11

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EU Statutory Audit Reform: Impact on costs, concentration and competition

09-04-2019

In this study we execute an in-depth analysis of the evolution of market concentration, competition and costs in the EU market for statutory auditing before and after the Audit Reform. Based on data from archival databases and a survey, we present evidence suggesting that rivalry between the largest audit suppliers increased, as did audit costs, non-Big 4 audit market share, and joint audit rates. Non-audit services (NAS) fees earned by the incumbent auditor decreased. This document was provided ...

In this study we execute an in-depth analysis of the evolution of market concentration, competition and costs in the EU market for statutory auditing before and after the Audit Reform. Based on data from archival databases and a survey, we present evidence suggesting that rivalry between the largest audit suppliers increased, as did audit costs, non-Big 4 audit market share, and joint audit rates. Non-audit services (NAS) fees earned by the incumbent auditor decreased. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) Committee.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Marleen WILLEKENS, Simon DEKEYSER, Ines SIMAC

The Generalised Scheme of Preferences Regulation (No 978/2012): European Implementation Assessment

19-12-2018

This evaluation of the EU Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) focuses on the incentives in the GSP provisions that aim to push beneficiaries to comply with human rights and the extent to which these have been implemented and have had an impact on poverty reduction and good governance. The annexed economic evaluation of the GSP Regulation examines three inter-related questions: how beneficiaries have graduated from the GSP and what role preferences have played; how trade relations between the ...

This evaluation of the EU Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) focuses on the incentives in the GSP provisions that aim to push beneficiaries to comply with human rights and the extent to which these have been implemented and have had an impact on poverty reduction and good governance. The annexed economic evaluation of the GSP Regulation examines three inter-related questions: how beneficiaries have graduated from the GSP and what role preferences have played; how trade relations between the countries that have recently graduated from the GSP and those that still benefit from it are affected; and what the impact of changes in the rules of origin has been.

The Privacy Shield: Update on the state of play of the EU-US data transfer rules

26-07-2018

The CJEU’s Schrems judgment of October 2015, besides declaring the European Commission’s Decision on the EU-US ‘Safe Harbour’ data transfer regime invalid, has also settled a number of crucial requirements corresponding to the foundations of EU data protection. In less than one year from the CJEU ruling, the Commission had adopted a new adequacy decision in which the new framework for EU-US data transfer, the Privacy Shield (2016), is deemed to adequately protect EU citizens. The main improvements ...

The CJEU’s Schrems judgment of October 2015, besides declaring the European Commission’s Decision on the EU-US ‘Safe Harbour’ data transfer regime invalid, has also settled a number of crucial requirements corresponding to the foundations of EU data protection. In less than one year from the CJEU ruling, the Commission had adopted a new adequacy decision in which the new framework for EU-US data transfer, the Privacy Shield (2016), is deemed to adequately protect EU citizens. The main improvements of the Privacy Shield (over its predecessor), as well as the critical reactions to the new arrangements, are discussed in this paper. The first joint annual review took place in September 2017 on which both the Commission and Article 29 Working Party issued their own reports. Although progress is recognised, a number of concerns remain and new challenges to the Privacy Shield have arisen, among others, from the Facebook/Cambridge Analytica scandal, as pointed out by the European Parliament in its recent resolution.

Openness of public procurement markets in key third countries

04-07-2017

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making ...

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making both within the EU and in its trading relations with key third countries. This assessment concludes that the lack of comprehensive comparable data on procurement contract awards, particularly at the sub-central level, is not a trivial challenge for policy makers. Nevertheless, it is evident that the liberalisation of procurement markets continues to take place on a strictly reciprocal basis – linked to the offensive interests of governments. Given the slow-down in negotiating mega-regional agreements with comprehensive procurement chapters, the WTO Government Procurement Agreement remains the most efficient and transparent forum for undertaking further liberalisation in public procurement.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Kamala DAWAR, Sussex University, United Kingdom

European Energy Industry Investments

16-01-2017

This study was prepared at the request of the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The paper provides an overall assessment of European investments in the electricity sector. It concludes by providing policy recommendations to facilitate the investments in the electricity sector which are needed to enable a transition to a low carbon energy supply, while realising a fully integrated and interconnected electricity system, enhancing competitiveness and ensuring security ...

This study was prepared at the request of the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The paper provides an overall assessment of European investments in the electricity sector. It concludes by providing policy recommendations to facilitate the investments in the electricity sector which are needed to enable a transition to a low carbon energy supply, while realising a fully integrated and interconnected electricity system, enhancing competitiveness and ensuring security of electricity supply.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Luc VAN NUFFEL, Koen RADEMAEKERS, Jessica YEARWOOD and Verena GRAICHEN

An assessment of the impact of Brexit on euro area stability

15-11-2016

The notes in this compilation provide an indication of the possible economic and financial impact of Brexit on the euro-area/EU economy. Notwithstanding the potential adverse effects, Brexit could also provide an opportunity for far-reaching reform to the euro area governance. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the November 2016 session of the Monetary Dialogue.

The notes in this compilation provide an indication of the possible economic and financial impact of Brexit on the euro-area/EU economy. Notwithstanding the potential adverse effects, Brexit could also provide an opportunity for far-reaching reform to the euro area governance. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the November 2016 session of the Monetary Dialogue.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Nauro Ferreira CAMPOS, Corrado MACCHIARELLI (Brunel University London and London School of Economics), Christopher HARTWELL, Roman HORVATH (CASE, Centre for Social and Economic Research), Michael HACHULA, Michele PIFFER, Malte RIETH, Rosa LASTRA (DIW Berlin and Queen Mary University of London), Karl WHELAN (University College Dublin)

Workshop on "Competition in the Food Retail Sector"

16-05-2016

Competition in the food retail sector is of high importance for European citizens in their daily life. Competition rules are enforced jointly by the European Commission but in practice also to a great deal by the national competition authorities. This workshop aims to give an overview on the current state of play, specific trends or developments and most imminent challenges. It will look i.a. at the following questions: Is competition working effectively? How does the market structure look like? ...

Competition in the food retail sector is of high importance for European citizens in their daily life. Competition rules are enforced jointly by the European Commission but in practice also to a great deal by the national competition authorities. This workshop aims to give an overview on the current state of play, specific trends or developments and most imminent challenges. It will look i.a. at the following questions: Is competition working effectively? How does the market structure look like? How do prices develop from the producer to the shop? And, what are the consequences of further concentration by mergers of supermarkets? This workshop and the respective document were prepared by the Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Paul DOBSON, Elena ARGENTESI, Jacques STEENBERGEN and Philippe CHAUVE

Unfair Trading Practices in the Business-to-Business Food Supply Chain

14-08-2015

Unfair trade practices imposed by the stronger party to a contract can have a profound impact on the functioning of the market, increasing costs and reducing revenues of the parties that experience them. This background paper reviews unfair trade practices that can appear on any side of the B2B (Business-to-Business ) transaction, in any sector of the market. Recently unfair trading practices have been of particular interest to the EU in relation to food supply chains. Briefing concludes that any ...

Unfair trade practices imposed by the stronger party to a contract can have a profound impact on the functioning of the market, increasing costs and reducing revenues of the parties that experience them. This background paper reviews unfair trade practices that can appear on any side of the B2B (Business-to-Business ) transaction, in any sector of the market. Recently unfair trading practices have been of particular interest to the EU in relation to food supply chains. Briefing concludes that any consideration concerning possible future action in the area of unfair trading practices must consider a number of issues such as: whether or not legislative action is needed, and if so, what scope and form should it take. However, the key element of any action is to ensure its subsequent effective enforcement.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Aneta Wiewiórowska-Domagalska (Osnabrück University, Germany)

An overview of Europe's film industry

16-12-2014

In spite of the fact that Europe pioneered both technological and content innovation in cinema, at present the EU film landscape is characterised by the strong presence of Hollywood productions. In 2013, they held a share of nearly 70% of the EU market, while European productions represented only 26%. What makes the major US companies so powerful is the fact that they are vertically integrated, with activities spanning production and distribution, allowing them to spread risks over several films, ...

In spite of the fact that Europe pioneered both technological and content innovation in cinema, at present the EU film landscape is characterised by the strong presence of Hollywood productions. In 2013, they held a share of nearly 70% of the EU market, while European productions represented only 26%. What makes the major US companies so powerful is the fact that they are vertically integrated, with activities spanning production and distribution, allowing them to spread risks over several films, and reinvest profits in new projects. To offset the financing challenges facing EU film companies, different types of film-support schemes have been set up, accounting in 2009 for an estimated €2.1 billion (excluding tax incentives and interventions by publicly funded banks and credit institutions). Notwithstanding the ever-increasing presence of Hollywood majors, the European film industry is quite dynamic and encompasses over 75 000 companies, employing more than 370 000 people, and reaping some €60 billion in revenue in 2010. Within the EU, the 'Big Five' – France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and Spain – account for around 80% of releases, industry turnover, and persons employed. In its 2014 communication on European film in the digital era, the European Commission identified a number of structural weaknesses which prevent the EU film industry from reaching potential audiences in the EU and globally. Along with the fragmentation of production and issues related to financing, there is greater focus on production, resulting in limited attention to distribution and promotion, and insufficient opportunities for international projects. Helping overcome distribution barriers for European films is also one of the European Parliament's goals through the LUX Prize, awarded annually since 2007. The winner of the prize does not receive a direct grant. Instead, during the LUX Film Days, the three films in competition are subtitled in the 24 official EU languages and are screened in more than 40 cities and at 18 festivals, allowing many Europeans to see them.

Wsparcie dla europejskiej branży filmowej

05-12-2014

Kino narodziło się w Europie, ale obecnie europejska scena filmowa charakteryzuje się silną obecnością hollywoodzkich „gigantów” takich jak Sony Pictures, Walt Disney i Warner Bros. Co dziwne, mimo że firmy z USA wyprodukowały w 2013 r. jedynie 622 filmy, a europejskich produkcji powstało w tym samym okresie 1 546, amerykańskie filmy stanowią obecnie prawie dwie trzecie filmów na rynku UE.

Kino narodziło się w Europie, ale obecnie europejska scena filmowa charakteryzuje się silną obecnością hollywoodzkich „gigantów” takich jak Sony Pictures, Walt Disney i Warner Bros. Co dziwne, mimo że firmy z USA wyprodukowały w 2013 r. jedynie 622 filmy, a europejskich produkcji powstało w tym samym okresie 1 546, amerykańskie filmy stanowią obecnie prawie dwie trzecie filmów na rynku UE.

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European Gender Equality Week - October 26-29, 2020
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LIBE FEMM
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