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China [What Think Tanks are thinking]

08-02-2019

China’s increasingly autocratic domestic stance and its assertive foreign policy pose a dilemma for European Union policy-makers as to whether to treat the Asian powerhouse as a partner or a rival, or to take a position somewhere in between. Formally, the EU and China are strategic partners since 2003 - a partnership that was broadened five years ago by the EU-China 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation. No EU country wants to be openly confrontational towards China, contrary to the approach of the ...

China’s increasingly autocratic domestic stance and its assertive foreign policy pose a dilemma for European Union policy-makers as to whether to treat the Asian powerhouse as a partner or a rival, or to take a position somewhere in between. Formally, the EU and China are strategic partners since 2003 - a partnership that was broadened five years ago by the EU-China 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation. No EU country wants to be openly confrontational towards China, contrary to the approach of the current United States administration. However, several European governments are wary of Beijing’s economic expansionism and its efforts to take the global lead in digital technologies. Controversy over China’s telecoms giant Huawei has exacerbated those concerns. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on China, its ties with the EU and related issues. More studies on the topics can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking' published in September 2018.

Galileo Satellite Navigation System

25-10-2018

This study explains the background necessary for understanding of the Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) working principles and the importance of GNSS in our daily life and work. It highlights the specific socio-economic and strategic advantages enabled by the European satellite navigation system ‘Galileo’. It also identifies some of the gaps and challenges towards Galileo’s final operational capability expected in 2021. The study proposes different policy options in order to maximise the ...

This study explains the background necessary for understanding of the Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) working principles and the importance of GNSS in our daily life and work. It highlights the specific socio-economic and strategic advantages enabled by the European satellite navigation system ‘Galileo’. It also identifies some of the gaps and challenges towards Galileo’s final operational capability expected in 2021. The study proposes different policy options in order to maximise the impact of the European satellite navigation system in the near future and in the long term.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

DG, EPRS; EPRS, DG

Galileo and EGNOS

24-01-2018

Galileo and the European geostationary navigation overlay service (EGNOS) are two satellite navigation systems under civil control. Galileo is an autonomous global navigation satellite system consisting of a constellation of satellites and a global network of ground stations. EGNOS is a regional satellite navigation system that monitors, corrects and improves the accuracy of open signals emitted by existing global satellite navigation systems (GPS, Glonass). Galileo and EGNOS are infrastructures ...

Galileo and the European geostationary navigation overlay service (EGNOS) are two satellite navigation systems under civil control. Galileo is an autonomous global navigation satellite system consisting of a constellation of satellites and a global network of ground stations. EGNOS is a regional satellite navigation system that monitors, corrects and improves the accuracy of open signals emitted by existing global satellite navigation systems (GPS, Glonass). Galileo and EGNOS are infrastructures owned by the European Union, which were conceived in close cooperation with the European Space Agency. They guarantee Europe independent access to a reliable positioning satellite signal, allowing more accuracy than that offered by other accessible systems.

Towards a European gigabit society: Connectivity targets and 5G

09-06-2017

In September 2016, the Commission put forward new strategic connectivity objectives for 2025 as part of its digital single market strategy. These should prepare Europe for the roll-out of the next generation of broadband infrastructure with gigabit speeds, including both fixed and mobile internet access (5G). Once available, from 2020 onwards, 5G is expected to enable an array of new innovative services that will transform sectors such as manufacturing, energy, vehicle manufacturing and health, bringing ...

In September 2016, the Commission put forward new strategic connectivity objectives for 2025 as part of its digital single market strategy. These should prepare Europe for the roll-out of the next generation of broadband infrastructure with gigabit speeds, including both fixed and mobile internet access (5G). Once available, from 2020 onwards, 5G is expected to enable an array of new innovative services that will transform sectors such as manufacturing, energy, vehicle manufacturing and health, bringing them into the era of the internet of things. Given its importance for EU competitiveness, the Commission is speeding up 5G by co-financing research and development. The 5G-PPP public-private partnership is the largest initiative of its kind in the world, with €700 million in EU funding, to be topped up with private funding to reach a total budget of €3.5 billion by 2025. There is some concern that not all consumers and businesses in Europe will benefit from the gigabit society, given the current and future digital divide between urban and rural areas and across EU countries. For example if gigabit speeds and 5G are available only to areas with high demand, users are likely to be highly reluctant to pay for it as many new services will need continuity across borders and geographic areas. Progress in building the European gigabit society is expected once an updated EU telecoms framework is in place. This will enable high levels of investment in network infrastructure and increased policy coordination across Member States, for instance increasing spectrum harmonisation for 5G and co-investment of deployments. Both the proposed European Electronic Communications Code and the 5G action plan are of high importance for the Council and Parliament, and essential if the EU is to take the lead in the global 5G race.

Galileo: Overcoming obstacles - History of EU global navigation satellite systems

06-04-2017

Galileo, the long-awaited European global navigation satellite systems, is at a turning point in its history: it reached initial operational capacity in December 2016 and is expected to be fully operational for 2021. This autonomous European civilian tool, which can be used anywhere on earth, transmits positioning and timing data from space for use on the ground to determine a user's location. Alongside it, the European geostationary navigation overlay system (EGNOS), which improves the accuracy ...

Galileo, the long-awaited European global navigation satellite systems, is at a turning point in its history: it reached initial operational capacity in December 2016 and is expected to be fully operational for 2021. This autonomous European civilian tool, which can be used anywhere on earth, transmits positioning and timing data from space for use on the ground to determine a user's location. Alongside it, the European geostationary navigation overlay system (EGNOS), which improves the accuracy and integrity of the American global positioning system (GPS) over EU territory, became fully operational in 2011. Despite decades of delays, difficulties and additional costs, Galileo and EGNOS have benefited from the continuous support of all EU institutions, and the European Union (EU) decided to provide the funding needed to complete both programmes. Galileo and EGNOS became the first infrastructure to be owned by the EU. Delays and cost over-runs can be explained through political, technical, industrial and security issues. It is estimated that by 2020, the EU and European Space Agency will have invested more than €13 billion in these programmes. This public investment, although much larger than that initially planned, matches the cost of similar programmes such as GPS, and is justified by the need for the European Union to have strategic autonomy in the field. The market uptake of the services and data provided by EGNOS and Galileo is a key priority of the European space strategy adopted in October 2016.

European Leadership in 5G

22-03-2017

The in depth analysis European Leadership in 5G examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/595337/IPOL_IDA(2016)595337_EN.pdf

The in depth analysis European Leadership in 5G examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/595337/IPOL_IDA(2016)595337_EN.pdf

European Leadership in 5G

15-11-2016

Prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), this report examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy, to assess the EU’s strategic position.

Prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), this report examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy, to assess the EU’s strategic position.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Colin BLACKMAN (Camford Associates Ltd ; CEPS) and Simon FORGE (SCF Associates Ltd.)

Over-the-Top (OTTs) Players: Market Dynamics and Policy Challenges

15-12-2015

In this study we (1) explore current and emerging business models for over-the-top (OTT) services (including Voice over IP, instant messaging services, and streaming video and music services); (2) identify costs and barriers to European online service development including over-the-top (OTT); (3) describe the regulatory environment for online services in Europe, contrasting it with the environment for traditional telecom and media services, as well as the environment in some of Europe’s major trading ...

In this study we (1) explore current and emerging business models for over-the-top (OTT) services (including Voice over IP, instant messaging services, and streaming video and music services); (2) identify costs and barriers to European online service development including over-the-top (OTT); (3) describe the regulatory environment for online services in Europe, contrasting it with the environment for traditional telecom and media services, as well as the environment in some of Europe’s major trading partners; and (4) make recommendations to achieve a Digital Single Market. The study was prepared for Policy Department A at the request of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Ilsa GODLOVITCH (WIK), Bas KOTTERINK (TNO), J. Scott MARCUS (WIK), Pieter NOOREN (TNO), Jop ESMEIJER (TNO) and Arnold ROOSENDAAL (TNO)

Digital development in Sub-Saharan Africa

16-11-2015

In the past decade, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially of mobile communications, has increased exponentially in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has become common to talk of a 'mobile revolution' sweeping the region, with mobile phone use spreading quickly, geographically and socially, accompanied by novel applications, impacting on other areas of economic life. The internet still has to catch up with the mobile sector, but there are encouraging signs that it will do so ...

In the past decade, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially of mobile communications, has increased exponentially in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has become common to talk of a 'mobile revolution' sweeping the region, with mobile phone use spreading quickly, geographically and socially, accompanied by novel applications, impacting on other areas of economic life. The internet still has to catch up with the mobile sector, but there are encouraging signs that it will do so. Building the necessary connection infrastructure has considerably advanced, and digital devices are becoming more affordable. However, general literacy and digital skills across the population need to be improved in order for African countries to fully reap the benefits of the digitalisation, and this is a more difficult challenge to tackle. ICT is having an impact on many sectors of the economy, from access to basic amenities like electricity supply and clean water, to financial transactions. It has been a major driver of economic growth and an important contributor to public budgets. A number of digital applications adapted to specific local conditions have been developed in sectors such as agriculture, education, health, and democratic governance. The potential uses of ICT in such sectors promise a transformative impact on economic, social and political life, spurring development in numerous areas. If current trends continue, more and more people will see their life touched by these new technologies. It is also important to remain aware of the potential limitations of the new technologies, which cannot fully substitute, for example, for other major drivers of economic growth, or for real teachers and schools. Digital communications can be used to improve governance, but may also stoke conflict and violence in the absence of appropriate checks. ICT tools can increase public transparency, but cannot on their own eliminate corruption.

Empowering women on the Internet

30-10-2015

Upon request of the FEMM Committee, the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs examined the actions taken at the international and European level to empower women on the Internet. The research aims at exploring the opportunities, risks/threats and challenges for women in relation to the digital world and the Internet, notably in the areas of employment, entrepreneurship, cyber-activism, stereotyping, harassment, sexual violence and trafficking/modern ...

Upon request of the FEMM Committee, the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs examined the actions taken at the international and European level to empower women on the Internet. The research aims at exploring the opportunities, risks/threats and challenges for women in relation to the digital world and the Internet, notably in the areas of employment, entrepreneurship, cyber-activism, stereotyping, harassment, sexual violence and trafficking/modern slavery.

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