ThinkTank logo Dokumenten som hjälper till med att utforma ny EU-lagstiftning
Publicerat 19-10-2020

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Schweiz

19-10-2020

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung in der Bundesverfassung sowie in mehreren Spezialgesetzen, die sich ihrerseits auf bestimmte Diskriminierungsgründe und Rechtsbereiche beschränken. Diese werden hier dargestellt, bevor in einem dritten Teil die reichhaltige Rechtsprechung des Schweizer Bundesgerichts wiedergegeben wird. Abschliessend wird der Rechtsrahmen kritisch analysiert, es wird auf bestehende Lücken sowie auf derzeitige und künftige Reformen hingewiesen.

Extern avdelning

Dr. Nula FREI, Universität Freiburg

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024

16-10-2020

This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates ...

This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Amending the European Fund for Sustainable Development

19-10-2020

The EU is in the process of adapting its budgetary instruments to respond to the consequences of the coronavirus crisis, in particular in raising the established ceilings for some financial instruments. The proposed adjustments include, among other things, measures aimed at helping the most fragile third countries recover from the consequences of the pandemic. In particular, on 28 May 2020, the European Commission put forward a proposal concerning the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD ...

The EU is in the process of adapting its budgetary instruments to respond to the consequences of the coronavirus crisis, in particular in raising the established ceilings for some financial instruments. The proposed adjustments include, among other things, measures aimed at helping the most fragile third countries recover from the consequences of the pandemic. In particular, on 28 May 2020, the European Commission put forward a proposal concerning the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD) in order to expand its coverage and raise the funds dedicated to leverage private investment for sustainable development and the guarantees to de-risk such investment. On 21 July 2020, the European Council rejected the draft amending budget that would have provided increased EFSD funding for the current year.

Minimum wage in the EU

19-10-2020

In 2020, most European Union (EU) Member States have a statutory minimum wage (21 of 27), while six others have wage levels determined though collective bargaining. Expressed in euros, monthly minimum wages vary widely across the EU ranging from €312 in Bulgaria to €2 142 in Luxembourg (July 2020). The disparities are significantly smaller when price level differences are eliminated. Expressed in purchasing power standard, the minimum wage ranges from PPS 547 in Latvia to PPS 1 634 in Luxembourg. ...

In 2020, most European Union (EU) Member States have a statutory minimum wage (21 of 27), while six others have wage levels determined though collective bargaining. Expressed in euros, monthly minimum wages vary widely across the EU ranging from €312 in Bulgaria to €2 142 in Luxembourg (July 2020). The disparities are significantly smaller when price level differences are eliminated. Expressed in purchasing power standard, the minimum wage ranges from PPS 547 in Latvia to PPS 1 634 in Luxembourg. The question of setting a minimum wage is one of the most analysed and debated topics in economics. Over recent years and in the context of the economic and social crisis engendered by the Covid 19 outbreak, the creation of a European minimum wage is increasingly considered as a useful instrument to ensure fair wages and social inclusion. In November 2017, the EU institutions jointly proclaimed the European Pillar of Social Rights, setting out the European Union's commitment to fair wages for workers. Since then, the European Commission has shown its willingness to address this issue. In particular, Commission President Ursula von der Leyen stated in her political guidelines that she will propose a legal instrument to ensure that every worker in the Union has a fair minimum wage. Such minimum wages should be set according to national traditions, through collective agreements or legal provisions. On 14 January 2020, the Commission launched the first phase of consultation with social partners on fair minimum wages for workers in the EU, to gather social partners' views on the possible direction of EU action. Based on the replies received, the Commission concluded that there is a need for EU action. The second phase of consultation was launched on 3 June 2020; with a deadline of 4 September 2020 for social partners to provide their opinion. A Commission proposal is expected by the end of 2020. The European Trade Union Confederation welcomed the European Commission's initiative and called for the Commission to propose a directive. Conversely, employers' organisations believe wage-setting should be left to social partners at national level. In their view, if the Commission wished to act, only an EU Council recommendation would be acceptable. The European Parliament has often debated the issue of low income and minimum income over the last decade, advocating a more inclusive economy.

EU Defence Package: Defence Procurement and Intra-Community Transfers Directives

19-10-2020

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence ...

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence cooperation so as to place the implementation of the two directives in context, and then examines Parliament's oversight work. It goes on to lay out the main elements that are likely to affect the future of EU defence industrial cooperation, and provides options for moving forward. The second part of the study, which was outsourced, is based on primary research (a survey and interviews) and aims to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and added value of the Defence Procurement Directive and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive. It also seeks to identify limitations and challenges, and explore – where possible – the links between the implementation of the two directives.

Publicerat 16-10-2020

Understanding US Presidential elections

16-10-2020

In August 2020, the two major political parties in the United States (US), the Democrats and the Republicans, formally nominated their respective candidates for the 59th US presidential election, which takes place on Tuesday, 3 November 2020. An initially crowded field of contenders in the Democratic primaries developed into a two-horse race between former US Vice-President Joe Biden and Senator Bernie Sanders, with Biden declared the Democratic nominee on 18 August. He will now contest the presidential ...

In August 2020, the two major political parties in the United States (US), the Democrats and the Republicans, formally nominated their respective candidates for the 59th US presidential election, which takes place on Tuesday, 3 November 2020. An initially crowded field of contenders in the Democratic primaries developed into a two-horse race between former US Vice-President Joe Biden and Senator Bernie Sanders, with Biden declared the Democratic nominee on 18 August. He will now contest the presidential election against the Republican candidate, who faced no significant primary challenge, the incumbent US President, Donald Trump. The US President is simultaneously head of state, head of government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Presidential elections are therefore a hugely important part of American political life. Although millions of Americans vote in presidential elections every four years, the President is not, in fact, directly elected by the people. Citizens elect the members of the Electoral College, who then cast their votes for the President and Vice-President. While key elements of the presidential election are spelled out in the US Constitution, other aspects have been shaped by state laws, national party rules and state party rules. This explains why presidential campaigns have evolved over time, from the days when presidential candidates were nominated in the House of Representatives by the 'king caucus', to an almost exclusively party-dominated ‘convention’ system, and finally to the modern system of nominations based very largely on primary elections, introduced progressively to increase the participation of party supporters in the selection process. A number of additional developments have also played an important role in shaping today's presidential elections, notably political party efforts to limit 'front-loading' of primaries; the organisation of the Electoral College system and the changes to the campaign financing system. A previous version of this Briefing, written by Carmen-Cristina Cîrlig and Micaela Del Monte, was published in 2016.

Publicerat 15-10-2020

World Food Programme: Food for peace

15-10-2020

On 9 October 2020, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) 'for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict'. Adding to a worrying rise in food insecurity, the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic have pushed millions more people to the brink of famine. The WFP's ...

On 9 October 2020, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) 'for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict'. Adding to a worrying rise in food insecurity, the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic have pushed millions more people to the brink of famine. The WFP's expertise on emergencies, often in conflict areas, has provided relief to the most fragile populations. The EU supports the WFP through funding, knowledge-sharing, and protecting its vessels from piracy in certain waters.

Study in focus: Regulatory Sandboxes and Innovation Hubs for FinTech

15-10-2020

The original full study analyses the design and operation of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of jurisdictions’ regulatory response to financial innovation, focusing on the models adopted in the EU and the EFTA countries. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

The original full study analyses the design and operation of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of jurisdictions’ regulatory response to financial innovation, focusing on the models adopted in the EU and the EFTA countries. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Online Platforms’ Moderation of Illegal Content Online

15-10-2020

The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.

The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.

Extern avdelning

Alexandre DE STREEL et al.

What role for the European Semester in the recovery plan?

15-10-2020

This briefing paper argues that the political imperative to ensure that the economic stimulus from the EU’s new commonly funded facilities is provided expeditiously will prevail against desires to create a robust governance framework for these funds within the European Semester process. The pandemic-related suspension of the Stability and Growth Pact creates a need to reform the Pact ahead of its future reintroduction. This presents an opportunity to incorporate more of the Semester’s reform implementation ...

This briefing paper argues that the political imperative to ensure that the economic stimulus from the EU’s new commonly funded facilities is provided expeditiously will prevail against desires to create a robust governance framework for these funds within the European Semester process. The pandemic-related suspension of the Stability and Growth Pact creates a need to reform the Pact ahead of its future reintroduction. This presents an opportunity to incorporate more of the Semester’s reform implementation agenda directly into the Pact’s policy prescriptions.

Extern avdelning

Jacob Funk KIRKEGAARD

Kommande evenemang

26-10-2020
European Gender Equality Week - October 26-29, 2020
Övrigt -
FEMM
27-10-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | Beyond Christendom - The politics of religion in Europe today
Övrigt -
EPRS
27-10-2020
JURI: ICM Meeting on "Better Law Making from a digital perspective"
Övrigt -
JURI

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