14

resultat

Ord
Publikationstyp
Politikområde
Författare
Datum

Technology and social polarisation

07-03-2019

With the Cambridge Analytica scandal, it became clear how technologies such as social media and techniques such as psychological profiling can be combined in election campaigns with worrying effects. Personalised political messaging is highly automated. It starts and ends with social media, which provides both the data for categorising users and the medium for targeting them with personalised messages. Messages might be designed to favour a particular candidate or to encourage widespread discord ...

With the Cambridge Analytica scandal, it became clear how technologies such as social media and techniques such as psychological profiling can be combined in election campaigns with worrying effects. Personalised political messaging is highly automated. It starts and ends with social media, which provides both the data for categorising users and the medium for targeting them with personalised messages. Messages might be designed to favour a particular candidate or to encourage widespread discord and mistrust. In either case, it could lead to more polarised societies in which citizens share less common ground and are less understanding of those with different political ideologies, attitudes to populism, or perspectives on specific topics such as immigration. These same technologies and techniques also shape trends in news production and consumption. As newspaper sales dwindle, outlets increasingly rely upon ad-revenue generated by clicks, making extensive use of social media platforms and user profiling. Public debate increasingly occurs via these social media platforms in which citizens, politicians, companies and bots communicate directly to each other without the traditional filters of journalistic standards and editorial oversight. It has been suggested that, where citizens increasingly rely on such platforms for news, they risk entering so-called ‘filter bubbles’ in which they are exposed to a narrow range of perspectives oriented around their own profiles, shielded from contrasting views, in a broad trend that could also lead to more polarised societies. In this context, STOA launched two studies to explore the mechanisms by which these technologies and techniques may foster polarisation in Europe. One study approached the question with reference to trends in the production and consumption of news media, while the other focussed on trends in political campaigning and communication strategies.

Annual report on human rights and democracy in the world in 2017

05-12-2018

Every year, the European Parliament debates human rights and democracy in the world overall and the European Union's policy on the matter. In 2017, human rights were very much at the heart of the EU's external action. However, 2017 also saw a continued backlash, worldwide, against civil society, and particularly journalists, a rise in misinformation and growing populism. The European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) report calls for the continuous mainstreaming of human rights throughout ...

Every year, the European Parliament debates human rights and democracy in the world overall and the European Union's policy on the matter. In 2017, human rights were very much at the heart of the EU's external action. However, 2017 also saw a continued backlash, worldwide, against civil society, and particularly journalists, a rise in misinformation and growing populism. The European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) report calls for the continuous mainstreaming of human rights throughout EU action both internally and externally. Parliament is expected to debate it during the December plenary session.

Gender Equality in the Media Sector

17-01-2018

This study examines key elements of the European policy agenda pertaining to gender equality in the media sector. It also reviews existing research on women’s representation within media content and the media workforce. The study provides analysis of actions to promote gender equality in the media sector at both the EU and Member State levels. Finally, it presents case studies of gender equality in the media in four Member States: Austria, Malta, Sweden, and the UK.

This study examines key elements of the European policy agenda pertaining to gender equality in the media sector. It also reviews existing research on women’s representation within media content and the media workforce. The study provides analysis of actions to promote gender equality in the media sector at both the EU and Member State levels. Finally, it presents case studies of gender equality in the media in four Member States: Austria, Malta, Sweden, and the UK.

Extern avdelning

Katie McCracken, Director, Opcit Research Dr. Ana FitzSimons, Senior Researcher, Opcit Research Dr. Sarah Priest, Senior Researcher, Opcit Research Sylvia Girstmair Researcher, Opcit Research Professor Brenda Murphy, Professor of Gender Studies, University of Malta

Sakharov Prize Finalists 2017

04-12-2017

Short presentation of two Sakharov Prize Finalists 2017.

Short presentation of two Sakharov Prize Finalists 2017.

Media freedom in the Western Balkans: state of play

04-05-2016

Media freedom is one indicator of a country's commitment to democracy, good governance and political accountability, and thus its readiness for EU membership. As such, it represents a key element in any aspiring country's EU enlargement agenda, along with other fundamentals such as the rule of law and economic governance. Each of the Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia – is at a different stage of the ...

Media freedom is one indicator of a country's commitment to democracy, good governance and political accountability, and thus its readiness for EU membership. As such, it represents a key element in any aspiring country's EU enlargement agenda, along with other fundamentals such as the rule of law and economic governance. Each of the Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia – is at a different stage of the EU accession process. However, partly as a result of a common recent history, they face similar challenges in the area of media freedom, such as transition from the old regime and the Yugoslav wars, the global economic crisis, rule-of-law deficiencies, and widespread corruption. These factors directly influence the situation of media in the region and add to its complexity. As part of their EU agenda, the Western Balkan countries have largely aligned their relevant legislation with EU standards. However, inadequate implementation remains a concern. In all these countries, opaque media ownership, financial instability in the sector, intimidation and pressure on journalists, and poor working conditions, put spokes in the wheel of independent journalism, encourage self-censorship, and broadly interfere with the media's key role in informing the public. Solving media issues and transforming media institutions require long-term engagement, and largely depend on the domestic context and the countries' overall democratic consolidation. However, the EU is also committed to providing legal and financial support to enlargement countries, and to regularly monitoring how the media situation impacts on their overall readiness to join the EU.

Russian media – under state control

26-05-2015

Media freedom in Russia peaked in the 1990s after censorship was abolished in 1988. However, since then the country has fallen to the bottom of the international league tables compiled by NGOs Freedom House and Reporters without Borders. There has been a sharp deterioration over the last few years, with restrictive new legislation and repression of the few dissenting voices left.

Media freedom in Russia peaked in the 1990s after censorship was abolished in 1988. However, since then the country has fallen to the bottom of the international league tables compiled by NGOs Freedom House and Reporters without Borders. There has been a sharp deterioration over the last few years, with restrictive new legislation and repression of the few dissenting voices left.

Press freedom in the EU: Legal framework and challenges

30-04-2015

Freedom of expression and information, as well as the freedom of the press, which provides the most powerful platform for the first two, contribute significantly to the formation of public opinion, thus allowing people to make informed choices in their political decisions. These freedoms are therefore essential for democracy, which is one of the fundamental values common to all Member States, on which the European Union is founded (Article 2 TEU). Within the EU legal framework, press freedom is a ...

Freedom of expression and information, as well as the freedom of the press, which provides the most powerful platform for the first two, contribute significantly to the formation of public opinion, thus allowing people to make informed choices in their political decisions. These freedoms are therefore essential for democracy, which is one of the fundamental values common to all Member States, on which the European Union is founded (Article 2 TEU). Within the EU legal framework, press freedom is a fundamental right established in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, with its provision closely resembling that on press freedom in the European Convention on Human Rights. At EU level media freedom was long dealt with purely relative to the Single Market, and thus from a rather economic point of view. However, the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), for its part, started to see the importance of media pluralism very early, not only for the free movement of services across the EU but also in order to ensure a pluralism in views. The Court's rulings underlined the importance of media pluralism and media freedom not only for the internal market but also for democracy in the EU. The European Parliament has repeatedly advocated press freedom and media pluralism in the EU and abroad. It has recently addressed the issue of the effectiveness of press freedom as an EU fundamental right and an objective EU value, in view of the scarce possibility for the EU institutions to act to enforce respect for EU fundamental rights and values by Member States.

Freedom of Media in the Western Balkans

22-10-2014

The study analyses media freedom and pluralism in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia) in light of the EU enlargement policy. Despite the different stages of their EU accession paths, these countries share similar challenges, even if they are of different intensities. The study analyses the overall legal framework and its unsatisfactory levels of implementation, the role and the independence of PSB, the media ...

The study analyses media freedom and pluralism in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia) in light of the EU enlargement policy. Despite the different stages of their EU accession paths, these countries share similar challenges, even if they are of different intensities. The study analyses the overall legal framework and its unsatisfactory levels of implementation, the role and the independence of PSB, the media market, and the status of journalists. It also outlines country-specific profiles, regarding these categories. The paper outlines and analyses the current EU policies and financial instruments to foster media freedom and media pluralism in the region, including the Stabilisation and Association Process and specific acquis. It also analyses the issues in the context of the EU ‘internal’ and ‘external’ policy on media freedom and media pluralism. The study outlines the complementary roles of the CoE and the OSCE as setting common standards on media freedom in Europe and the EU institutions as being the main engine and guarantor for their implementation. Finally, the recommendations point towards the EU establishing a more long-term, integrated and comprehensive strategy of external help, monitoring and capacity building, as well as further co-ordination with the CoE and OSCE.

Extern avdelning

Elda BROGI, Alina DOBREVA and Pier Luigi PARCU

The Situation of the Media Sector in Croatia

19-02-2010

In the twenty years since independence the development of free media in Croatia, alongside the birth of democracy and introduction of the market economy, has been a huge challenge. During the 1990s state censorship of the media continued to prevail. Since then the state of media freedoms has improved, but serious problems remain. This paper reviews the present state of affairs in the following four areas: (i) legal framework of the media, (ii) their ownership and financial situation, (iii) the freedom ...

In the twenty years since independence the development of free media in Croatia, alongside the birth of democracy and introduction of the market economy, has been a huge challenge. During the 1990s state censorship of the media continued to prevail. Since then the state of media freedoms has improved, but serious problems remain. This paper reviews the present state of affairs in the following four areas: (i) legal framework of the media, (ii) their ownership and financial situation, (iii) the freedom of the media and (iv) the role of the media in the fight against organized crime and corruption. While further amendments of media legislation are required to meet EU standards, the media are already showing themselves to be potent forces in the struggle against the wider problem of state corruption and its defective judiciary. The EU accession process is a unique opportunity to achieve decisive progress in these respects.

Extern avdelning

Michael Emerson, Senior Research Fellow - CEPS, and Maja Sostaric, co-author Research Assistant - CEPS

Looking forward in the ICT & Media Industries

15-12-2008

Extern avdelning

Knud Böhle, Michael Rader, Arnd Weber and Dirk Weber (Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis - ITAS, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany)

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