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Blockchain for supply chains and international trade

29-05-2020

Blockchain could benefit supply chain management and international trade processes. See the new STOA study of potential use cases, their impacts, and potential policy responses. Blockchain technology could be valuable for supply chain management and international trade processes which require cooperation and trust between several actors arranged in complex relationships across different regulatory frameworks. Blockchain could facilitate of trade through a combination of digitalisation, information ...

Blockchain could benefit supply chain management and international trade processes. See the new STOA study of potential use cases, their impacts, and potential policy responses. Blockchain technology could be valuable for supply chain management and international trade processes which require cooperation and trust between several actors arranged in complex relationships across different regulatory frameworks. Blockchain could facilitate of trade through a combination of digitalisation, information exchange and automation, reducing costs and increasing transparency. Blockchain could facilitate SME’s access to trade and trade finance, as well as consumers’ access to product information with could enable more ethical and environmentally responsible choices. There are no major technical barriers to the use of some types of blockchain solution for some elements of trade. Many of the benefits of blockchain for trade derive from digitalisation, which could be achieved through other means. There remain substantial barriers to digitalisation of trade processes. Barriers to blockchain in supply chains and international trade include legal recognition, data localisation, identification of applicable laws, allocation of liability, and interoperability and standardisation across various economic operators and regulatory frameworks. 20 policy options for blockchain in supply chains and international trade including supporting customs facilitation, sustainable trade, SME involvement, leadership in standardisation, evidence-based policy and awareness raising.

Autor extern

This study was written by Bertrand Copigneaux, Nikita Vlasov and Emarildo Bani of IDATE DigiWorld, Nikolay Tcholtchev and Philipp Lämmel of Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, Michael Fuenfzig, Simone Snoeijenbos and Michael Flickenschild from Ecorys, and Martina Piantoni and Simona Frazzani from Grimaldi Studio Legale at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

The Unified Patent Court after Brexit

11-03-2020

Great Britain has recently made known that it does not intend to apply the International Agreement on a Unified Patent Court (UPCA).

Great Britain has recently made known that it does not intend to apply the International Agreement on a Unified Patent Court (UPCA).

What if internet by satellite were to lead to congestion in orbit?

05-02-2020

American Starlink project aims to bring high speed internet access across the globe by 2021. It’s certainly a mission in the sky! But how will Elon Musk’s plans to deploy this mega constellation of satellites impact on European citizens?

American Starlink project aims to bring high speed internet access across the globe by 2021. It’s certainly a mission in the sky! But how will Elon Musk’s plans to deploy this mega constellation of satellites impact on European citizens?

Common minimum standards of civil procedure: European Added Value Assessment

28-11-2019

The European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) estimates whether and to what extent adoption of EU minimum standards of civil procedure could generate European added value. The European added value is quantified as a percentage reduction of the total cost of civil procedure. The total cost of civil procedure is estimated based on data on the number of civil and commercial proceedings in the EU-28 and the cost of litigation in the Member States. Based on this analysis, the EAVA estimates that introducing ...

The European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) estimates whether and to what extent adoption of EU minimum standards of civil procedure could generate European added value. The European added value is quantified as a percentage reduction of the total cost of civil procedure. The total cost of civil procedure is estimated based on data on the number of civil and commercial proceedings in the EU-28 and the cost of litigation in the Member States. Based on this analysis, the EAVA estimates that introducing EU common minimum standards of civil procedure could reduce annual costs for citizens and businesses in the European Union by as much as €4.7 to 7.9 billion per annum. The European added value could be potentially generated through reduction of fragmentation, simplification and filling gaps in the current EU procedural rules. Furthermore, EU common minimum standards would contribute towards building mutual trust between judicial authorities of different Member States. Increasing trust has the potential to enhance legal certainty and stability for citizens and businesses, further reduce uncertainty and delay costs.

EU Patent and Brexit

05-11-2019

This In-depth Analysis resumes the possible scenarios concerning several Intellectual Property provisions of EU and international law in the event of a withdrawal of the United Kingdom with or without a proper withdrawal agreement. It tries to clarify the question how Brexit may affect the entry into force of the new European Patent with Unitary effect (EPUE), especially, if the Unified Patent Court Agreement (UPCA) can enter into force, even in case the UK has withdrawn from the EU. What would be ...

This In-depth Analysis resumes the possible scenarios concerning several Intellectual Property provisions of EU and international law in the event of a withdrawal of the United Kingdom with or without a proper withdrawal agreement. It tries to clarify the question how Brexit may affect the entry into force of the new European Patent with Unitary effect (EPUE), especially, if the Unified Patent Court Agreement (UPCA) can enter into force, even in case the UK has withdrawn from the EU. What would be the necessary steps to be taken by the EU in order to ensure the functioning of the future European Unitary patent and in case the UPC Agreement would have to be revised because of Brexit.

Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation

24-07-2019

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can ...

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can be modified or erased where necessary to comply with legal requirements, blockchains, however, render the unilateral modification of data purposefully onerous in order to ensure data integrity and to increase trust in the network.

Consumer sale of goods

15-07-2019

The European Commission proposed a new directive on the consumer sale of goods in 2015, with the aim to lay down rules on online and other distance sales of goods. This was replaced on 31 October 2017 by an amended proposal, which sought to replace entirely the existing Consumer Sales Directive dating from 1999, and regulate contracts concluded both online and offline. The new directive was agreed in January 2019 after trilogue negotiations between Parliament and Council, and then adopted by the ...

The European Commission proposed a new directive on the consumer sale of goods in 2015, with the aim to lay down rules on online and other distance sales of goods. This was replaced on 31 October 2017 by an amended proposal, which sought to replace entirely the existing Consumer Sales Directive dating from 1999, and regulate contracts concluded both online and offline. The new directive was agreed in January 2019 after trilogue negotiations between Parliament and Council, and then adopted by the two institutions in March and April respectively. Signed in May 2019, it will allow Member States to decide on a legal guarantee of longer than two years and extend the period during which it is presumed that the goods were faulty from the start. It entered into force on 11 June 2019 and Member States have to apply it from 1 January 2022. Fifth edition, based on a briefing originally drafted by Rafał Mańko. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view previous versions of this briefing, please see: PE 635.594 (March 2019).

Contracts for the supply of digital content and digital services

15-07-2019

The directive on contracts for the supply of digital content and digital services, proposed by the European Commission in 2015, harmonises some private-law aspects of such contracts at EU level for the first time. The directive will not fully harmonise the duration of legal guarantees for digital content and services, but national laws will not be allowed limit it to less than two years. For the first year from delivery, the burden of proof will be on the supplier. Traders will be required to provide ...

The directive on contracts for the supply of digital content and digital services, proposed by the European Commission in 2015, harmonises some private-law aspects of such contracts at EU level for the first time. The directive will not fully harmonise the duration of legal guarantees for digital content and services, but national laws will not be allowed limit it to less than two years. For the first year from delivery, the burden of proof will be on the supplier. Traders will be required to provide necessary updates. The directive will also establish what remedies consumers are entitled to and the order in which they can be used. Although the European Parliament proposed that the directive should cover embedded digital content as well, following negotiations with the Council, the co-legislators agreed that such content will be regulated by the new directive on sale of goods. The directive on contracts for the supply of digital content and digital services was formally signed into law in May 2019 and Member States have to apply its measures from 1 January 2022. Sixth edition of a briefing originally drafted by Rafał Mańko. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view previous editions of this briefing, please see: PE 635.601 (March 2019).

Cost of non-Europe in robotics and artificial intelligence

12-06-2019

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research ...

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research and development activity by producers and increase the speed of uptake of these two new emerging technologies by consumers, resulting in a possible positive impact in terms of GDP. Research suggests that, by 2030, EU GDP could be 0.04 % higher than it would otherwise be under the current regulatory framework.

Autor extern

This study has been written by Bob Martens and Jorren Garrez of DLA Piper UK LLP and Cambridge Econometrics at the request of the European Added Value Unit within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the European Parliament.

Digital tools and processes in company law

10-04-2019

The possibility for companies to operate in a favourable legal and administrative environment is crucial for economic growth. Companies already use digital tools in their interaction with administrations; however, they do so to differing degrees depending on the Member State. At the April II plenary session, Parliament is due to vote on the compromise text agreed following trilogue negotiations. The aim is to harmonise and foster the use of digital tools at the various stages in a company's lifecycle ...

The possibility for companies to operate in a favourable legal and administrative environment is crucial for economic growth. Companies already use digital tools in their interaction with administrations; however, they do so to differing degrees depending on the Member State. At the April II plenary session, Parliament is due to vote on the compromise text agreed following trilogue negotiations. The aim is to harmonise and foster the use of digital tools at the various stages in a company's lifecycle.

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03-06-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | One of Them: From Albert Square to Parliament Square
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11-06-2020
CONT Public Hearing: Implementation of EU funds
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11-06-2020
STOA Roundtable on Digital Sovereign Identity
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STOA

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