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VAT Fraud: Economic Impact, Challenges and Policy Issues

15-10-2018

Each year, the EU Member States lose billions of euros in VAT revenues on account of fraud. As the EU VAT system is undergoing profound modernisation, this study seeks (i) to take stock of the current state of play, (ii) to assess the current regulatory framework and the proposals under discussion, and (iii) to offer a selection of recommendations. An initial conclusion is that, while the European Commission has put a considerable amount of work into the modernisation of the EU VAT system, remaining ...

Each year, the EU Member States lose billions of euros in VAT revenues on account of fraud. As the EU VAT system is undergoing profound modernisation, this study seeks (i) to take stock of the current state of play, (ii) to assess the current regulatory framework and the proposals under discussion, and (iii) to offer a selection of recommendations. An initial conclusion is that, while the European Commission has put a considerable amount of work into the modernisation of the EU VAT system, remaining risks of fraud cannot be ignored. A second substantial conclusion is that a different approach and the use of new technologies would allow the Member States to remove significant obstacles that currently impede an effective fight against VAT fraud. This study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the TAX3 Committee.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Marie LAMENSCH, Emanuele CECI

Agencja Unii Europejskiej ds. Współpracy Wymiarów Sprawiedliwości w Sprawach Karnych (Eurojust)

26-09-2018

Od czasu utworzenia w 2002 r. Eurojust stał się głównym podmiotem współpracy sądowej w sprawach karnych. Biorąc pod uwagę spodziewany wzrost międzynarodowej działalności przestępczej w nadchodzących latach, Eurojust będzie musiał wzmocnić swą rolę i poprawić skuteczność działania w walce z przestępczością transgraniczną. Możliwość ku temu oferuje art. 85 Traktatu o funkcjonowaniu Unii Europejskiej (TFUE). Podczas pierwszego październikowego posiedzenia plenarnego Parlament ma głosować nad wnioskiem ...

Od czasu utworzenia w 2002 r. Eurojust stał się głównym podmiotem współpracy sądowej w sprawach karnych. Biorąc pod uwagę spodziewany wzrost międzynarodowej działalności przestępczej w nadchodzących latach, Eurojust będzie musiał wzmocnić swą rolę i poprawić skuteczność działania w walce z przestępczością transgraniczną. Możliwość ku temu oferuje art. 85 Traktatu o funkcjonowaniu Unii Europejskiej (TFUE). Podczas pierwszego październikowego posiedzenia plenarnego Parlament ma głosować nad wnioskiem dotyczącym rozporządzenia, którego celem jest modernizacja ram prawnych Agencji i usprawnienie jej funkcjonowania oraz poprawa jej struktury.

The EU-UK relationship beyond Brexit: options for Police Cooperation and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters

17-07-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, provides expertise on the legal, institutional and technical implications of the UK’s future relationship with the EU after Brexit in the areas of police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (Chapters 4 and 5 of Title V TFEU).

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, provides expertise on the legal, institutional and technical implications of the UK’s future relationship with the EU after Brexit in the areas of police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (Chapters 4 and 5 of Title V TFEU).

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Mirja GUTHEIL, Optimity Advisors; Quentin LIGER, Optimity Advisors; Aurélie HEETMAN, Optimity Advisors; Max HENLEY, Optimity Advisors; Harry HEYBURN, Optimity Advisors.

The institutional architecture of EU anti-fraud measures: Overview of a network

18-06-2018

In the European Union, several institutions, agencies and other bodies (collectively referred to as 'EU authorities') are concerned with preventing and combating fraud related to the EU budget. These EU authorities, and the activities they carry out – including policy-making, monitoring and operational tasks – make up a multi-layered network in which Member States and international organisations are also included. At the domestic level, national authorities contribute by detecting, prosecuting and ...

In the European Union, several institutions, agencies and other bodies (collectively referred to as 'EU authorities') are concerned with preventing and combating fraud related to the EU budget. These EU authorities, and the activities they carry out – including policy-making, monitoring and operational tasks – make up a multi-layered network in which Member States and international organisations are also included. At the domestic level, national authorities contribute by detecting, prosecuting and reporting fraudulent behaviour in the use of European Union funds to the European Commission. At the same time, a number of international organisations coordinate efforts across countries and legal systems to combat fraud. The present analysis offers an overview of this network, with a focus on the European Union institutional framework.

The return of foreign fighters to EU soil: Ex-post evaluation

15-05-2018

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to ...

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to the prevention of radicalisation; to information exchange at EU level; to criminal justice responses to returnees; to disengagement/deradicalisation inside and outside prisons. This study aims at outlining the EU response to the issue of returning foreign fighters and their families. It furthermore examines how six Member States have responded to this phenomenon so far (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK). These Member States are confronted with significant challenges in dealing with foreign fighters that combine legal, ethical and practical questions regarding their obligations and capabilities as regards the handling of the foreign fighters still abroad and the returnees already on EU soil. Meanwhile, Member States' existing programmes aiming at tackling radicalisation are difficult to evaluate, leading to uncertainties as regards the efficiency of current practices.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

The external study was written by Dr Francesco Ragazzi (Assistant Professor at Leiden University, the Netherlands) and Josh Walmsley (Independent Researcher) at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Sprawozdanie za rok 2016 dotyczące ochrony interesów finansowych UE – zwalczanie nadużyć finansowych

25-04-2018

W 2016 r. zgłoszono Komisji 19 080 nieprawidłowości mających wpływ na budżet UE, co stanowi spadek o 15 % w porównaniu z rokiem 2015. Ponadto wartość nieprawidłowości spadła o 8 %, z 3, 21 mld EUR w 2015 r. do 2,97 mld EUR w 2016 r. Wśród wszystkich zgłoszonych nieprawidłowości 1 410 dotyczyło nadużyć finansowych i opiewały one na kwotę 391 mln EUR.

W 2016 r. zgłoszono Komisji 19 080 nieprawidłowości mających wpływ na budżet UE, co stanowi spadek o 15 % w porównaniu z rokiem 2015. Ponadto wartość nieprawidłowości spadła o 8 %, z 3, 21 mld EUR w 2015 r. do 2,97 mld EUR w 2016 r. Wśród wszystkich zgłoszonych nieprawidłowości 1 410 dotyczyło nadużyć finansowych i opiewały one na kwotę 391 mln EUR.

A Review and Assessment of EU Drug Policy

28-11-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, provides an overview of the drug policies in international fora, at EU level, in seven Member States and in three non-EU countries. The study highlights the very different approaches taken and their varying level of effectiveness.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, provides an overview of the drug policies in international fora, at EU level, in seven Member States and in three non-EU countries. The study highlights the very different approaches taken and their varying level of effectiveness.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Mirja GUTHEIL, Quentin LIGER, Aurelie HEETMAN, James EAGER and Solveig BOURGEON (Optimity Advisors)

Towards a European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO)

17-11-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, analyses the proposal for a Regulation establishing the EPPO. The evolution of the text is analysed through a comparison between the initial Commission proposal and the current version of the text (dated of 28 October 2016). The paper assesses whether the EPPO, as it is currently envisaged, would fit the objectives assigned to it, whether it ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, analyses the proposal for a Regulation establishing the EPPO. The evolution of the text is analysed through a comparison between the initial Commission proposal and the current version of the text (dated of 28 October 2016). The paper assesses whether the EPPO, as it is currently envisaged, would fit the objectives assigned to it, whether it will have some added value, and whether it will be able to function efficiently and in full respect of fundamental rights. It focuses on the main issues at stake and controversial points of discussion, namely the EPPO institutional design, some material issues, its procedural framework, and its relations with its partners.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Anne WEYEMBERGH (Université Libre de Bruxelles and Coordinator of the European Criminal Law Academic Network - ECLAN) and Chloé BRIERE (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium)

Match-fixing: Issues and policy responses

05-04-2016

As sport has grown increasingly popular worldwide, it has become a greater target for individuals and groups of people wishing to take advantage of its lucrative aspects. A conservative Interpol estimate for the period 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013 indicates that match-fixing – i.e. the manipulation of results of sporting contests, or elements within a game – has been reported in over 70 countries across six continents, for football alone. Globalisation has further aggravated the phenomenon, with transnational ...

As sport has grown increasingly popular worldwide, it has become a greater target for individuals and groups of people wishing to take advantage of its lucrative aspects. A conservative Interpol estimate for the period 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013 indicates that match-fixing – i.e. the manipulation of results of sporting contests, or elements within a game – has been reported in over 70 countries across six continents, for football alone. Globalisation has further aggravated the phenomenon, with transnational criminal organisations taking advantage of changes in regulations, and flaws in legal and judicial systems. Various sports have been affected by match-fixing, even though most cases occur in cricket, football, and tennis. Contests are not always rigged by individual players or referees; some cases involve coaches, club managers, and more unexpectedly, maintenance staff. Match-fixing is often linked to gambling, with criminal networks exploiting unregulated gambling markets, notably in Asia. In the EU, the Framework Decisions on combatting corruption and the fight against organised crime underpin the operational work carried out by Europol and Eurojust. However, their provisions are still insufficiently well enacted by EU countries. The impact of international legal instruments, such as the United Nations and Council of Europe conventions, is also limited, since their provisions are not mandatory. In this context, the International Olympic Committee, due to its political, social and sporting authority, appears as a key factor in the continuing fight against manipulation in sport.

Europejski system straży granicznej i przybrzeżnej

08-12-2015

Oczekuje się, że w dniu 15 grudnia 2015 r. Komisja przedstawi wniosek w sprawie utworzenia europejskiego systemu straży granicznej i przybrzeżnej. Zgodnie z konkluzjami Rady przyszły system będzie budowany w oparciu o mandat i doświadczenia Europejskiej Agencji Zarządzania Współpracą Operacyjną na Zewnętrznych Granicach Państw Członkowskich Unii Europejskiej (Frontex). Chociaż istnieje szeroka zgoda co do konieczności wzmocnienia ochrony zewnętrznych granic UE, pozostaje ważne pytanie o strukturę ...

Oczekuje się, że w dniu 15 grudnia 2015 r. Komisja przedstawi wniosek w sprawie utworzenia europejskiego systemu straży granicznej i przybrzeżnej. Zgodnie z konkluzjami Rady przyszły system będzie budowany w oparciu o mandat i doświadczenia Europejskiej Agencji Zarządzania Współpracą Operacyjną na Zewnętrznych Granicach Państw Członkowskich Unii Europejskiej (Frontex). Chociaż istnieje szeroka zgoda co do konieczności wzmocnienia ochrony zewnętrznych granic UE, pozostaje ważne pytanie o strukturę, rolę i funkcje przyszłego europejskiego systemu straży granicznej i przybrzeżnej. Konieczne będzie uwzględnienie obaw związanych z kwestią poszanowania suwerenności narodowej, dostępności środków budżetowych oraz przestrzegania praw człowieka.

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