schools have remained closed due to the coronavirus pandemic, students' education cannot be suspended indefinitely without severe consequences. Alternative methods, mostly dependent on digital technology, have been adopted very rapidly. Organisations such as Unesco have been quick to monitor the situation, and the European Union too has followed developments in the Member States through its agencies and networks. Video-conferences between education ministers have been pivotal for them to discuss issues and learn from each other's best practices. What has started as an emergency has become an eye-opener, as existing educational gaps have become more visible. Socio-economic inequalities, greater difficulties of access for those with special educational needs, barriers in home–school communication and between teachers and educational authorities have been compounded by missing digital tools and skills. The sudden leap has also given rise to outreach initiatives and a growing awareness of resources whose potential was still under-exploited. These included numerous online platforms and other resources that became freely available to salvage the situation. As teachers, students and parents experiment with new tools, policy-makers try to understand what can be more systematically adopted in the future to make education more flexible and inclusive, and what needs to be debunked. Learning is not limited to schooling; vocational education and training, universities and adult education sectors have also struggled to maintain their activities. At the same time, they will be expected to contribute to the relaunch following the end of confinement. Given the economic downturn, guidance and career counselling will have a pivotal role in reskilling and upskilling the labour force. The European Union has a supportive role in this process and also needs to safeguard the wellbeing of participants in its programmes Erasmus+ and the European Solidarity Corps. The European Parliament is keen to ensure the institutions do all they can. Where does Isaac Newton fit in all this?

Publicēšanas datums 02-06-2020

Demography on the European agenda: Strategies for tackling demographic decline

02-06-2020

The EU faces a number of demographic challenges such as ageing, a declining birth rate and depopulation in some of its regions. The EU represents an ever-shrinking proportion of the world population, at just 6.9 % today (down from 13.5 % in 1960), and is projected to fall further to just 4.1 % by the end of this century. This is explained by the low fertility rates as the numbers of children being born has fallen from an EU-28 average of around 2.5 children per woman in 1960, to a little under 1.6 ...

The EU faces a number of demographic challenges such as ageing, a declining birth rate and depopulation in some of its regions. The EU represents an ever-shrinking proportion of the world population, at just 6.9 % today (down from 13.5 % in 1960), and is projected to fall further to just 4.1 % by the end of this century. This is explained by the low fertility rates as the numbers of children being born has fallen from an EU-28 average of around 2.5 children per woman in 1960, to a little under 1.6 today. This is far below the 2.1 births per woman considered necessary to maintain a stable population in the long term. Ageing is also another population trend in the EU. Due to advances in medicine and quality of life, the average life expectancy the EU has increased considerably and now stands at about 81 years on average. Demography matters. The economy, labour market, healthcare, pensions, regional development, and election results – all are driven by demography. EU Member States have their own strategies and policies in order to counteract demographic decline. The EU also has an auxiliary role when it comes to tackling demographic challenges. Nevertheless, the EU has limited legal powers when it comes to dealing with issues that are related to demography. The coronavirus epidemic also has an impact on demography. Covid-19 has caused many deaths of elderly people. Certain EU regions have been affected more than others from the spread of the coronavirus. Studies suggest that coronavirus has a considerable impact on EU population trends (such as number of deaths per country, reduction of life expectancy and family planning). Both the European Parliament and the European Committee of the Regions are preparing their own reports and opinions on issues that are related to demography.

Four briefings on Trade-related aspects of carbon border adjustment mechanisms

14-04-2020

Compilation of four briefings made up by European Parliament's external contractors to the attention of INTA Committee, on trade-related aspects of carbon border adjustment mechanisms.

Compilation of four briefings made up by European Parliament's external contractors to the attention of INTA Committee, on trade-related aspects of carbon border adjustment mechanisms.

Ārējais autors

Dr. Cecilia Bellora, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII) ; Prof. Gabriel Felbermayr, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel) ; Prof. Joost Pauwelyn, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) and Georgetown University Law School ; Prof. André Sapir, Bruegel

Possible carbon adjustment policies: An overview

14-04-2020

The new European Commission has announced policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. Reaching an ambitious target for a global good – the climate – would require a common price for carbon worldwide. This however clashes with the free-riding problem. Furthermore, unilateral policies are not efficient since they lead to carbon leakages and distort competitiveness. To tackle these issues, the European Union can rely on different policies. Firstly, a carbon pricing of imports can combined ...

The new European Commission has announced policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. Reaching an ambitious target for a global good – the climate – would require a common price for carbon worldwide. This however clashes with the free-riding problem. Furthermore, unilateral policies are not efficient since they lead to carbon leakages and distort competitiveness. To tackle these issues, the European Union can rely on different policies. Firstly, a carbon pricing of imports can combined with an export rebate to constitute a ‘complete CBA’ (Carbon Border Adjustment) solution. Alternatively, a simple tariff at the border can compensate for differences in carbon prices between domestic and imported products. A consumption-based carbon taxation can also be contemplated. Last, a uniform tariff on imports from countries not imposing (equivalent) carbon policies may help solving the free-riding problem.

Ārējais autors

Dr. Cecilia Bellora, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII)

Economic assessment of Carbon Leakage and Carbon Border Adjustment

14-04-2020

The European Union is the world’s largest importer of virtual CO2-emissions: its net imports of goods and services contain more than 700 million tons of CO2 emitted outside of the EU’s territory. This is more than 20 % of the EU’s own territorial CO2 emissions. Therefore, shifting carbon pricing away from pricing the EU’s territorial emissions to pricing the EU’s CO2-footprint (by means of carbon border adjustment) enhances the reach of European climate policy activities and increases their effectiveness ...

The European Union is the world’s largest importer of virtual CO2-emissions: its net imports of goods and services contain more than 700 million tons of CO2 emitted outside of the EU’s territory. This is more than 20 % of the EU’s own territorial CO2 emissions. Therefore, shifting carbon pricing away from pricing the EU’s territorial emissions to pricing the EU’s CO2-footprint (by means of carbon border adjustment) enhances the reach of European climate policy activities and increases their effectiveness for promoting global abatement activities. The above result relies only on the EU being a net importer of CO2 emissions embodied in international trade. It does not rely on the answer to the question, whether stronger unilateral CO2 mitigation efforts in the EU cause the imports of embodied carbon to increase (direct carbon leakage). Direct carbon leakage refers to the possibility that stringent unilateral CO2 policies in the EU, e.g. in the form of high carbon prices or regulatory measures, might lead to an increase in the carbon imports embodied in trade of goods and services: as European firms’ relative production costs are driven up relative to firms in non-committed foreign countries, domestic production is replaced by imports and domestic emissions are replaced by foreign ones. This compromises the effectiveness of the EU’s climate policies and endangers jobs and value added in exposed sectors. Ex post evaluations of existing carbon policies arrive at mixed conclusions. On the one hand, emission pricing in the EU ETS, so far, is mostly not found to cause direct carbon leakage. On the other hand, studies based on a broader focus of climate policies (not just carbon prices) suggest that measures, e.g., in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, have indeed led to carbon leakage. In countries that have committed to emission targets, imports of goods have gone up by about 5 % and the carbon-intensity of imports has gone up by 8 %. Ex-ante predictions by simulation models indicate that direct leakage is indeed likely. Its size depends on the difference between the EU’s carbon prices and those of its trading partners. On average, studies indicate that about 15 % of domestic emission savings are offset by additional foreign emissions. However, the range of estimates is very large. In most studies, indirect carbon leakage that operates through global markets for fossil fuels, however, is quantitatively more important than direct carbon leakage operating through international markets for goods and services. Ex-ante models show that carbon border adjustment can reduce carbon leakage. In complete setups, it can fully eliminate direct leakage. It does little to reduce leakage through energy markets, or to incentivise countries to engage into more ambitious climate policies. Results depend crucially on the design of the mechanism. Moreover, simulations also show that the adjustment burden is shifted to non-abating countries, many of which are poor and underdeveloped. The note concludes that carbon leakage is an empirically relevant concern. Carbon border adjustments (CBAs) can lower carbon leakage occurring through goods markets. CBAs need to be treated very carefully because they might provoke retaliation by non-committed countries and because they may shift the burden of adjustment to poor countries. In the context of the EU ETS, one promising strategy could be to grant free allocations of emission permits to leakage-prone industries but combine this with a consumption tax, applied to domestic and foreign goods produced by those exempted industries.

Ārējais autors

Prof. Gabriel Felbermayr, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel)

Trade Related Aspects of a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism. A Legal Assessment

14-04-2020

This briefing provides a legal assessment – under WTO and EU law - of three policy options for an EU carbon border adjustment mechanism. These options are, first, a carbon tax adjusted at the border; second, the inclusion of importers under the EU emission trading scheme; and, third, import tariffs on products from third countries that do not pursue climate policies in line with the Paris Agreement. In the first part of the briefing, these three policies are evaluated against the benchmark of vulnerability ...

This briefing provides a legal assessment – under WTO and EU law - of three policy options for an EU carbon border adjustment mechanism. These options are, first, a carbon tax adjusted at the border; second, the inclusion of importers under the EU emission trading scheme; and, third, import tariffs on products from third countries that do not pursue climate policies in line with the Paris Agreement. In the first part of the briefing, these three policies are evaluated against the benchmark of vulnerability to WTO legal challenge. The second part of the briefing assesses the EU decision-making procedures that are applicable to the three policies and the varying degrees of efficiency and democratic participation they imply.

Ārējais autors

Prof. Joost Pauwelyn, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) and Georgetown University Law School

Political Assessment of Possible Reactions of EU Main Trading Partners to EU Border Carbon Measures

14-04-2020

This briefing discusses the possible reactions of the European Union’s larger trading partners to carbon border measures. Section 1 discusses experiences of carbon border adjustment-like regimes prior to the European Commission’s announcement of the Green Deal. It focuses on the EU Aviation Directive, the US policy debate, and the Californian CBA for electricity. Section 2 considers reactions to the Green Deal announcement, based on informal discussion with officials from major trading partners to ...

This briefing discusses the possible reactions of the European Union’s larger trading partners to carbon border measures. Section 1 discusses experiences of carbon border adjustment-like regimes prior to the European Commission’s announcement of the Green Deal. It focuses on the EU Aviation Directive, the US policy debate, and the Californian CBA for electricity. Section 2 considers reactions to the Green Deal announcement, based on informal discussion with officials from major trading partners to the EU. It identifies positive and negative reactions to the principle of an EU CBA, concerns about its design, criticisms and potential policy responses by these partners. Section 3 discusses the implications of our findings. It points to several features in the design and introduction of an EU CBA mechanism that we believe will importantly affect how partners will react to such mechanism.

Ārējais autors

Prof. André Sapir, Bruegel

Banking Union: Corona crisis effects - week 22

02-06-2020

The corona crisis has significant effects on many banks in the Banking Union. To support the Members of the Banking Union Working Group, the following briefing reports on observations made and actions taken by supervisory authorities, credit rating agencies, banking federations, or other industry experts, in order to point to relevant developments in the banking sector. The briefing will be updated on a bi-weekly basis, unless relevant developments require otherwise.

The corona crisis has significant effects on many banks in the Banking Union. To support the Members of the Banking Union Working Group, the following briefing reports on observations made and actions taken by supervisory authorities, credit rating agencies, banking federations, or other industry experts, in order to point to relevant developments in the banking sector. The briefing will be updated on a bi-weekly basis, unless relevant developments require otherwise.

Publicēšanas datums 29-05-2020

Credit Rating for Euro Area Member States and European supranational institutions

29-05-2020

This document presents the latest credit ratings issued by the three major Credit Rating Agencies for the Euro Area Member States and three European institutions that issue “EU bonds”: the EU Commission, the European Investment Bank and the European Stabilisation Mechanism. It provides an overview of the framework of sovereign credit ratings and shows their relationship with the financing costs of Euro Area Member States.

This document presents the latest credit ratings issued by the three major Credit Rating Agencies for the Euro Area Member States and three European institutions that issue “EU bonds”: the EU Commission, the European Investment Bank and the European Stabilisation Mechanism. It provides an overview of the framework of sovereign credit ratings and shows their relationship with the financing costs of Euro Area Member States.

Publicēšanas datums 28-05-2020

The coronavirus crisis: Options for economic recovery [What Think Tanks are thinking]

28-05-2020

As the coronavirus crisis keeps the world in its grip, analysts ponder what future measures could stimulate recovery from the deep recession expected in its aftermath, with a focus, in particular, on the European Commission’s plans and the growth-boosting fund recently proposed by France and Germany. Analysts also continue to contemplate what geopolitical order will emerge from the crisis, as well as the impact on individual regions such as Europe, Africa and Asia, or particular countries such as ...

As the coronavirus crisis keeps the world in its grip, analysts ponder what future measures could stimulate recovery from the deep recession expected in its aftermath, with a focus, in particular, on the European Commission’s plans and the growth-boosting fund recently proposed by France and Germany. Analysts also continue to contemplate what geopolitical order will emerge from the crisis, as well as the impact on individual regions such as Europe, Africa and Asia, or particular countries such as Saudi Arabia, Japan or Syria. This note offers links to recent commentaries and reports from international think tanks on coronavirus and related issues. Earlier publications on the topic can be found in the previous edition in this series, published by EPRS on 26 May.

Gaidāmie notikumi

03-06-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | One of Them: From Albert Square to Parliament Square
Cits pasākums -
EPRS
11-06-2020
CONT Public Hearing: Implementation of EU funds
Uzklausīšana -
CONT
11-06-2020
STOA Roundtable on Digital Sovereign Identity
Darbseminārs -
STOA

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