14

Resulta(a)t(en)

Woord(en)
Publicatietype
Beleidsterrein
Auteur
Datum

The future of the European Defence Agency (EDA)

18-07-2018

The aim of the workshop, held on 22 November 2017, was to discuss the future of the European Defence Agency (EDA) against the backdrop of framing a common Union defence policy. The first speaker, Dr Christian Mölling, provided an analysis of the issue of defence cooperation among EU member states and the difficulties it faces. In this context, he described the role and power of the EDA as well as possible options for its future. The second speaker, Professor David Versailles, focused on capabilities ...

The aim of the workshop, held on 22 November 2017, was to discuss the future of the European Defence Agency (EDA) against the backdrop of framing a common Union defence policy. The first speaker, Dr Christian Mölling, provided an analysis of the issue of defence cooperation among EU member states and the difficulties it faces. In this context, he described the role and power of the EDA as well as possible options for its future. The second speaker, Professor David Versailles, focused on capabilities and competencies as well as on the interaction between civilian and military capabilities. The presentations were followed by a debate involving members of the Security and Defence Committee of the European Parliament.

Externe auteur

Dr Christian MÖLLING; Dr Valérie MERINDOL and Dr David W. VERSAILLES

Permanent structured cooperation (PESCO): Beyond establishment

09-03-2018

In its 2016 Global Strategy, the European Union (EU) set a new level of ambition in security and defence. Closer defence cooperation among EU Member States is now at the top of the agenda. The aim is to make European defence spending more efficient, and work towards a strategically autonomous European defence union (EDU). The launch of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) in December 2017 is seen as a crucial step in that direction. On 13 November 2017, 23 EU Member States signed a joint notification ...

In its 2016 Global Strategy, the European Union (EU) set a new level of ambition in security and defence. Closer defence cooperation among EU Member States is now at the top of the agenda. The aim is to make European defence spending more efficient, and work towards a strategically autonomous European defence union (EDU). The launch of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) in December 2017 is seen as a crucial step in that direction. On 13 November 2017, 23 EU Member States signed a joint notification addressed to the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) and to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) on their intention to participate in PESCO. On 11 December 2017, 25 Member States agreed to 'ambitious and more binding common commitments' and issued an initial list of 17 PESCO defence projects to fill the EU's strategic capability gaps and ensure the cross-border availability, deployability and interoperability of forces. On 6 March 2018, the Council – meeting for the first time ever in 'PESCO' format – formally adopted the list of projects to be developed. This new impetus given to EU defence has been accompanied by widespread support on the part of high-level EU representatives, and is also broadly backed by the European public. Nonetheless the 'renaissance' of EU defence policy came fairly unexpectedly. Several challenges remain, including boosting investment, overcoming fragmentation and accommodating national defence priorities while coordinating national defence capabilities.

European defence – A year on from the global strategy

12-07-2017

On 7 June 2017, the Commission presented its reflection paper on 'European defence by 2025'. The paper, part of the white paper process on the future of Europe, comes almost a year after the unveiling of the European Union's global strategy on foreign and security policy, and follows 12 months of significant progress in decisions on the course of EU security and defence policy (CSDP). During the last quarter of 2016, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President ...

On 7 June 2017, the Commission presented its reflection paper on 'European defence by 2025'. The paper, part of the white paper process on the future of Europe, comes almost a year after the unveiling of the European Union's global strategy on foreign and security policy, and follows 12 months of significant progress in decisions on the course of EU security and defence policy (CSDP). During the last quarter of 2016, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the Commission, Federica Mogherini, presented a set of three specific action plans to upgrade EU security and defence policy: the implementation plan on security and defence, the European defence action plan, and the implementation plan for the EU-NATO Warsaw Declaration. The three plans, which are sometimes referred to as the 'winter package on defence', detailed a series of actions to be taken in the medium- and long-term to implement the Lisbon Treaty provisions on security and defence. These are expected to lead to stronger coordination within the EU, as well as strengthen the EU defence industry and market. Debates on the future of European defence were significantly affected by two major events that took place in 2016: the decision of the United Kingdom (one of the strongest players in European defence) to withdraw from the EU; and the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States. This briefing complements an earlier version of July 2016, PE 586.607. The centrespread of this briefing presents a timeline of the major developments in EU defence policy in the year since the global strategy's release.

Preparatory action on defence research

27-10-2016

Investment in defence research has been decreasing in the EU over the last 10 years. In 2013, the Commission proposed to strengthen the EU defence and security sector and suggested launching a preparatory action (PA) on defence. Following a pilot project adopted in 2014, the preparatory action is expected to be adopted for three years with a budget of €90 million. If successful, the Commission plans to establish an EU-defence research programme for the 2021-2027 period.

Investment in defence research has been decreasing in the EU over the last 10 years. In 2013, the Commission proposed to strengthen the EU defence and security sector and suggested launching a preparatory action (PA) on defence. Following a pilot project adopted in 2014, the preparatory action is expected to be adopted for three years with a budget of €90 million. If successful, the Commission plans to establish an EU-defence research programme for the 2021-2027 period.

Europe of Defence? Views on the future of defence cooperation

07-07-2016

Against the backdrop of growing security challenges, the debate regarding the future of European defence cooperation has grown in relevance. While the Lisbon Treaty introduced significant possibilities with regard to the future of EU defence policy, and while there has been consistent EU Member State public support for further cooperation in this area, progress has been slow. The impact of the economic crisis on defence budgets, fears concerning the effects of more integration on national defence ...

Against the backdrop of growing security challenges, the debate regarding the future of European defence cooperation has grown in relevance. While the Lisbon Treaty introduced significant possibilities with regard to the future of EU defence policy, and while there has been consistent EU Member State public support for further cooperation in this area, progress has been slow. The impact of the economic crisis on defence budgets, fears concerning the effects of more integration on national defence industries and various political considerations are some of the reasons that have been given to explain the reluctance to move towards closer cooperation in defence until now. In early 2015, comments by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker regarding the possibility for the creation of an EU army sparked a wide debate among experts and political elites. In June 2015, the European Council concluded that work would continue on a more effective Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), on the further development of civilian and military capabilities, and on the strengthening of Europe's defence industry. A revamped role for the EU in defence is an important part of the EU Global Strategy presented to Member States at the European Council in June 2016. Individual Member States have also taken the lead in the proposals on how to move ahead, suggesting that the momentum is there on many fronts. The European Parliament has been a longstanding advocate of a stronger and more effective CSDP. This briefing complements an earlier briefing, European defence cooperation: State of play and thoughts on an EU army, published in March 2015.

The Future of EU Defence Research

30-03-2016

There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends ...

There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends not only Europe’s ‘strategic autonomy’, but possibly the future of the whole European project. Several steps have already been initiated to answer the call for more defence in Europe. Since the beginning of his mandate, President Juncker has declared defence a ‘priority’, called for the implementation of the Permanent Structured Cooperation enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and reiterated the long term vision of a ’European army’. In June 2016, a ‘global strategy’ will be issued and a Commission Defence Action Plan should follow by the end of 2016. A ‘Pilot Project’, adopted by the European Parliament in autumn 2014, has been launched and should open the path to a ‘Preparatory Action on Defence Research’ that may be voted in 2016 for the 2017-2020 budgets. A natural underpinning of those efforts should be the undertaking of a full-fledged Union programme in defence research. The size, the shape and the steps to be taken towards setting it up are the subject of the present report.

Externe auteur

Frédéric MAURO and Klaus THOMA

Workshop: Pooling & Sharing: Member States’ Engagement and the Support by the EU

15-07-2015

The workshop addresses the question to what extent change has taken place, meaning whether P&S is on track and has started delivering the results that MS have declared they want to achieve. It will therefore assess three crucial aspects: • The Member States’ engagement in P&S efforts and its outcomes: The assessment will look into the political cooperation frameworks and the concrete projects MS have agreed upon, both on EU and multinational levels, and the outcomes this has produced. This includes ...

The workshop addresses the question to what extent change has taken place, meaning whether P&S is on track and has started delivering the results that MS have declared they want to achieve. It will therefore assess three crucial aspects: • The Member States’ engagement in P&S efforts and its outcomes: The assessment will look into the political cooperation frameworks and the concrete projects MS have agreed upon, both on EU and multinational levels, and the outcomes this has produced. This includes the industrial impact MS cooperation has had so far. • The support to Pooling and Sharing by Union level actors (Council, HR/VP, EDA): what kind of picture on problem awareness and strategic guidance emerges from the strategic documents Council and EDA have issued and what kind of support have especially EDA and HR/VP provided, which role have EU-institutions been able to play vis-à-vis MS? What can be learned from comparable efforts made in NATO? • The future perspective of P&S in terms of challenges, necessities and recommended initiatives linked to the further implementation of P&S: what are the most important concluding observations on the state of affairs, is it worth to continue opting for this change in defence cooperation and if it is, how can the remaining obstacles be overcome, namely the prevailing understanding of sovereignty of EU Member States?

Externe auteur

Rosalie PARENT

NATO after the Wales Summit: Back to Collective Defence

19-11-2014

At their September 2014 summit in Wales, the heads of state and government of the North Atlantic Council – the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – reaffirmed their commitment to fulfilling all three core tasks set out in their 'Strategic Concept': collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security – NATO's 'triple C'. For the first time since the end of the Cold War, NATO leaders confirmed that collective defence efforts should ...

At their September 2014 summit in Wales, the heads of state and government of the North Atlantic Council – the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – reaffirmed their commitment to fulfilling all three core tasks set out in their 'Strategic Concept': collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security – NATO's 'triple C'. For the first time since the end of the Cold War, NATO leaders confirmed that collective defence efforts should go beyond missile and cyber defence. The Ukraine crisis has imbued the conventional task of defending European territory with fresh verve. Reinvigorating European defence is first and foremost a task for Europeans – it is a task for the EU Member States, individually and jointly, and it is the duty of the EU institutions to support the Member States in their efforts. NATO-EU cooperation is essential for European security and defence. If this cooperation stumbles, substantial risks arise, for both organisations and for their members. A failure of the cooperation on collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security will not serve European or transatlantic security interests.

Pooling and Sharing Austerity ? The Defence Agency's 2013 Budget

26-11-2012

2013 budget is again fixed to EUR 30.5 million. Council to EDA: 'do more and better - but with less!' The Council did not manage to establish a long term financial perspective for EDA. The EDA's budget comes from participating Member States' contributions and its progress t is hindered by the unanimity requirement for adopting it. The Council could make EDA a true Union agency funded from the Union budget. The strong and direct command and control of the EDA through the Member States' meeting in ...

2013 budget is again fixed to EUR 30.5 million. Council to EDA: 'do more and better - but with less!' The Council did not manage to establish a long term financial perspective for EDA. The EDA's budget comes from participating Member States' contributions and its progress t is hindered by the unanimity requirement for adopting it. The Council could make EDA a true Union agency funded from the Union budget. The strong and direct command and control of the EDA through the Member States' meeting in the Steering Board would remain. To support EDA, EP could propose to earmark revenue in 2013 to beef up EDA's operational budget.

CSDP Missions and Operations : Lessons Learned Processes

13-04-2012

The first Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission was launched in 2003. Since then the EU has launched 24 civilian missions and military operations. Despite the tendency of military operations to attract more attention, the majority of CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) interventions have been civilian missions. Since the beginning the actors involved in CSDP recognised the need to learn from the different aspects of missions and operations. The tools and methodologies to guarantee ...

The first Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission was launched in 2003. Since then the EU has launched 24 civilian missions and military operations. Despite the tendency of military operations to attract more attention, the majority of CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) interventions have been civilian missions. Since the beginning the actors involved in CSDP recognised the need to learn from the different aspects of missions and operations. The tools and methodologies to guarantee a successful learning process have evolved over time together with the evolution of CSDP. This study represents a first stock-taking exercise of the lessons learned processes at the EU level. The study is divided in three major components. The first component looks at the available literature on the subject of knowledge management with regard to CSDP missions and operations. The study then draws upon short case-studies from the 21 missions and operations to-date with a specific focus on the lessons identified and (possibly) learned in practice. The study concludes with a number of recommendations targeted at how the lessons learning processes could be improved including specific recommendations on the role of the European Parliament.

Externe auteur

DARI Elisa, PRICE Megan and VAN DER WAL Jense (Clingendael Institute of International Relations, The NETHERLANDS) , GOTTWALD Marlene and KOENIG Nicole (THE TRANS EUROPEAN POLICY STUDIES ASSOCIATION, BELGIUM)

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