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Freedom of expression, a comparative law perspective - The United States

15-10-2019

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project, which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing freedom of expression in different legal systems. The document analyses, with reference to the United States of America and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law, and the concept of freedom of expression with its current and prospective limits, ending with some conclusions and possible solutions for future challenges. The legislative ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project, which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing freedom of expression in different legal systems. The document analyses, with reference to the United States of America and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law, and the concept of freedom of expression with its current and prospective limits, ending with some conclusions and possible solutions for future challenges. The legislative foundation for freedom of expression law in the United States is grounded in the First Amendment to the Constitution. Based on this text, the Supreme Court has created the freedom of expression doctrinal framework by which lower courts and other branches of government are bound. Unlike other jurisdictions, the United States grants broad freedom of expression protections based largely on the idea that “good” speech will prevail over “bad” speech in the open market.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

EPRS, Comparative Law

India: taking stock of Modi's five years

10-04-2019

From 11 April to 18 May 2019, 900 million Indians are invited to take part in the world's biggest democratic event: the election of the 543 members of the Lok Sabha (lower chamber). Voting will be held across the country in seven phases and the result will be declared on 23 May. In 2014 the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) obtained the absolute majority in India's Lok Sabha, and Narendra Modi became prime minister. Enjoying a strong and undisputed mandate, Modi has generated expectations ...

From 11 April to 18 May 2019, 900 million Indians are invited to take part in the world's biggest democratic event: the election of the 543 members of the Lok Sabha (lower chamber). Voting will be held across the country in seven phases and the result will be declared on 23 May. In 2014 the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) obtained the absolute majority in India's Lok Sabha, and Narendra Modi became prime minister. Enjoying a strong and undisputed mandate, Modi has generated expectations of unleashing the country's economic potential and has adopted many flagship initiatives in a bid to change the country. In the last five years, India has overtaken China as the fastest growing economy, becoming the world's sixth biggest economy and a space power. Doing business in the country has become easier. Poverty has been reduced. The government succeeded in introducing major fiscal unification reform and a new law on bankruptcy. It failed, however to create the necessary stock of jobs for young people or to promote long-awaited labour reforms. The situation for farmers has worsened, and an overnight demonetisation hindered progress among small businesses and rural communities, while failing to bring real advances in the fight against corruption. State banks hold large stocks of bad loans and the government has increased pressure on the central bank and on its independence. Hindu nationalism and religious intolerance, pressure on freedom of expression, possible state intrusion into privacy, citizenship issues and other topics have been matters for concern in the area of human rights, although the country remains a robust democracy governed by the rule of law. Modi has increased the country's presence in the global arena, although the framework of India's relations with the major powers has not changed. Following two summits in 2016 and 2017, the EU and India have embarked on a road towards cooperation on non-trade issues. Trade has meanwhile stagnated and little progress has been made in negotiations on a trade and investment agreement.

Regulating disinformation with artificial intelligence

13-03-2019

In this study, we examine the consequences of the increasingly prevalent use of artificial intelligence (AI) disinformation initiatives upon freedom of expression, pluralism and the functioning of a democratic polity. The study examines the trade-offs in using automated technology to limit the spread of disinformation online. It presents (self-regulatory to legislative) options to regulate automated content recognition (ACR) technologies in this context. Special attention is paid to the opportunities ...

In this study, we examine the consequences of the increasingly prevalent use of artificial intelligence (AI) disinformation initiatives upon freedom of expression, pluralism and the functioning of a democratic polity. The study examines the trade-offs in using automated technology to limit the spread of disinformation online. It presents (self-regulatory to legislative) options to regulate automated content recognition (ACR) technologies in this context. Special attention is paid to the opportunities for the European Union as a whole to take the lead in setting the framework for designing these technologies in a way that enhances accountability and transparency and respects free speech. The present project reviews some of the key academic and policy ideas on technology and disinformation and highlights their relevance to European policy.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

DG, EPRS

Turcja: sprawozdanie krajowe za 2018 r.

06-03-2019

W marcu 2019 r. Parlament Europejski ma głosować nad projektem rezolucji w sprawie sprawozdania krajowego za 2018 r. dotyczącego Turcji. Zarówno sprawozdanie Komisji Europejskiej, jak i sprawozdanie Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych Parlamentu Europejskiego wskazują na regres w kluczowych obszarach. Komisja Spraw Zagranicznych wzywa do poprawy sytuacji oraz do zawieszenia negocjacji akcesyjnych.

W marcu 2019 r. Parlament Europejski ma głosować nad projektem rezolucji w sprawie sprawozdania krajowego za 2018 r. dotyczącego Turcji. Zarówno sprawozdanie Komisji Europejskiej, jak i sprawozdanie Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych Parlamentu Europejskiego wskazują na regres w kluczowych obszarach. Komisja Spraw Zagranicznych wzywa do poprawy sytuacji oraz do zawieszenia negocjacji akcesyjnych.

Preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online

04-02-2019

The Commission is a legislative measure to introduce measures to prevent the misuse of hosting services for the dissemination of terrorist content online. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal finds that the impact assessment clearly determines the problems with the status quo, but is short on detail in outlining the options to tackle these problems. The Impact assessment is particularly sensitive to concerns of encroachment on fundamental rights and freedoms ...

The Commission is a legislative measure to introduce measures to prevent the misuse of hosting services for the dissemination of terrorist content online. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal finds that the impact assessment clearly determines the problems with the status quo, but is short on detail in outlining the options to tackle these problems. The Impact assessment is particularly sensitive to concerns of encroachment on fundamental rights and freedoms and makes a distinctive effort to highlight the proportionality of the measures proposed and the safeguards to fundamental rights and freedoms integrated within.

The Audiovisual Media Services Directive

25-01-2019

Following political agreement with the Council, a vote in plenary on 2 October 2018 saw Parliament adopt the updated EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive, based on the proposal presented by the Commission on 25 May 2016. The overarching goal of the proposal was to bring about a balance between competitiveness and consumer protection. It therefore aimed to introduce flexibility when restrictions only applicable to TV are no longer justified, promote European films, protect minors and tackle hate ...

Following political agreement with the Council, a vote in plenary on 2 October 2018 saw Parliament adopt the updated EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive, based on the proposal presented by the Commission on 25 May 2016. The overarching goal of the proposal was to bring about a balance between competitiveness and consumer protection. It therefore aimed to introduce flexibility when restrictions only applicable to TV are no longer justified, promote European films, protect minors and tackle hate speech more efficiently. The proposal also reflected a new approach to online platforms. Following adoption of the revised directive, EU Member States now have to bring the new rules into national law by 19 September 2020. Sixth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Roczne sprawozdanie na temat praw człowieka i demokracji na świecie za 2017 r.

05-12-2018

Parlament Europejski co roku debatuje nad prawami człowieka i demokracją na całym świecie oraz polityką Unii Europejskiej w tym zakresie. W 2017 r. prawa człowieka były jedną z naczelnych kwestii w działaniach zewnętrznych UE. Jednak w 2017 r. na całym świecie odnotowano również kolejne gwałtowne reakcje wymierzone w społeczeństwo obywatelskie, zwłaszcza w dziennikarzy, a także wzrost dezinformacji oraz populizmu. W sprawozdaniu Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych Parlamentu Europejskiego (AFET) wezwano ...

Parlament Europejski co roku debatuje nad prawami człowieka i demokracją na całym świecie oraz polityką Unii Europejskiej w tym zakresie. W 2017 r. prawa człowieka były jedną z naczelnych kwestii w działaniach zewnętrznych UE. Jednak w 2017 r. na całym świecie odnotowano również kolejne gwałtowne reakcje wymierzone w społeczeństwo obywatelskie, zwłaszcza w dziennikarzy, a także wzrost dezinformacji oraz populizmu. W sprawozdaniu Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych Parlamentu Europejskiego (AFET) wezwano do systematycznego uwzględniania praw człowieka we wszystkich działaniach UE, zarówno wewnętrznych, jak i zewnętrznych. Debata Parlamentu nad sprawozdaniem jest planowana na grudniową sesję plenarną.

Serbia: 2018 country report

27-11-2018

In November 2018, the European Parliament is due to vote on a motion for a resolution on Serbia's 2018 country report. The report acknowledges Serbia's progress in its accession process, but points to rule of law and freedom of expression as significant obstacles. Relations with Kosovo, another key issue, are also still a major challenge.

In November 2018, the European Parliament is due to vote on a motion for a resolution on Serbia's 2018 country report. The report acknowledges Serbia's progress in its accession process, but points to rule of law and freedom of expression as significant obstacles. Relations with Kosovo, another key issue, are also still a major challenge.

Kosovo: 2018 country report

27-11-2018

In November 2018, the European Parliament is due to debate a resolution on the European Commission’s 2018 country report on Kosovo. The latest progress report notes that Kosovo has had limited success in bringing forward EU-related reforms. It calls on government and opposition to work together in order to implement them.

In November 2018, the European Parliament is due to debate a resolution on the European Commission’s 2018 country report on Kosovo. The latest progress report notes that Kosovo has had limited success in bringing forward EU-related reforms. It calls on government and opposition to work together in order to implement them.

European political parties and political foundations – Statute and funding

07-09-2018

On 13 September 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend the rules on the statute and funding of European political parties and European political foundations. The proposal aimed to revise the existing, 2014, regulation ahead of the 2019 European elections, to address specific loopholes. The limited number of proposed amendments focus on providing more transparency, improving democratic legitimacy and strengthening enforcement. However, a more thorough revision will be considered ...

On 13 September 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend the rules on the statute and funding of European political parties and European political foundations. The proposal aimed to revise the existing, 2014, regulation ahead of the 2019 European elections, to address specific loopholes. The limited number of proposed amendments focus on providing more transparency, improving democratic legitimacy and strengthening enforcement. However, a more thorough revision will be considered at a later date. Stakeholders shared the view that the 2014 regulation needs revising in advance of the 2019 European elections. Furthermore, the proposal came as a direct response to the European Parliament resolution of 15 June 2017, which called for the revision of the current legislation. Following agreement in trilogue in March 2018, the new regulation entered into force on 4 May 2018. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Planowane wydarzenia

07-07-2020
STOA roundtable on deconfinement going digital: The rise of contact tracing apps
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