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Commitments made at the hearing of Phil HOGAN, Commissioner-designate - Trade

22-11-2019

The Commissioner-designate, Phil Hogan, appeared before the European Parliament on 30 September 2019 to answer questions from MEPs in the Committee on International Trade (INTA). During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - A level playing field for all; - Strengthening Europe’s global ...

The Commissioner-designate, Phil Hogan, appeared before the European Parliament on 30 September 2019 to answer questions from MEPs in the Committee on International Trade (INTA). During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - A level playing field for all; - Strengthening Europe’s global leadership; - Trade for sustainable development and climate action; and - Making trade more transparent.

Diversifying unity. How Eastern Partnership countries develop their economy, governance and identity in a geopolitical context

30-10-2019

This study analyses the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in the year of its 10th anniversary. The Eastern Partnership was set up in 2009 as a joint policy initiative aiming at deepening and strengthening relations between the European Union, its Member States and the six EaP countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. While each of these countries shares a past in the former Soviet Union, they have developed over time in different directions. Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have ...

This study analyses the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in the year of its 10th anniversary. The Eastern Partnership was set up in 2009 as a joint policy initiative aiming at deepening and strengthening relations between the European Union, its Member States and the six EaP countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. While each of these countries shares a past in the former Soviet Union, they have developed over time in different directions. Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have concluded Association Agreements with the EU, which include Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas. They will have to fulfil conditions laid down in the Association Agreements to make progress on reforms of governance, the judiciary and fighting corruption. Moreover, Georgia and Ukraine are seeking to integrate more deeply into the Western world order, aspiring to membership of NATO and the EU. Armenia and Azerbaijan have different ways of cooperating with the EU. Belarus is furthest from the EU because of its poor record on democracy and human rights. All six countries are to a certain extent within Russia’s sphere of influence and have to deal with several geopolitical constraints, but they have increasingly developed economic relations and national identities of their own. It will be a challenge to maintain a common perspective for the next 10 years of the Eastern Partnership and a further divergence between the countries is likely. This will not only be between countries with an Association Agreement and the others, but along multiple vectors. While further developing statehood, the eastern partners will want to decide increasingly for themselves which forms of cooperation they want to pursue in the future. They may choose international partners according to their perceived needs, including Russia, the US, China or Turkey. The EU for its part should continue to pursue its strengths of assisting in achieving better governance and democracy and strengthening economic ties, while contributing to diminishing geopolitical tensions.

Free trade or geo-economics? Trends in world trade

27-09-2019

The European Union (EU) is the biggest integrated economic zone and a guarantor of an open and predictable regulatory system able to determine its own economic destiny. But the behaviour of other global powers is increasingly calling this ability into question. China and the United States, especially, do not separate economic interests from geopolitical interests in the same way the EU does and are increasingly trying to gain geopolitical advantage using their economic might. The EU is known as ...

The European Union (EU) is the biggest integrated economic zone and a guarantor of an open and predictable regulatory system able to determine its own economic destiny. But the behaviour of other global powers is increasingly calling this ability into question. China and the United States, especially, do not separate economic interests from geopolitical interests in the same way the EU does and are increasingly trying to gain geopolitical advantage using their economic might. The EU is known as a fierce defender of a multilateral rules - based trade system with free but fair trade as its strategic policy objective. The EU will therefore do its utmost to save a ‘meaningful multilateralism’ by helping to reform the WTO, improve multilateral investment protection and conclude multilateral trade agreements. At the same time, the EU will defend its own interests by negotiating bilateral trade deals and applying trade defence and investment screening where needed. The EU has a strong interest in keeping the use of geo-economic measures manageable and avoid escalation into a trade war.

Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP), Švica in severne države

01-05-2018

Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP) je bil ustanovljen leta 1994, da bi določbe EU o notranjem trgu razširili na države Evropskega združenja za prosto trgovino (EFTA). Norveška, Islandija in Lihtenštajn so članice EGP. Švica je članica združenja EFTA, vendar ni v EGP. EU in države partnerice EGP (Norveška in Islandija) so prav tako povezane s številnimi „severnimi politikami“ in forumi, ki se osredotočajo na hitro razvijajoča se severna območja Evrope in območje Arktike kot celoto.

Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP) je bil ustanovljen leta 1994, da bi določbe EU o notranjem trgu razširili na države Evropskega združenja za prosto trgovino (EFTA). Norveška, Islandija in Lihtenštajn so članice EGP. Švica je članica združenja EFTA, vendar ni v EGP. EU in države partnerice EGP (Norveška in Islandija) so prav tako povezane s številnimi „severnimi politikami“ in forumi, ki se osredotočajo na hitro razvijajoča se severna območja Evrope in območje Arktike kot celoto.

Foreign Direct Investment in the EU and the Eastern Partnership Countries

05-02-2018

Upon request of the Euronest parliamentary assembly economic committee, investment patterns and policies in the EU and Eastern Partnership countries were compared. The EU is an investment heavyweight, both in terms of attracting as placing foreign direct investment. Many EU Member States protect their investment abroad and some have screening mechanisms for incoming investment. The Eastern Partnership countries are minor investors themselves, but keep attracting a slowly growing level of foreign ...

Upon request of the Euronest parliamentary assembly economic committee, investment patterns and policies in the EU and Eastern Partnership countries were compared. The EU is an investment heavyweight, both in terms of attracting as placing foreign direct investment. Many EU Member States protect their investment abroad and some have screening mechanisms for incoming investment. The Eastern Partnership countries are minor investors themselves, but keep attracting a slowly growing level of foreign direct investment. Investment is supported by the European Investment Bank, the EBRD or the World Bank. Looking at which countries invest in which Eastern Partnership country, it appears that each of them has one main investing country, suggesting a preferred relationship, which would need further research to explain.

Evropska unija in njeni trgovinski partnerji

01-02-2018

EU je z leti postopoma opustila proizvodnjo delovno intenzivnih izdelkov majhne vrednosti in se usmerila v proizvodnjo blaga blagovnih znamk višje vrednosti. Gospodarstvo EU je odprto, zato je trgovina bistvenega pomena zanjo. Da bi premagala trgovinske ovire in zagotovila enake konkurenčne pogoje za svoja podjetja, se Unija pogaja o sprejetju več sporazumov o prosti trgovini. EU je tudi ena od ustanoviteljev in ključnih akterjev Svetovne trgovinske organizacije (STO).

EU je z leti postopoma opustila proizvodnjo delovno intenzivnih izdelkov majhne vrednosti in se usmerila v proizvodnjo blaga blagovnih znamk višje vrednosti. Gospodarstvo EU je odprto, zato je trgovina bistvenega pomena zanjo. Da bi premagala trgovinske ovire in zagotovila enake konkurenčne pogoje za svoja podjetja, se Unija pogaja o sprejetju več sporazumov o prosti trgovini. EU je tudi ena od ustanoviteljev in ključnih akterjev Svetovne trgovinske organizacije (STO).

Rusija

01-02-2018

Odnosi med EU in Rusijo so napeti vse od leta 2014 zaradi nezakonite priključitve Krima Rusiji, njene podpore uporniškim skupinam na vzhodu Ukrajine, njenih sosedskih politik, kampanj dezinformiranja in negativnih dogodkov v državi. Po ruskem posredovanju v Siriji pa so se še zaostrili. EU vse od leta 2014 redno podaljšuje sankcije proti Rusiji. EU in Rusija sta še naprej močno soodvisni, EU pa se ravna po pristopu selektivnega sodelovanja.

Odnosi med EU in Rusijo so napeti vse od leta 2014 zaradi nezakonite priključitve Krima Rusiji, njene podpore uporniškim skupinam na vzhodu Ukrajine, njenih sosedskih politik, kampanj dezinformiranja in negativnih dogodkov v državi. Po ruskem posredovanju v Siriji pa so se še zaostrili. EU vse od leta 2014 redno podaljšuje sankcije proti Rusiji. EU in Rusija sta še naprej močno soodvisni, EU pa se ravna po pristopu selektivnega sodelovanja.

Evropska sosedska politika

01-01-2018

Evropska sosedska politika se uporablja za Alžirijo, Armenijo, Azerbajdžan, Belorusijo, Egipt, Gruzijo, Izrael, Jordanijo, Libanon, Libijo, Moldavijo, Maroko, Palestino, Sirijo, Tunizijo in Ukrajino. Njen cilj je izboljšati blaginjo, stabilnost in varnost vseh. Temelji na demokraciji, pravni državi in spoštovanju človekovih pravic ter je dvostranska politika med EU in vsako partnersko državo, vsebuje pa tudi regionalni pobudi za sodelovanje: vzhodno partnerstvo in Unijo za Sredozemlje[1].

Evropska sosedska politika se uporablja za Alžirijo, Armenijo, Azerbajdžan, Belorusijo, Egipt, Gruzijo, Izrael, Jordanijo, Libanon, Libijo, Moldavijo, Maroko, Palestino, Sirijo, Tunizijo in Ukrajino. Njen cilj je izboljšati blaginjo, stabilnost in varnost vseh. Temelji na demokraciji, pravni državi in spoštovanju človekovih pravic ter je dvostranska politika med EU in vsako partnersko državo, vsebuje pa tudi regionalni pobudi za sodelovanje: vzhodno partnerstvo in Unijo za Sredozemlje[1].

Tri sosednje države vzhodnega partnerstva: Ukrajina, Moldavija in Belorusija

01-01-2018

Politika vzhodnega partnerstva EU, vzpostavljena leta 2009, vključuje šest nekdanjih sovjetskih držav: Armenijo, Azerbajdžan, Belorusijo, Gruzijo, Moldavijo in Ukrajino. Partnerstvo je bilo vzpostavljeno v podporo prizadevanjem na področju političnih, družbenih in gospodarskih reform v teh državah, za krepitev demokratizacije in dobrega upravljanja, energetsko varnost, varstvo okolja ter gospodarski in družbeni razvoj. Vse članice razen Belorusije so vključene v parlamentarno skupščino Euronest.

Politika vzhodnega partnerstva EU, vzpostavljena leta 2009, vključuje šest nekdanjih sovjetskih držav: Armenijo, Azerbajdžan, Belorusijo, Gruzijo, Moldavijo in Ukrajino. Partnerstvo je bilo vzpostavljeno v podporo prizadevanjem na področju političnih, družbenih in gospodarskih reform v teh državah, za krepitev demokratizacije in dobrega upravljanja, energetsko varnost, varstvo okolja ter gospodarski in družbeni razvoj. Vse članice razen Belorusije so vključene v parlamentarno skupščino Euronest.

Free and fair trade for all?

21-11-2017

With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end ...

With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end of 2016 the tenor of the debate on international trade had changed, shifting the focus to national interests and fairness for consumers and producers at home. The UK’s decision to withdraw from the EU and the election of President Trump in the US, together with the expiry of the clause recognising China’s non-market economy status, contributed to this shift. The European Parliament has played a crucial role in shaping the direction of EU trade policy. While its 2015 resolution on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) set the values-based trade agenda, its resolutions in 2016 and 2017 on China’s market economy status and global value chains reflected the shift in values. The Commission is seeking to balance free and fair trade but new challenges lie ahead, notably in the EU’s neighbourhood: Russia, the Eastern Partnership, Turkey and the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.

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